Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1961 from land acquired from the former "Wapanocca Outing Club" which was a prestigious hunting club formed in 1886. The refuge is located 3 miles (5 km) east of the Mississippi River near the city of Turrell, Arkansas.
The refuge was once a bend in the Mississippi River. It is a migration stopover for warblers and other neo-tropical birds. The refuge is host to the blue heron, and the common egret as well as the bald eagle. The refuge is a major stopover on the Mississippi Flyway. Wapanocca consists of 600 acres (2.4 km²) of open water, 1,800 acres (7 km²) of swampland, 500 acres (2.0 km²) of bottomland hardwood, 1,200 acres (4.9 km²) of cropland, and 400 acres (1.6 km²) of grassland.