War of the Jülich Succession
|War of the Jülich Succession|
Coat of arms of United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
Supporting Emperor Rudolph:
Holy Roman Empire
Principality of Strasbourg
Prince-Bishopric of Liège
Opposed to Emperor Rudolph:
Margraviate of Brandenburg
Kingdom of France
Supporting Wolfgang William:
Supporting John Sigismund:
Margraviate of Brandenburg
The War of the Jülich Succession or the Jülich-Cleves War was a political and military conflict, composed primarily of a series of sieges and conquests, between Wolfgang William, Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg, supported by Spain and the Catholic League (from 1613), John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, supported by the United Provinces and the Kingdom of England, and Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor (who withdrew his claim in 1610), for control of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, that began in 1609 and ended on 12 November 1614, with the signing of the Treaty of Xanten. Jülich-Cleves-Berg was divided between Duke Wolfgang William of Neuburg and John Sigismund of Brandenburg.
When Duke John William of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died on March 25, 1609, he had no legitimate heirs to succeed him. As a result, both Duke Wolfgang William of Palatinate-Neuburg and Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg claimed inheritance to the throne. Both King Henry IV of France and representatives of the United Provinces of the Netherlands were suspicious of the possibility that Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II of Habsburg would seize the throne of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. Emperor Rudolph did contemplate annexing more territories to extend Habsburg possessions in the Low Countries. Ultimately, troops from the Holy Roman Empire occupied the fortress at Jülich.
Eventually, Emperor Rudolf retracted his claim to the throne and for a brief time supported the House of Wettin (Duke of Saxony) and their claim to Jülich-Cleves-Berg. However, the claim made by the House of Wettin was ultimately withdrawn. It was when Duke Wolfgang William and Elector John Sigismund established their respective claims to the throne that the conflict gained momentum.
King Henry IV of France suggested that the lands be divided between both Duke William and Elector Sigismund. The Count of Hesse recommended that both individuals rule Jülich-Cleves-Berg jointly. Both claimants agreed to rule together and they also promised to maintain religious tolerance enshrined in the Dortmund Recess developed on June 10, 1609. Even though the fortress at Jülich was still occupied by Emperor Rudolph's forces, it was eventually besieged by Dutch, Brandenburg and Palatine forces. The siege began on July 28, 1610 and ended on September 2, 1610 when the fortress surrendered and Imperial troops withdrew.
In 1613, Philip Louis's eldest son, Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg converted to Catholicism and gained the support of Spain and the Catholic League, and in August, 1614, the Spanish General Don Ambrosio Spinola, with a strong army of 15,000 men, advanced over Jülich-Cleves-Berg, capturing several towns and castles.
After the conflict, the Dortmund Recess was rejected by the cities of Cleves, Mark, Jülich, Berg, and Ravensberg since the accord was developed without the consent of all five cities. Overall, the five cities preferred to be represented by one prince rather than two. Ultimately the Dortmund Recess was replaced by the Treaty of Xanten, by which Jülich-Cleves-Berg was divided between Duke William and Elector Sigismund. The resulting Treaty of Xanten was signed on November 12, 1614, with Jülich and Berg going to Wolfgang William of Neuberg, while Elector John Sigismund got Cleves, Mark, and Ravensburg. The Spaniards refused to give up the key fortress of Wesel, and remained under their control.
Historically, the War of the Jülich Succession was recognized as a precursor to the Thirty Years' War.
- Hayden p.22
- The Spanish army under Spinola refused to give up the key fortress of Wesel. Hayden p.22
- Lawrence p.79
- Van Nimwegen p.204
- Wilson p.254
- Van Nimwegen, Olaf. The Dutch Army and the Military Revolutions 1588-1688. First published 2010. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge. ISBN 978-1-84383-575-2
- Black, Jeremy European Warfare, 1494-1660. Routledge Publishing (2002) ISBN 978-0-415-27531-6
- (Spanish) Rodríguez Villa, Antonio. Ambrosio Spínola, Primer Marqués de los Balbases. Estab. tip. de Fortanet 1905.
- Spielvogel, J Jackson. Western Civilization: Volume II: Since 1500 Wadsworth Publishing (2006) ISBN 978-0-534-64604-2
- Hayden, Michael J. Continuity in the France of Henry IV and Louis XIII: French Foreign Policy 1598-1615. Journal of Modern History. Vol. 45. No. 1. March, 1973.
- Lawrence, David R. The Complete Soldier: Military Books and Military Culture in Early Stuart England 1603-1645. Brill Academic Publishing. ISBN 90-04-17079-0
- Wilson, Peter H. From Rudolph to Matthias 1582-1612. The Thirty Years War. London: Penguin Books. 2009. ISBN 978-0-674-03634-5
- Irvine Israel, Jonathan. Conflicts of Empires: Spain, the Low Countries and the struggle for world supremacy 1585-1713. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-85285-161-3