||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (June 2011)|
A war artist depicts some aspect of war through art. The art might be a pictorial record, or it might commemorate how war shapes lives. War artists explore the visual and sensory dimensions of war, often absent in written histories or other accounts of warfare.
- 1 Definition and context
- 2 American
- 3 Australian
- 4 Austrian
- 5 British
- 6 Belgian
- 7 Canadian
- 8 Chinese
- 9 Dutch
- 10 French
- 11 German
- 12 Japanese
- 13 Korean
- 14 New Zealand
- 15 Russian
- 16 South African
- 17 Spanish
- 18 See also
- 19 Notes
- 20 References
- 21 Further reading
- 22 External links
Definition and context
A war artist creates a visual account of the impact of war by showing how men and women are waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating, or destroyed, as in Vasily Vereshchagin's 1871 painting, The Apotheosis of War.
The works produced by war artists illustrate and record many aspects of war and the individual's experience of war, whether allied or enemy, service or civilian, military or political, social or cultural. The role of the artist and his work is to embrace the causes, course, and consequences of conflict, and has an essentially educational purpose.
Artists record military activities in ways that cameras and the written word cannot. Their art collects and distills the experiences of the men and women who endured it. The artists and their artwork affect how subsequent generations view military conflicts. For example, Australian war artists who grew up between the two world wars were influenced by the artwork which depicted the First World War, and there was a precedent and format for them to follow.
Official war artists have been appointed by governments for information or propaganda purposes and to record events on the battlefield, but there are many other types of war artists. These can include combatants who are artists and choose to record their experiences, non-combatants who are witnesses of war, and prisoners of war who may voluntarily record the conditions or be appointed war artists by senior officers.
In New Zealand, the title of appointed "war artist" changed to "army artist" after the two world wars. In the United States, the term "combat artist" has come to be used to mean the same thing.
Some examples and their background
- William Simpson was an artist-correspondent who sent artwork to London from the front during the Crimean War.
- Alfred Waud was an American civil war pictorial newspaper illustrator.
- Ogata Gekkō and Tsuguharu Foujita created woodblock prints for Japanese publications.
- Ronald Searle recorded life in Japanese POW camps.
- Emmanuel Leutze's 1851 studio painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware is historically incorrect, and Leutze was born decades after the event his painting depicts, but this work has become an icon of popular culture.
The American panorama created by artists whose work focuses on war began with a visual account of the American Revolutionary War. The war artist or combat artist captures instantaneous action and conflates earlier moments of the same scene within one compelling image. Artists are unlike the objective camera lens, which records only a single instant and no more.
In 1917 the American military designated American official war artists who were sent to Europe to record the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces. In World War II, the Navy Combat Art Program ensured that active-duty artists developed a record of all phases of the war and all major naval operations.
The official war artist continued to be supported in some military engagements. Teams of soldier-artists during the Vietnam War created pictorial accounts and interpretations for the annals of army military history. In 1992 the Army Staff Artist Program was attached to the United States Army Center of Military History as a permanent part of the Museum Division's Collections Branch.
The majority of combat artists of the 1970s were selected by George Gray, chairman of NACAL, Navy Air Cooperation and Liaison committee. Some of their paintings will be selected for the Navy Combat Art Museum in the capital by Charles Lawrence, director. In January 1978 the U.S. Navy chose a seascape specialist team: they asked Patricia Yaps and Wayne Dean, both of Milford, Connecticut, to capture air-sea rescue missions off of Key West while they were based at the nearby Naval Air Station Key West. They were among 78 artists selected that year to create works of art depicting Navy subjects.
- Selected artists
A select list of representative American artists includes:
World War I
World War II
Soldier Artist Participants in the U. S. Army Vietnam Combat Artists Program
- CAT I, 15 Aug – 15 Dec 1966, Roger A. Blum (Stillwell, KS), Robert C. Knight (Newark, NJ), Ronald E. Pepin (East Hartford, CT), Paul Rickert (Philadelphia, PA), Felix R. Sanchez (Fort Madison, IA), John O. Wehrle (Dallas, TX), and supervisor, Frank M. Sherman
- CAT II, 15 Oct 1966 – 15 Feb 1967, Augustine G. Acuna (Monterey, CA), Alexander A. Bogdanovich (Chicago, IL), Theodore E. Drendel (Naperville, IL), David M. Lavender (Houston, TX), Gary W. Porter (El Cajon, CA), and supervisor, Carolyn M. O'Brien
- CAT III, 16 Feb – 17 June 1967, Michael R. Crook (Sierra Madre, CA), Dennis O. McGee (Castro Valley, CA), Robert T. Myers (White Sands Missile Range, NM), Kenneth J. Scowcroft (Manassas, VA), Stephen H. Sheldon (Los Angeles, CA), and supervisor, C. Bruce Smyser
- CAT IV, 15 Aug – 31 Dec 1967, Samuel E. Alexander (Philadelphia, MS), Daniel T. Lopez (Fresno, CA), Burdell Moody (Mesa, AZ), James R. Pollock (Pollock, SD), Ronald A. Wilson (Alhambra, CA), and technical supervisor, Frank M. Thomas
- CAT V, 1 Nov 1967 – 15 March 1968, Warren W. Buchanan (Kansas City, MO), Philip V. Garner (Dearborn, MI), Phillip W. Jones (Greensboro, NC), Don R. Schol (Denton, TX), John R. Strong (Kanehoe, HI), and technical supervisor, Frank M. Thomas
- CAT VI, 1 Feb – 15 June 1968, Robert T. Coleman (Grand Rapids, MI), David N. Fairrington (Oakland, CA), John D. Kurtz IV (Wilmington, DE), Kenneth T. McDaniel (Paris, TN), Michael P. Pala (Bridgeport, CT)
- CAT VII, 15 Aug – 31 Dec 1968, Brian H. Clark (Huntington, NY), William E. Flaherty Jr. (Louisville, KY), William C. Harrington (Terre Haute, IN), Barry W. Johnston (Huntsville, AL), Stephen H. Randall (Des Moines, IA), and supervisor, Fitzallen N. Yow
- CAT VIII, 1 Feb – 15 June 1969, Edward J. Bowen (Carona Del Mar, CA), James R. Drake (Colorado Springs, CO), Roman Rakowsky (Cleveland, OH), Victory V. Reynolds (Idaho Falls, ID), Thomas B. Schubert (Chicago, IL), and supervisor, Fred B. Engel
- CAT IX, 1 Sept 1969 – 14 Jan 1970, David E. Graves (Lawrence, KS), James S. Hardy (Coronado, CA), William R. Hoettels (San Antonio, TX), Bruce N. Rigby (Dekalb, IL), Craig L. Stewart (Laurel, MD), and supervisor, Edward C. Williams
- Kristopher Battles, Iraq and Afghanistan
- Henry Casselli
- Michael D. Fay, Iraq and Afghanistan
- Robert W. Bates, Afghanistan
- Victor Juhasz, Afghanistan
War artists have depicted all the conflicts in which Australians have been called to combat. The Australian tradition of "official war artists" started with the First World War. Artists were granted permission to accompany the Australian Imperial Force to record the activities of its soldiers. During the Second World War, the Australian War Museum, later called the Australian War Memorial, engaged artists. At the same time, the Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, and Royal Australian Air Force appointed official war artist-soldiers from within their ranks. These embedded war artists have depicted the activities of Australian forces in Korea, Vietnam, East Timor, Afghanistan, and Iraq.
- Selected artists
A select list of representative Australian artists includes:
British participation in foreign wars has been the subject of paintings and other works created by Britain's war artists. Artwork like the 1688 painting,The Fleet at Sea by Willem van de Velde the Younger depict the Royal Navy in readiness for battle. The Ministry of Defence art collection includes many paintings showing battle scenes, particularly naval battles. Military art and portraiture has evolved along with other aspects of war. The British official war artists of the First World War created a unique account of that conflict. The British War Artists Scheme expanded the number of official artists and enlarged the scope of their activities during the Second War.
Significant themes in the chronicle of twentieth-century wars have been developed by non-military, non-official, civilian artists. For example, society portraitist Arabella Dorman's paintings of wounded Iraq War veterans inspired her to spend two weeks with three regiments in different frontline areas: the Green Jackets at Basra Palace, the Queen's Own Gurkhas at Shaibah Logistics Base ten miles south-west of Basra, and the Queen's Royal Lancers in the Maysaan desert. In the field, Dorman drew quick charcoal portraits of the men she met. Returning to England, the sketches she made helped her use art to "evoke the emotions and psychological impact of war," rather than depicting the "physical horror" of war.
- Selected artists
A select list of representative British artists includes:
First World War
Representative works by Canada's artists whose work illustrates and records war are gathered into the extensive collection of the Canadian War Museum. A few First World War paintings were exhibited in the Canadian Senate Chamber, and artists studied these works as a way of preparing to create new artworks in the conflict in Europe which expanded after 1939.
|“||"The war art commissions brought intense focus to the observation of Canada's role in international conflict... A driving need for a strong national identity urged First and Second World War artists toward symbolism. While these vivid images are of a now distant past, they continue to communicate their messages to us, and so never lose their relevance."||”|
In the Second World War, Canada expanded its official art program; Canadian war artists were a kind of journalist who lived the lives of soldiers. The work of non-official civilian artists also became part of the record of this period. Canada supported Canadian official war artists in both the First World War and the Second World War; no official artists were designated during the Korean War.
Among Canada's embedded artist-journalist teams was Richard Johnson, who was sent by the National Post to Afghanistan in 2007 and 2011; his drawings of Canadian troops were published and posted online as part of the series "Kandahar Journal".
- Selected artists
A select list of representative Canadian artists includes:
First World War
- John William Beatty, 1869–1941
- Alexander Young Jackson CC CMG, 1882–1974
- Arthur Lismer CC, 1885–1969
- Frederick Varley, 1881–1969
- Mabel May, 1877-1971 
Second World War
- Eric Aldwinckle, 1909-1980
- Donald Kenneth Anderson, 1920–2009
- Alan Brockman Beddoe OC OBE HFHS FHSC, 1893–1975
- Molly Lamb Bobak CM ONB, 1922– 
- Paraskeva Clark 
- David Alexander Colville PC CC ONS, 1920–2013
- Charles Fraser Comfort OC, 1900–1994
- Lawren P. Harris, 1910-1994
- William Abernethy Ogilvie CM MBE, 1901–1989
- George Campbell Tinning RCA, 1910-1996
- Jack Shadbolt OC OBC, 1909–1998
During the First World War, the work of artists depicting aspects of the military conflict were put on display in official war art exhibitions. In 1916 the Ministry of Beaux-Arts and the Ministry of War sponsored the Salon des Armées to show the work of the artists who had been mobilized. This one exhibition realized 60,000 francs. The proceeds supported needy artists at home and the disabled.
- Hippolyte Bellangé
- Nicolas Toussaint Charlet
- Edouard Detaille
- Antoine-Jean Gros
- Constantin Guys
- Eugène Louis Lami
- Louis-François, Baron Lejeune
- Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier
- Alphonse-Marie de Neuville
- Paul Philippoteaux
- Paul Alexandre Protais
- Denis Auguste Marie Raffet
- Carle Vernet
- Horace Vernet
- Antoine Watteau
- Adolphe Yvon
First World War
Second World War
- Kubota Beisen, 1852–1906
- Toyohara Chikanobu, 1838–1912
- Tsuguharu Foujita, 1886–1968
- Ogata Gekkō, 1859–1920
- Toshihide Migita, 1862–1925
- Utagawa Yoshiiku, 1833–1904
War artists have been appointed by the government to supplement the record of New Zealand’s military history. The title of "war artist" changed to "army artist" when Ion Brown was appointed after the two world wars.
Conservators at the National Art Gallery considered the collection to be of historic rather than artistic worth; few were displayed. New Zealand's National Collection of War Art encompasses the work of artists who were working on commission for the Government as official war artists, while others created artworks for their own reasons.
- Selected artists
A select list of representative New Zealand artists includes:
First World War
Second World War
- James Boswell, 1906–1971
- Russell Clark, 1905–1966
- John McIndoe, 1898–1995;
- Peter McIntyre OBE, 1910–1995
- Graham Braddock
- Ion Brown, Bosnia and Croatia
- Matthew Gauldie, Solomon Islands and Afghanistan
- Neville Lewis (World War II)
- Francisco de Goya, Los desastres de la guerra, 1810s
- Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937.
- Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau 1964 
- Imperial War Museum (IWM), header phrase, "war shapes lives"
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- Rocco, Keith et al. (2004). The Soldier's View: The Civil War Art of Keith Rocco.
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- Gill Clarke (2008). The Women's Land Army A Portrait. Sansom & Company. ISBN 978-1-904537-87-8.
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- Ministry of Defence (MoD), Battles
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- National Maritime Museum (NMM), The Fall of Nelson, Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 by Denis Dighton, c. 1825.
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- National Portrait Gallery, Expansion and Empire
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- Library of Congress (LOC), Simpson, William, 1823–1899
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- Charles Edwin Fripp; excerpt, "Fripp also held a commission in the Artists Rifles for 13 years ...."
- British Sporting Artists Trust (BSAT), Godfrey Douglas Giles
- WorldCat Identities: Prater, Ernest
- Brighton and Hove Museums, Melton Prior; Lee, Sidney. (2006). Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), Second Supplement, Vol. 3, p. 136., p. 136, at Google Books
- "War artists". Mod.uk. 2007-03-14. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- Imperial War Museum. "Gassed and Wounded [Art.IWM ART 4744]". IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013.; also a war artist in the Second World War.
- "John Hodgson Lobley, 1878–1954". BBC in partnership with The Public Catalogue Foundation.
- "Witness – Highlights of First World War Art". Imperial War Museum.
- Imperial War Museum. "'Over The Top'. 1st Artists' Rifles at Marcoing, 30th December 1917 [Art.IWM ART 1656]". IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013.; also a war artist in World War II.
- Imperial War Museum. "The Menin Road [Art.IWM ART 2242]". IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013.; also a war artist in World War II.
- Imperial War Museum. "Paths of Glory [Art.IWM ART 518]". IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- Imperial War Museum. "Harvest, 1918 [Art.IWM ART 4663]". IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 16 April 2013.; also a war artist in World War II.
- Imperial War Museum. "Travoys Arriving with Wounded at a Dressing-Station at Smol, Macedonia, September 1916, 1919 [Art.IWM ART 2268]". IWM Collections Search. Retrieved 12 Nov 2013.; also a war artist in World War II.
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- "Edward Bawden" (in French). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- "Henry Carr" (in French). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- Thomas, Ronan; West End at War: Anthony Gross. Retrieved 24 April 2013
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- "Eliot Hodgkin". Imperial War Museums. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
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- "Ruskin Spear" (in French). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
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- "Graham Sutherland" (in French). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- "Carel Weight" (in French). Civilization.ca. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- Derek Eland (1 September 2011). "Helmand". derekeland.com. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
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- "Pintor de Batallas".
- McCloskey, Barbara. (2005). Artists of World War II. Westport: Greenwood Press. 10-ISBN 0313321531/13-ISBN 9780313321535; OCLC 475496457
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- New Zealand
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- South Africa
- Carter, Albert Charles Robinson. (1900). The Work of War Artists in South Africa. London: "The Art Journal" Office. OCLC 25938498
- United Kingdom
- Gough, Paul. (2010). A Terrible Beauty: British Artists in the First World War. Bristol: Sansom and Company. 13-ISBN 9781906593001/10-ISBN 1906593000; OCLC 559763485
- Harries, Meirion and Suzie Harries. (1983). The War Artists: British Official War Art of the Twentieth Century. London: Michael Joseph. 10-ISBN 071812314X/13-ISBN 9780718123147; OCLC 9888782
- Harrington, Peter. (1983). British Artists and War: The Face of Battle in Paintings and Prints, 1700–1914. London: Greenhill. 10-ISBN 1853671576/13-ISBN 9781853671579; OCLC 28708501
- Haycock, David Boyd. (2009). A Crisis of Brilliance: Five Young British Artists and the Great War. London: Old Street Publishing. 13-ISBN 9781905847846/10-ISBN 190584784X; OCLC 318876179
- Hichberger, J.W.M. (1988). Images of the Army: The Military in British Art 1815–1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 10-ISBN 0719025753/13-ISBN 9780719025754; OCLC 17295891
- Sillars, Stuart (1987). Art and Survival in First World War Britain. New York: St. Martins Press. 10-ISBN 031200544X/13-ISBN 9780312005443; OCLC 14932245
- Holme, Charles. (1918). The War Depicted by Distinguished British Artists. London: The Studio. OCLC 5081170
- United States
- Cornebise, Alfred. (1991). Art from the trenches: America's Uniformed Artists in World War I. College Station: Texas A & M University Press. 10-ISBN 0890963495/13-ISBN 9780890963494; OCLC 22892632
- Harrington, Peter, and Frederic A. Sharf. (1988). A Splendid Little War; The Spanish–American War, 1898; The Artists' Perspective. London: Greenhill. 10-ISBN 1853673161/13-ISBN 9781853673160; OCLC 260112479