War in Somalia (2009–present)
|War in Somalia (2009–present)|
|Part of the Somali Civil War and the War on Terror|
Situation in Somalia as of 25 March 2013
Hizbul Islam (2009 - 2010 m.)
| Federal Republic of Somalia:
|Commanders and leaders|
| Moktar Ali Zubeyr
Emir of al-Shabaab
Mohamed Said Atom al-Shabaab commander in Puntland
| Hassan Sheikh Mohamud
President of Somalia
Abdi Farah Shirdon Saaid
4,000–6,000 militants (by June 2012)
|Federal Government of Somalia:
18,000–36,000 SAF troops
|Casualties and losses|
|Federal Government of Somalia:
756 killed, 367 injured (by October 2012)
284+ killed, 185+ injured,
|Jan 2009 – Oct 2012:
|1. Sheikh Omar Iman Abubakr was leader of Hizbul Islam until 26 May, when he stepped down and handed over his position to Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys.|
The 2009–present phase of the Somali Civil War is concentrated in southern Somalia. It began in early February 2009, with the conflict between the forces of the Federal Government of Somalia assisted by African Union peacekeeping troops and various militant Islamist groups and factions. The violence has displaced thousands of people in the southern part of the country. The conflict has also seen sectarian violence between the moderate Sufis ASWJ, and the Islamists Al-Shabaab.
In 2011, a coordinated military operation between the Somali military and multinational forces began. The mission was officially led by the Somali army, with analysts expecting the additional AU troop reinforcements to help the Somali authorities gradually expand their territorial control.
- 1 Background
- 2 Timeline
- 3 Foreign involvement
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Established in 2004 and internationally recognized, the Transitional Federal Government's (TFG) support in Somalia was waning until the United States-backed 2006 intervention by the Ethiopian military, which helped drive out the rival Islamic Courts Union (ICU) in Mogadishu and solidify the TFG's rule. Following this defeat, the ICU splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to withdraw from the country, leaving behind an underequipped African Union (AU) peacekeeping force. A power sharing deal ensued between an Islamist splinter group led by Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed's Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia Djibouti faction (ARS-D) and TFG Prime Minister Nur Hassan in Djibouti. Al-Shabaab, which had separated from the moderate Islamists of the insurgency, rejected the peace deal and continued to take territories. It was joined by Hizbul Islam, which is an amalgamation of four Islamist group including the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia – Asmara faction. Another Islamist group, Ahlu Sunnah Waljama'ah, which was allied with the TFG and supported by Ethiopia, continues to attack al-Shabaab and take over towns as well although they have been effective only in the central region of Galguduud, where they ousted al-Shabaab from most of the region.
After the parliament took in 275 officials from the moderate Islamist opposition, ARS leader Sheikh Ahmed was elected TFG President on 31 January 2009. Since then, the al-Shabaab radical Islamists have accused the new TFG President of accepting the secular transitional government and have continued the civil war since he arrived in Mogadishu at the presidential palace in early February 2009.
Islamist-ARS/TFG coalition conflict
On 4 February 2009, four Islamist groups, including Hassan Dahir Aweys' Eritrean branch of the ARS merged and created the group Hisbi Islam, to fight the new government of Sharif Ahmed. al-Shabaab also vowed to fight the government. On 8 February 2009, they declared war on the new government of Sharif Ahmed and the AU peace-keepers.
New TFG President Sheik Sharif Sheik Ahmed arrived in Mogadishu as a president for the first time on 7 February 2009. The al-Shabaab and other radical Islamists began firing at the new TFG president hours later. They accused the new President of accepting the secular transitional government.
On 8 February, heavy fighting broke out in southern Mogadishu. al-Shabaab leader Sheikh Mukhtar Robow (Abu Mansur). met with Sharif Ahmed for peace talks during his visit to Mogadishu, while Omar Iman rejected the president. During these negotiations, Sharif Ahmed said that he would be prepared to enforce Sharia Law in Somalia, which is currently the radical groups' main demand. However, Sheikh Mukhtar Robow, a former Al-Shabab spokesman, denied having talked to Sharif Ahmed and vowed to continue fighting until his demands for Sharia Law were met. Sheikh Mukhtar Robow warned Nigeria against sending peace keepers to Somalia, as al-Shabaab views the AU peace keepers as occupying forces and will continue fighting them until they withdraw from the country.
On 10 February, al-Shabaab launched an offensive to take the Bakool province. Government officials who had been ousted from Baidoa had been amassing troops in the city of Hudur (Xudur) and planning a major offensive to re-take Baidoa. Islamist forces attacked the province and reached the capital were they started a battle against government forces. In Galmudug, Clan militia took the town of Masagaway from al-Shabaab. There was also fighting in Warsheekh.
On 12 February, the spokesman for al-Shabaab, Sheikh Mukhtar Robow (Abu Mansur), rebuffed reports from several media outlets that a mutual agreement between him and newly elected president Sharif Ahmed was made. He also added that he had no intention to contact the president on any matters, and that they would continue fighting against foreign troops and what he described as an “apostate" government. The same day, they vowed war against the new government.
On 22 February, a double suicide bomb attack on an AU base in Mogadishu left 11 Burundian soldiers dead and another 15 wounded. Two days later heavy fighting erupted in the city as TFG and AU forces attempted to retake the city from radical Islamist forces. The fighting lasted for two days and killed 87 people, including: 48 civilians, 15 insurgents and 6 TFG policemen.
At the same time as the fighting raged in Mogadishu, al-Shabaab forces took the town of Hudor, to the north-west, in fighting that killed another 20 people: 10 TFG soldiers, 6 insurgents and 4 civilians.
On 28 February, it appeared that Hisbi Islam would sign a ceasefire with the Transitional Federal Government. However, by 1 March, it was clear that no ceasefire would be given, despite President Sharif Ahmed having agreed to proposals for a truce and having offered to accept the implementation of Sharia Law but refused to move troops from civilian areas despite the Islamists doing so.
On 6 May, al-Shabaab announced that it would continue the war even if AMISOM withdrew.
25 May, the government announced an immediate blockade on airstrips and seaports under insurgent control to stop the flow of weapons reaching them.
On 7 May, a fierce battle for control of Mogadishu started between al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam against the TFG. Hundreds were killed and injured and tens of thousands were displaced. By 11 May, rebel forces gained the upper hand and made large gains taking over most of the capital. Fighting continued until 14 May and, though they came close, the rebels didn't manage to overthrow the government. There were new rounds of fighting all through August.
On 19 June, the transitional parliament speaker Sheikh Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe asked the international community to send foreign troops to Somalia within the following 24 hours. He stated that the government's power is on the verge of being defeated by Islamist forces in the Somali capital. The Cabinet declared a state of emergency and Somalia asked for help from neighbors Kenya, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Yemen. Ethiopia refused saying intervention needs an international mandate. On 21 June, a spokesman for the al-Shabaab Islamists said they would fight any foreign troops. al-Qaeda also made threats against Kenyan intervention.
22 June, Somali President Sheikh Sharif Ahmed declared state of emergency in the country as a new round of fighting in Mogadishu left 12 dead and 20 injured. Hundreds were said to be fleeing the city 4 July, Sheik Abdinasir Jalil, a former commander of the training for ICU administration in Beledweyn town joined Hizbul Islam with his men and vowed to fight TFG forces in the city and attack Ethiopian forces in El-gal village, which lies 18 km from Beledweyn. He said that the government officials want to bring Ethiopian troops inside town and that is the reason they switched sides. Former ICU officials who joined Hizbul Islam, held a press conference and announced that the ICU administration in Hiraan had collapsed as they joined the insurgents. Sheikh Ibrahim Yusuf, a top security commander in Beledweyn, also defected along with his forces. General Muktar Hussein Afrah was sent to Beledweyn along with TFG troops and put in charge there by the TFG as the ICU administration had collapsed. Many ICU officials including MPs resigned that day next to Sheikh Abdinasir Jalil Ahmed (head of training) and Sheikh Ibrahim Yusuf (head of security); Sheik Osman Abdulle Barqadle, the army commander of Ugas Khalif airport, and Sheik Abdullahi Garamgaram, the deputy chief of the emergency forces also resigned.
In response, TFG forces led by general Muktar Hussein Afrah started military manoeuvers in the East side of the city.
17 July, two French security advisors to the government were captured by insurgents. The Somali government gave permission for French commandos to launch operations inside Somalia to free the 2 French nationals that held by al-Shabaab. On 22 July, French warships and helicopters were seen near the ports of Mogadishu and Marka as France declared they would undertake military operations to free the two French military advisers who had been captured by insurgents. One hostage, Marc Aubriere, escaped a month later in August 2009. The second, Denis Allex, was seen in a video released in June 2010 asking for assistance to effect his release.
Al-Shabaab-Hizbul Islam conflict
The armed conflict between Hizbul Islam and al-Shabaab began due to a dispute between the faction of the Ras Kamboni Brigades led by Sheikh Ahmed "Madoobe" and al-Shabaab, over a power sharing agreement in Kisimayo. Hizbul Islam and al-Shabaab had made a power sharing agreement for the city, where the power would rotate between the two factions, with each faction controlling the city for periods of six months. However, due to clan politics al-Shabaab refused to let the power rotation take place. This led to internal problems within Hizbul Islam as its ARS-A and JABISO factions, which were aligned with al-Shabaab in Hiran and Mogadishu, refused to support the Ras Kamboni Brigades, while Anole remained neutral. It also led to a split within the Ras Kamboni Brigades, with a faction led by Hizbul Islam's deputy chairman Sheikh Hassan "Turki" refusing to back Ahmad "Madoobe" and instead siding with al-Shabaab.
On 1 October, heavy fighting broke out. By the afternoon, al-Shabaab controlled most of the city with 12 dead and 70 wounded. At least 17 people were killed in during a series of battles overnight on 5 October. A Hizbul Islam spokesman claimed that they had captured foreign fighters in the battle. The battle was decisively won by al-Shabaab which expelled Madbobe's Ras Kamboni Brigade forces from the city.
Throughout November 2009, fighting between the two factions continued in Southern Somalia and as result insurgent attacks in Mogadishu targeting TFG and AMISOM forces decreased. However Sheikh Ahmad Madobe's forces were soon overpowered by al-Shabaab and its local allies and forced to withdraw from the Lower Jubba region and most of Southern Somalia. In February 2010, Sheikh Hassan Turki's branch of the Ras Kamboni Brigades declared a merge with al-Shabaab. He encouraged other groups in Hizbul Islam also to join al-Shabaab.
In early 2010 the two groups clashed in Hiran region, in central Somalia. This battle was also won by al-Shabaab which took control of the region. In late 2010 they also expelled Hizbul Islam from Bay region after seizing control of Bur Hakab, after a two days battle in which 30 militants were killed. In Lower Shabelle region al-Shabaab seized control of Hizbul Islam strongholds: Furuqley, Farsooley and Dugulle villages and then started preparing an offensive in Afgooye, the last town Hizbul Islam controlled in the region. Soon after Hizbul Islam was forced to surrender the Luuq District in Gedo region to al-Shabaab, after which it was announced that Hizbul Islam would merge with al-Shabaab. From mid-December al-Shabaab fighters started taking over Hizbul Islam positions. Hizbul Islam fighters also started entering al-Shabaab controlled areas of Mogadishu. The merge was confirmed on 20 December, when Hizbul Islam Chairman Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys and Sheikh Mohammad Osman Arus, the organisation's official spokesman, surrendered to al-Shabaab and disbanded the organisation.
Galmudug and Islamists
Government officials from the Galmudug administration in the north-central Hobyo district also reportedly attempted to use pirate gangs as a bulwark against Islamist insurgents from southern Somalia's conflict zones. Other pirates are alleged to have reached agreements of their own with the Islamist groups, although a senior commander from the Hizbul Islam militia vowed to eradicate piracy by imposing sharia law when his group briefly took control of Harardhere in May 2010 and drove out the local pirates.
Battle of Gashandiga
An early 2011 offensive was dubbed by AU Representative Wafula Wamunyinyi as the "Battle of Gashandiga."
In 20 February 2011, it was reported that AMISOM troops destroyed a large complex of al-Shabaab trenches, and killed six al-Shabaab commanders in Mogadishu. Two AMISOM troops died in those battles.
On 21 February, at least 20 people, including TFG policemen were killed in a suicide car bomb attack in Mogadishu.
Between 21 and 22 February, twelve people were killed in heavy shelling in Mogadishu.
On 25 February, 15 people were killed as al-Shabaab fighters attempted to re-take lost territory in Mogadishu. Additionally, rebels displayed one wounded and five dead Burundian AMISOM soldiers.
On 26 February, an offensive by TFG troops with support of Ethiopian soldiers was opened in the southern Somali town of Bula Hawo. Until 28 February, 33 people were killed in TFG and Ethiopian shelling.
By 5 March, AMISOM and TFG forces claimed to control seven of the city's districts, while six were contested and three were controlled by anti-government forces. Al-Shabaab responded to the government offensive by putting up roadblocks to prevent the movement of goods from the seaport. This adversely affected both sides of the conflict, as the TFG controlled the port and its profits, while the Bakaara Market, where many of the goods were bound to be sold, was controlled by the insurgents. It was reported that by 5 March, up to 53 AMISOM may have died in the clashes. Of those, 43 Burundian and 10 Ugandan.
By 16 March, AMISOM was bolstered by an additional 1,000 peacekeepers to assist in the TFG's renewed offensive against al-Shabaab, bringing the total manpower of AMISOM to nearly 9,000.
Defeat of Al-Shabaab in Mogadishu
For main article see Battle of Mogadishu (2010–2011)
On 6 August 2011, the Transitional Federal Government's troops and their AMISOM allies managed to capture all of Mogadishu from the Al-Shabaab militants. Witnesses reported Al-Shabaab vehicles abandoning their bases in the capital for the south-central city of Baidoa. The group's spokesman Sheikh Ali Mohamud Rage described the exodus as a tactical retreat, and vowed to continue the insurgency against the national government. Observers have suggested that the pullout may at least in part have been caused by internal ideological rifts in the rebel organization.
After their withdrawal, al-Shabaab has however continued hit and run tactics in the North of the city as they vowed to continue guerilla attacks in Mogadishu. On 4 October 2011, a suicide bomb on a lorry detonated and killed more than 70 people near a compound housing several government ministries. Two weeks later a car bomb killed at least two people.
On 11 October 2011, AU troops claimed to have driven the remnants of al-Shabaab out of the city. As of November 2012, Mogadishu was still firmly in AMISOM and TFG hands, although the city continued to suffer from suicide bomb attacks.
Fighting in Puntland
On 2 to 3 September, fighting was reported in Puntland that resulted in the deaths of up to 60 people, including 8 Puntland soldiers and 40 Al-Shabaab militants, with Insurgents being repelled. Al-Shabaab claimed on 7 September that they have captured 2 Kenyan troops who were on a surveillance mission near the Kenyan-Somalian Border. Puntland forces captured 18 members of Al-Shabaab in counter-terrorism operations on 8 September.
Battle of Elwaq
Al-Shabaab attacked the southern town of Elwaq on 10 September, resulting in the deaths of 12 insurgents and soldiers. The next day, Somali troops fought back, retaking the town after militants fled on captured technicals. The bodies of 30 militants were later found, some of them children. Conversely, Al-Shabaab claimed they killed around 70 government aligned troops and captured 10 technicals.
The Burundian military lost 51 soldiers in October, causing anger among Burundians, who believe that their country is sacrificing too much. Many Burundians have urged other AU members to contribute troops to the Somalia mission. Nigeria, Djibouti, and Guinea have indicated sending troops, but all have yet to contribute.
On 4 September 2012 the Kenyan Navy shelled Kismayo. This was part of an AU offensive to capture the city from al-Shabab fighters. The harbour was shelled two times and the airport three times. According to a UN report the export of charcoal through Kismayo is a major source of income for al-Shabab.
On 28 September 2012, the Somali National Army assisted by AMISOM troops and Ras Kamboni militia launched an assault on Kismayo, Al-Shabaab's last major stronghold. The allied forces reportedly managed to re-capture much of the city from the insurgents.
African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)
See Main AMISOM article
The African Union has deployed more than 16,000 soldiers to Somalia, mandated to support transitional governmental structures, implement a national security plan, train the Somali security forces, and assist in creating a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian aid. As part of its duties, AMISOM also supports the Transitional Federal Government's forces in their battle against Al-Shabaab militants.
AMISOM was created by the African Union's Peace and Security Council on 19 January 2007 with an initial six month mandate. On 21 February 2007 the United Nations Security Council approved the mission's mandate. Subsequent six-monthly renewals of AMISOM's mandate by the African Union Peace and Security Council have also been authorised by the United Nations Security Council.
AMISOM's UN mandate was extended for a further six months in August 2008 by UNSCR 1831. The AMISOM’s mandate has been extended each period that it has been up for review. It is currently set to be reviewed again on 16 January 2013.
On 12 November 2013, the UN Security Council adopted SC Resolution 2124 (2013) extending AMISOM's mandate from 28 February 2014 to 31 October 2014. Acting upon the force's request, the resolution also increases AMISOM's maximum authorized strength from 17,731 to 22,126 troops.
The force, which has been reportedly engaged in fighting in Mogadishu and throughout the country, has reportedly suffered significant casualties during their mission, although no precise figures have issued by the contributing countries.
United States and UN
As of October 2010, the U.S. State Department noted the United States directly obligated over $229 million to support AMISOM, and paid for other UN assistance for the mission indirectly through its obligations to the international body.
The United National Development Program for Somalia spends about $50 million each year, though these funds are not related to military aid. Instead these programs, such as Employment Generation for Early Recovery (EGER) are targeted to foster civil government institutions for the Transitional Federal Government, such as law enforcement, local governance, youth employment, watershed management, as well as AIDS/HIV programs.
On 16 February, Somali MP Mohamud Sayid Adan, former Mogadishu mayor Mohamed Omar Habeeb and local police officer Hassan Dhicisow, were arrested by Ethiopian forces in the town of Dolow in Gedo region.
On 28 May, 2 Ethiopian soldiers, 1 Ethiopian civilian, 2 Somali soldiers, 4 Somali civilians (working for the government) and 4 Somali insurgents were killed when insurgents attacked a convoy carrying Omar Hashi Aden, who was returning from his visit to Ethiopia.
On 31 May, Ethiopian forces launched search and seizure operations in Hiraan, in Kalaberyr village, near Beledweyn.
On 12 June, Ethiopian forces with several battle wagons entered in Balanbal town in Galgudud and set up military bases.
On 14 June, the Ethiopian military said it had come to fight foreign mujahedin which the military described as "foreign enemies of Ethiopia and Somalia" and launched operations to search for them in Balanbal town which they control. Sheik Hassan Ya'qub Ali, head of the information affairs for Islamic administration in Kisimayo warned the Ethiopians that "there is no candy and dates to eat from here in Somalia. But the men who chased you forcibly from the country are here in Somalia."
The suicide bombing on 18 June targeted a meeting between TFG and Ethiopian commanders.
On 19 June, Ethiopian forces entered Bakool and reached Elberde town. They withdrew after holding talks with local clan elders.
22 June, Ethiopian forces started launching search and seizure operations in Kala-beyrka intersection in Hiran region.
The Ethiopian government then announced it would not intervene without an international mandate.
30 June, Ethiopian forces entered El-gal and Ilka'adde villages which are less than 20 km north of regional capital Beledweyn. Reports from Kala-beyrka intersection say that more extra troops from Ethiopia crossed from the border.
4 July, Ethiopians withdrew from their bases in Banabal town in Galgudug.
18 July, Ethiopian forces vacated their bases in Yed Village in insurgent-controlled Bakool region.
During the weekend of 29–30 August, Ethiopian forces advanced to Beledweyne, supporting a government offensive on the insurgent part of, Beledweyne. They withdrew on 31 August. The assault on Beledweyne by government forces came as the TFG governor of Hiraan (belonging to Sharif Ahmed's ARS-Djibouti faction), Sheikh Abdirahman Ibrahim Ma'ow, which controls the other part of Beledweyne, withdrew his administration's support for the TFG.
19 March, Mohammed wali Odowa, spokesman of Hizbul Islam's Hiraan administration in Beledweyne, threatened that Hizbul Islam forces would attack any Ethiopian forces which entered Hizbul Islam controlled territories in Hiraan.
On 18 July, Ethiopian forces withdrew from all their bases in Hiraan and Bakool regions. Ethiopian forces had held these territories for two months, during which they clashed several times with al-Shabaab forces which control most of Hiraan. Before they withdrew they released over 20 lorries which used to travel between the South and Central regions of Somalia.
On 1 August, 27,000 Ethiopian troops entered Somalia through the border town of Dolo, where 6,000 Ethiopian forces are based. They advanced deep into Gedo region in the direction of the towns of Beledehawa and Elwak, accompanied by militia of pro-Ethiopian, Somali warlords. In Hiraan, Ethiopian forces which entered along with TFG-forces exchanged fire with al-Shabaab militants and advanced until the Kalaber junction, near Beledweyne. The Ethiopian troops then withdrew to Ferfer.
On 29 August, there was a second Ethiopian incursion. A large number of Ethiopian forces in military vehicles, accompanied by highly trained TFG forces, entered several villages in al-Shabaab controlled Hiraan region. This came at a time when al-Shabaab militants regularly ventured near the border. Hussein Abdallah, an ASWJ loyalist claimed that the movements were a preliminary action to signal that Ethiopian authorities are able of weakening the Islamist insurgents, to al-Shabaab's leadership.
On 1 September, Ethiopian forces moved deeper into Gedo region, via Dolow, entering the TFG-held village of Yeed. TFG officials in the region reported they were planning to capture the entire Bay and Bakool regions from al-Shabaab.
On 30 December, TFG forces clashed with Ethiopian troops in the Jawil district, near Beledweyne, after Ethiopian forces took a TFG soldier into custody. One TFG soldier and one civilian were injured in the clashes.
3 January, Ahlu Sunna Waljamaa official Sheikh Abdi Badel Sheikh Abdullahi, complained about Ethiopian forces in the town of Dolo, in Gedo region. The town is controlled by 300 ASWJ and TFG forces, but it is also home to several Ethiopian military bases. Ethiopian forces had called on ASWJ fighters in the district to lay down their arms. According to a TFG official, three Ethiopian commanders had then come to the town of Dolo and ordered TFG forces to disarm. Ethiopian troops then disarmed a number of TFG and ASWJ forces. Sheikh Abdullahi alleged that Ethiopian forces were doing this because they were outraged by ASWJ's military capability.
On 19 November, eyewitness reported large number of Ethiopian troops crossing into Somalia. Ethiopian authorities denied this.
On 31 December 2011, the Transitional Federal Government soldiers and around 3,000 allied Ethiopian army troops attacked Beledweyne in the early morning, capturing it after hours of fighting. They later took control of Baidoa, among other areas.
On 22 October 2012, the Spokesman of African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) Col. Ali Aden Humed speaking to journalists in Mogadishu on Saturday said that Ethiopian forces present in parts of the regions of Somalia will soon pull out from the country. The spokesman said AMISOM troops will take over the areas where Ethiopian forces are holding at the moment. “The plan by AMISOM is to take over the positions held by Ethiopian forces in parts of the regions of the country, Ethiopian troops will soon retreat back to their position along Somalia border” said Col. Ali Aden Humed.
In 2013, Ethiopian Foreign Minister Tedros Adhanom announced that Ethiopian troops were pulling out of Baidoa as the situation on the ground was relatively stable and the Somali military and AMISOM forces were now able to assume security duties. The withdrawal was well planned and coordinated. Adhanom added that a pullout could have occurred twelve months earlier, but the allied forces were at the time unprepared to take over, so the move was postponed. Additionally, he asserted that Eritrea was attempting to destabilize Somalia and environs, and that the international community should take the situation seriously since Eritrea was also still allegedly supporting Al-Shabaab. Following the Westgate shooting in Nairobi by Al Shabaab operatives, the Ethiopian government halted its plans to withdraw completely out of Somalia. In November 2013, the Ethiopian government announced that it would integrate its 8,000 troops that are deployed in Somalia into the AMISOM multinational force. Somalia's Foreign Minister Fowzia Haji Yussuf welcomed the decision, stating that the move would galvanize AMISOM's campaign against the insurgent group. She also emphasized the importance of collaboration between Somalia and Ethiopia. The Ethiopian authorities' announcement came a month after a failed October bombing attempt by Al-Shabaab in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa, and a week after Ethiopia received a renewed terrorism threat from the insurgent group. According to Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Ambassador Dina Mufti, the Ethiopian military's decision to join AMISOM is intended to render the peacekeeping operation more secure.
Recruitment from Kenya
According to press reports, Somali and Kenyan government officials have recruited and trained Somali refugees in Kenya and Kenyan nationals who are ethnic Somalis to fight insurgents in Somalia. However, the Somali chief of military staff and spokesmen from the Kenyan government have denied this.
2010 Kenya-Al-Shabaab border clash
On 20 July 2010 border clashes between Kenya and Al-Shabaab insurgents occurred when gunmen from the militia attacked a Kenyan border patrol along the border area in Liboi, Lagdera. There was a subsequent fierce exchange of fire between the two sides leading to the deaths of 2 militia and the wounding of one Kenyan officer. Hundreds of security personnel were later deployed to the border following the clash and because of continued fighting between two militia groups in the neighbouring town of Dobley, Somalia. The Islamist outfit had previously claimed responsibility for a deadly suicide bombing in Uganda in July.
Operation Linda Nchi
In October 2011, a coordinated operation between the Somali military and the Kenyan military began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia. The mission was officially led by the Somali army, with the Kenyan forces providing a support role. In early June 2012, Kenyan forces were formally integrated into AMISOM. Analysts expect the additional AU troop reinforcements to help the Somali authorities gradually expand their territorial control.
- List of wars 2003–2010
- List of wars 2011–present
- Animation of Somali territorial conflict from 2007-2012
- "Somalia: President Signs Shari'ah Bill As National Law". allAfrica.com. 14 May 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- UPDATE 3-Somali government declares Islamist rebellion defeated
- "BBC News - Somalia: 'Al-Shabab' militants forced out of Jowhar". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-12-09. Retrieved 2013-04-19.
- "Somali Islamists al-Shabab and Hizbul Islam 'to merge'". BBC News. 20 December 2010.
- "Somalia: 'People May Be Dying in Their Homes And We Don't Know About It'". allAfrica.com. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- see: Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa
- "Italy pledges to Somali gov’t financial support to uproot Al shabaab". Shabelle. 3 November 2010 NATO United Kingdom
. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- BBC News - Somalia's al-Shabab leader Aweys 'not surrendering'. Bbc.co.uk (2013-06-28). Retrieved on 2013-10-29.
- Guled, Abdi (15 June 2012). "Militants defecting to Somali side after losses". The Washington Post - World.
- "Somalia: Ideologial Differences Split Somalia's Al-Shabaab". allAfrica.com. 20 December 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Kwayera, Juma (9 March 2013). "Hope alive in Somalia as UN partially lifts arms embargo". Standard Digital. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Etpu – United Nations Security Council Report: Somalia" (PDF). p. 12. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Yahoo!: Reuters Beefed-up Somalia peacekeepers may renew offensive on al Shabaab
- UCDP Battle-Related Deaths Dataset v.5-2013, 1989-2012; Al-Shabaab battle-related deaths, best est.: 1,253 (in 2008); 1,403 (in 2009); 2,076 (in 2010); 1,917 (in 2011); 2,620 (in 2012)
- "Gulf of Aden Security Review – May 5, 2010". Critical Threats. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Senior Yemeni al Shabab al Qaeda commander killed in Mogadishu". Armies of Liberation. 5 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Fazul, le chef présumé d’al-Qaïda tué à Mogadiscio - Somalie/Comores - RFI". Rfi.fr. Retrieved 2013-04-19.
- By adding The Casualties of the page http://www.criticalthreats.org/yemen/gulf-aden-security-review
- "UPDATE 2-Kenyan forces, al Shabaab rebels clash on border". Reuters. 20 July 2010.
- 3 June 2011 (2011-06-03). "Somalia: Al Shabaab Attacks Kenya". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 2013-04-19.
- Kenyan cop killed in Mandera blast
- Kenyan soldiers slain in border town bomb blast
- allafrica More Than 1,700 Killed in Clashes in 2009, 1 January 2010
- IRIN Africa Accusations traded over rising casualties at Mogadishu market, 2 December 2010
- "Database - Uppsala Conflict Data Program". UCDP. Retrieved 2013-04-19.
- c.f. UCDP datasets for SNA, ARS/UIC and Al-Shabaab tolls.
- UCDP non-state conflict tolls
- "PressTV – 100 killed in Somali bloodshed". Presstv.ir. 5 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "allafrica.com/stories/200905260850.html". Allafrica.com. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Heinlein, Peter (22 October 2011). "E. African Nations Back Kenyan Offensive in Somalia". Voice of America. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- Joint Communique – Operation Linda Nchi
- "Kenya agrees to join AMISOM". China Daily. 7 December 2011.
- "Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia". Globalpolicy.org. 14 August 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1 May 2009). "USCIRF Annual Report 2009 – The Commission's Watch List: Somalia". Unhcr.org. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Moderate Islamists seize town from Somali insurgents". Monstersandcritics.com. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Moderate Islamic group claims victory over rival hardline group". Mareeg.com. 1 January 1996. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Ahlu Suna Wal Jamea supported by Ethiopian government". Ethioforum.org. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Moderate Islamist picked as Somali president". CNN. 31 January 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Sheikh, Abdi (7 February 2009). "Rebels target new president". In.reuters.com. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Islamist Groups Merge to Fight Sheikh Sharif
- Islamic Party Insurgents Declare War On New Govt
- Radical Islamists attack new president Ahmed's palace[dead link]
- "No Operation". Presstv.ir. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somali president gears up for peace". Presstv.ir. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Al Shabaab Leader Speaks, More Fighting in Mogadishu". allAfrica.com. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- http://www.hiiraan.com/news2/2009/Feb /al_shabaab_reiterates_opposition_to_new_somali_leader.aspx
- "Somalia in truce with rebel group". Al Jazeera. 28 February 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
- "Somali rebels reject ceasefire". Al Jazeera. 1 March 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
- [dead link]
- "Somalia: Al Shabaab to 'Continue War' Even If African Union Withdraws". allAfrica.com. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "No Operation". Presstv.com. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Sun 17 23 May:30:24 2009 (17 May 2009). "Somalia: Al-Shabab Captures Strategic Town". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: 50 Killed in Central Somalia Clashes, Aweys 'Wounded'". allAfrica.com. 7 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "No Operation". Presstv.com. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- allafrica Parliament Asks Foreign Troops to Come Within 24 Hours, 19 June 2009
- "Somali Cabinet OKs state of emergency". Google. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "Ethiopia rejects Somali request". BBC News. 21 June 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- Mohamed, Ibrahim (21 June 2009). "Islamists vow to fight any foreign troops in Somalia". Reuters (Thompson Reuters). Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "East Africa: Al-Qaeda Threat to Peace in East Africa". allAfrica.com. 21 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: President Declares State of Emergency, 12 Killed in Mogadishu Clashes". allAfrica.com. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- allafrica Officials Say 'They Will Attack the TFG And Ethiopian Troops in Hiran Region', 5 July 2009
- allafrica Military Tensions High in Hiran Region Near Ethiopia Border, 5 July 2009
- allafrica Officials Say 'Pro Government Icu Administration in Hiran Region Collapses', 5 July 2009
- allafrica TFG Soldiers Start Military Movements in Beledweyn Town, 4 July 2009
- allafrica Harakat Al-Shabab Mujahideen Leader Calls for Government Soldiers to Hand Over Their Weapon With in Five Days, 6 July 2009
- allafrica Al-Shabaab Snatch Second French Security Adviser Kidnapped in Mogadishu, 17 July 2009
- Press TV Somalia okays French military intervention, 20 June 2009
- allafrica Warships And Helicopters Seen in Mogadishu And Merka, 23 July 2009
- French hostage escapes captors in Somalia
- Somalia hostage tells of escape
- Somali group issues video of French hostage
- Yahoo! News , 15 September 2009
- "Etpu" (PDF). pp. 16 & 18. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somali factions battle in Kismayo". English.aljazeera.net. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- [dead link]
- "17 killed in renewed clashes near Kismayo". Garowe Online. 5 October 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Garowe Online". Garowe Online. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Al-Shabaab's Encirclement Strategy". allAfrica.com. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
- "Somalia: Notorious Islamist Guerrilla Leader Joins Al Shabaab". allAfrica.com. 1 February 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Clam Returns to Bur-Hakaba After One Day of Deadly Fighting". allAfrica.com. 12 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- allafrica Aweys Surrenders to Al Shabaab, Six Killed in Bombing
- "Somalia: Al Shabaab Leaders Condemn Each Other Publicly". allAfrica.com. 18 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Al Shabaab Takes Over Region From Hizbul Islam". allAfrica.com. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Rival Militant Groups Set to Join Forces". allAfrica.com. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (1 September 2010). "In Somali Civil War, Both Sides Embrace Pirates". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- Haji, Mustafa (2 May 2010). "Somali Islamists vow to end piracy, pirates flee with ships". Google News. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- AMISOM Vows to Keep Fighting for Mogadishu
- "Garowe Online". Garowe Online. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Suicide car bomb killed 20 people in Mogadishu". Garowe Online. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "12 killed in continued clashes in Mogadishu". Garowe Online. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "15 civilians killed in Mogadishu_clashes". Garowe Online. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia's al-Shabab 'holds 18 Burundian bodies'". BBC News. 4 March 2011.
- "Ugandan Amisom peacekeepers jailed for shooting Somalis". BBC News. 16 March 2011.
- Govt Forces, Al Shabaab Fight in Mogadishu
- "Deadly blast hits Somali capital". AlJazeera. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Somalia clashes force Mogadishu hospital to close". BCC. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Somalia: Mogadishu suicide bombers attack restaurant". BBC. 3 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- "Fighting in Somalia's Puntland kills at least 27". Reuters Africa. 3 September 2011.
- "Heavy fighting in Central Somalia Claims 30 Lives". Channel 6 News. 3 September 2011.
- "Somali Militants Say they have Captured 2 Kenyan Soldiers Near the Countries' Shared Border". Washington Post. 7 September 2011.[dead link]
- "Puntland Presents 18 Prisoners from Galkyo Counter terrorism Operations". Garowe Online. 8 September 2011.
- "Somali Troops Retake Town After Rebel Raid". Reuters Africa. 12 September 2011.
- AP Article - dead link
- "Kenya's navy shells Kismayo in Somalia". BBC. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Kenyan forces attack last remaining stronghold of al-Qaeda-linked militants in Somalia". Associated Press. 28 September 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Chonghaile, Clar Ni (28 September 2012). "Kenyan troops launch beach assault on Somali city of Kismayo". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1772 S-RES-1772(2007) page 3 in 2007 (retrieved 13 March 2008)
- "69th meeting of the peace and Security Council". Agence de Presse Africaine. 22 January 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2007.[dead link]
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1744 S-RES-1744(2007) in 2007 (retrieved 13 March 2008)
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1772 S-RES-1772(2007) in 2007 (retrieved 13 March 2008)
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1801 S-RES-1801(2008) in 2008 (retrieved 13 March 2008)
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1831 S-RES-1831(2008) in 2008 (retrieved 21 August 2008)
- United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report meeting 5942 on 23 July 2008 (retrieved 21 August 2008)
- "Somalia Historical Chronology". Security Council Report.
- http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/2124(2013). Missing or empty
- Report of AMISOM amphibious assault in UK Daily Telegraph. Sept 2012. Retrieved Nov. 2012. | http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/somalia/9573160/African-Union-assault-on-Islamist-strongold-in-Somalia.html
- "Background Note: Somalia". US State Department. 3 January 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- UNDP in Somalia: Donors and Expenditures
- Employment Generation for Early Recovery
- "Somali MP arrested by Ethiopian troops". Soomaalidamaanta.net. 16 February 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia Security Minister attacked in Ethiopia". Garowe Online. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Make Search Operations in Hiraan Region, 31 May 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Reach in Balanbal Town in Central Somalia, 13 June 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Say They Arrived in Balanbal Town to Fight Against Foreign Enemies in Somalia., 14 June 2009
- allafrica Islamists Warn the Ethiopian Troops Who Poured in Parts of Central Somalia, 14 June 2009
- allafrica http://allafrica.com/stories/200906180880.html, 18 June 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Return Back in Bakol Region, 19 June 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Start Searching Activities in Central Region, 22 June 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Reach Near Beledweyn Town, 2 July 2009
- allafrica Ethiopian Troops Vacate From Balanbal Town, 5 July 2009
- "Somalia: Ethiopian Troops Vacate in Yed Village in Southern Somalia". allAfrica.com. 18 July 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "As Ethiopia withdraws Hiran governor quits Somalia_government". Garowe Online. 31 August 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Hizbul-Islam in Hiran region vows to attack Ethiopian troops". Somaliweyn.org. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- BAIDOA (Sunatimes)–Ethiopian troops have re-entered Somalia and seize two Somali towns from the extremist rebel group of Alshabaab in two days, according to witnesses on Wedne...[dead link]
- "Somalia: Ethiopia Troops Expel Al Shabaab From Border Town". allAfrica.com. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Ethiopian Troops Leave From a Village in Hiran Region". allAfrica.com. 18 July 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- [dead link]
- "Islamist fighters seize Somali government seat". CNN. 26 January 2009.
- "Ethiopia troops in Somalia to battle radicals". Hiiraan.com. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Ethiopian troops cross into Somalia again, 1 September 2010
- "Somalia: Govt Forces, Ethiopian Military Clash in Central Region". allAfrica.com. 30 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Moderate Ahlu Sunna Complain of Ethiopian Forces". allAfrica.com. 3 January 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Somalia: Moderate Ahlu Sunna complain of Ethiopian forces". Shabelle. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Will Ross (19 November 2011). "Ethiopian troops 'cross border into Somalia'". BBC. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Ethiopia Agrees to Back Somalia Army Operations, IGAD Says
- "Ethiopian troops capture Beledweyne from Somalia militants". BBC News. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "October 22, 2012 | Daily Monitoring Report. - AMISOM Daily Media Monitoring". Somaliamediamonitoring.org. Retrieved 2013-04-19.
- Ethiopia: No Plan for Full Troop Withdrawal from Somalia
- Ethiopia says no plans to withdraw troops from Somalia
- Somali government welcomes Ethiopia AMISOM integration
- Is Ethiopia on al-Shabab's hit list?
- Somalia: Ethiopia Decides to Join Amisom Force in Somalia
- [dead link]
- Ali, Noor.2 Kenyan forces, al-Shabaab rebels clash on border, Reuters, 20 July 2010.
- Border security intensified as rival militias clash, The Standard, 29 July 2010.
- "Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission". Standardmedia.co.ke.
- "Kenya: Defense Minister appointed as acting Internal Security Minister". Garowe Online. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.