War reserve stock

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A war reserve stock (WRS), also known as pre-paid supplies, is a collection of warfighting material held in reserve in pre-positioned storage to be used if needed in wartime. They may be located strategically depending on where it is believed they will be needed.[1] In addition to military equipment, a war reserve stock may include raw materials that might become scarce during wartime.[citation needed] According to this definition, storage such as the Strategic Petroleum Reserve may be considered a war stock.[2]

United States[edit]

The United States' Department of Defense[3] maintains war reserve stocks around the world, mainly in NATO countries and in some major non-NATO allies.[1] The US 31st Munitions Squadron is tasked with maintaining and distributing the largest war reserve stockpiles of munitions for the United States Air Forces in Europe.[4]

Conflicts of high intensity and lengthy duration may have to rely mostly on supplies that are produced while they are ongoing.[1] The first and second World Wars provide examples of this.[citation needed] But smaller wars of shorter duration where belligerents have already stockpiled sufficiently for the outbreak of conflict are able to rely on pre-existing stock. The U.S. Invasion of Grenada (1983) or Panama in 1989, in particular, were small enough to be almost wholly reliant on existing stock.[citation needed]

War Reserves Stock Allies-Israel[edit]

War Reserves Stock Allies-Israel also known as War Reserve Stockpile Ammunition-Israel or simply WRSA-I was established in the 1990s and is maintained by the United States European Command.[5] It is one of the US' biggest War Reserves, located within Israel.[6] Initially the WRSA-I stock had $100 million,[7] however prior to Operation Protective Edge had nearly $1 billion dollars worth of reserves,[8] with authorization to increase this up to $1.2 billion.[9] The stock includes ammunition, smart bombs, missiles, military vehicles and a military hospital with 500 beds, all spread around the country in 6 different locations.[10]

When needed, Israel can request to access the WRSA-I stock, which would then need to be approved by the US congress.[11] One such example is during Operation Protective Edge, the US authorized Israel to access 120mm mortar rounds and 40mm grenade launcher ammunition,[6] which were some of the older items in the stock, which would need to be replaced soon there after anyway.[12]

Israel[edit]

Israel maintains their own war reserves stock, in addition to the WRSA-I that the US stores in Israel.

Within their war reserves, Israel keeps ammunitions, spare parts and replacement equipment needed for at least a month of intense combat.[13] The majority of the Israeli reserves are purchased from the US, due to their $3 billion in military aid from the US that requires 75% of the money to be purchased from the US.[14] In total, the US has given almost $84 billion in foreign aid to Israel.[15]

Additionally in August 2014, during Operation Protective Edge the US passed The Iron Dome Bill to allow $225 million in addition funding to allow Israel to increase their war reserves for the Iron Dome.[16]

UK[edit]

The United Kingdom maintains a war reserve stock that has been highly criticized. Their Ministry of Defence typically does not dispose of old stock, forcing there to be a backlog of outdated material, that has previously been retired.[17]

Use of war reserve stock[edit]

Some examples of war reserve stock being used include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c http://www.ausa.org/publications/torchbearercampaign/torchbearerissuepapers/documents/tb-ip_120308.pdf
  2. ^ http://static.e-publishing.af.mil/afman/23-110/PUBS/AF/23/23011002/020226/020226.pdf
  3. ^ http://usmilitary.about.com/od/glossarytermsw/g/w6757.htm
  4. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/agency/31muns.htm
  5. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2014/07/israel-hasnt-asked-for-access-to-us-arsenal-stored-in-israel/
  6. ^ a b http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/us-confirms-it-resupplied-israel-weapons-during-gaza-conflict-1459128
  7. ^ http://journalistsresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Military-Aid-to-Israel.pdf
  8. ^ http://www.ibtimes.com/israel-military-ordered-continue-operation-gaza-us-approves-weapons-transfer-1643882
  9. ^ http://thehill.com/images/stories/blogs/flooraction/jan2012/crsisrael.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/01/08/open-only-in-case-of-an-emergenc.html#
  11. ^ http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA569334
  12. ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/07/us-supplies-israel-with-bombs-amid-gaza-blitz-2014730233016747143.html
  13. ^ https://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htlog/20071005.aspx
  14. ^ http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf
  15. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/US-Israel/U.S._Assistance_to_Israel1.html
  16. ^ http://online.wsj.com/articles/obama-signs-law-providing-225-million-for-israels-iron-dome-1407193842
  17. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-18614372
  18. ^ a b c d e G. C. De Nooy (1997). The Role of European Ground and Air Forces After the Cold War. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 126. ISBN 904110397X. 
  19. ^ Lawrence Freedman (2005). The Official History of the Falklands Campaign: War and diplomacy, Volume 2. Psychology Press. p. 47. ISBN 0714652075. 
  20. ^ http://www.businessinsider.com/the-us-is-stockpiling-a-huge-cache-of-weapons-in-israel-2012-4
  21. ^ "US condemns shelling of UN school in Gaza but restocks Israeli ammunition". The Guardian. 31 July 2014.