Thousand Pillar Temple, Kakatiya Torana, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya University
|• Body||Municipal Corporation|
|• Metropolis||471.7 km2 (182.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||302 m (991 ft)|
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Warangal pronunciation (help·info); (also known as Orugallu and Ekasila Nagaram) is a city and district headquarters of Warangal district in the Indian state of Telangana. Warangal is located 148 kilometres (92 mi) northeast of the state capital of Hyderabad and is the administrative headquarters of Warangal District. Warangal area is a combination of Warangal, Hanmakonda and Kazipet. Warangal is the second-biggest city after Hyderabad in Telangana. It is well known for heritage and has been included in the scheme of Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY) along with eleven other cities of the country. It is also selected in the finalized list of 100 proposed smart cities by NDA government with the view of developing urban infrastructure and industrial investment in the listed cities.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (April 2013)|
Warangal was the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty from the 12th to the 14th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas left many monuments, including an impressive fortress, four massive stone gateways, the Swayambhu temple dedicated to Shiva, and the Ramappa temple situated near Ramappa Lake. The cultural and administrative distinction of the Kakatiyas was mentioned by the famous traveller Marco Polo. After the defeat of PratapaRudra, the Musunuri Nayaks united seventy two Nayak chieftains and captured Warangal from Delhi sultanate and ruled for fifty years.
The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687, and it remained part of the Mughal empire until the southern provinces of the empire split away to become the state of Hyderabad in 1724, which included the Telangana region and some parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Hyderabad was annexed to India in 1948, and became an Indian state. In 1956 Hyderabad was partitioned as part of the States Reorganization Act, and Telangana, the Telugu-speaking region of Hyderabad state, which includes Warangal, became part of Andhra Pradesh.
Geography and climate
Warangal is located at. It has an average elevation of 302 metres (990 feet).
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Located in the semi-arid region of Telangana, Warangal has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summer starts in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 550 mm (22 in) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in october and lasts until early February, when there is little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.
According to 2011 census, warangal had a population of 7,59,594 of which 3,80,833 are males and 3,78,761 are females. 67,732 of population are under 6 years. Literacy rate of warangal is 82.56% which is higher than the nation's literacy rate of 74.04%. Total literates in warangal city are 5,71,229 of which 3,12,338 are males and 2,58,891 are females. Sex ratio of warangal is 995 per 1000 males and child sex ratio is 948 per 1000 boys.
Civic administration is the responsibility of Warangal Municipal Corporation, which oversees the three cities of Warangal, Hanamkonda and Kazipet. In July 1951 the city was upgraded to Special Grade Municipality status. Later, in July 1960, it was upgraded to Selection Grade Municipality. On 18 August 1994, the city was declared a municipal corporation. Presently, the Corporation controls 471.7 square km2 after the agglomeration of 42 surrounding villages.
City planning is governed by Kakatiya Urban Development Authority, which was constituted in 1982. It oversees development of infrastructure and other projects in the city.
The Corporation implemented some pilot projects, such as the Solid Waste Management programme, that were so successful that other corporations have since implemented them. The city is divided into 53 political wards where each ward is represented by an area corporator.
According to the 2011 census of India, Warangal is one of the Indian cities that has seen rapid growth of urbanisation. This category is led by cities such as Gandhinagar (35% to 43%), Warangal (19% to 28%), Kozhikode (38% to 67%) and Krishna (32% to 41%).
Agriculture is the main economic activity in Warangal. Irrigation depends mainly on monsoon and seasonal rainfalls. Major crops are paddy, cotton, mango and wheat. Warangal benefits from the Godavari lift irrigation scheme which is designed to lift water from the Godavari river to irrigate drought prone areas in the Telangana region.
The city hosts Asia's second-biggest grain market, located in Enumamula. It is also attracting investors in information technology. The incubation tower at Madikonda is likely to play a significant role in this development also.
Warangal had a domestic airport which was established in 1930. Currently, no flights are operated from this airport. Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad is the nearest major airport and is 164 kilometres (102 mi) from the city.
Warangal railway station and Kazipet junction are two major stations under south central railway Secunderabad division. Warangal railway station is located on Delhi-Vijayawada-Chennai route. Kazipet railway station is located on Delhi-Kazipet-Secunderabad route. Kazipet junction acts as gateway between north and south India. Junction has a high traffic of more than 100 trains passing through it every day. Kazipet town, Vanchanagiri, Hasanparthy Road are the other railway stations in Warangal Corporation limits.
The district bus station is located in Hanamkonda, connecting Warangal to other cities of Telangana. Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TGSRTC) runs number of buses from Warangal to distant locations like Bengaluru, Tirupati, Shirdi, Visakhapatnam, Rajahmundry, Vijayawada.
Warangal has several major educational institutions, including National Institute of Technology, Warangal, Kakatiya University, Kakatiya Medical College and Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science.
- Bhadrakali Temple was built in 625 CE by King Pulakesi II of the Chalukya dynasty. It lies in heart of the city. Stone image of the goddess Bhadrakali with eight hands holding eight different weapons is the main remarkable feature of this temple. Lake Bhadrakali with a radius of 2.5 km is an artificial water body near the temple surrounded with natural hills and rock formations. The temple is visited by an average of 1,000 devotees per day, but on Sundays and festival days the number goes beyond 50,000.
- Construction of Warangal Fort began in 1199 CE during the period of Ganapathi Deva and was completed in 1261 A.D by his daughter Rudrama Devi. Huge stone gateways called Kakatiya Toranas are the main attractions in the fort. This fort is surrounded by a gigantic mud wall standing 20 feet tall which has two layers, the second layer is completely made up of granite. There are around 45 pillars which spread in area over 19 km of radius, these pillars are circled around a temple called Swayambhudevi Aalayam which means temple of Mother Earth.
- Thousand Pillar Temple dates from 1163 CE and was constructed under the orders of Rudradeva of the Kakatiya dynasty. This temple is in shape of star and contains three shrines dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and Surya. There is a rock carved Nandi which connects these three shrines. The sculptural beauty of this temple is a reminiscent of Kakatiyan heritage. This temple is located in Hanamakonda, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from Warangal railway station.
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