Trams in Warsaw
The Warsaw tramway (Polish: Tramwaje Warszawskie) is a 120-kilometre (75 mi) (240-kilometre (150 mi) of single track) system serving a third of Warsaw, Poland, and serving half the city's population. It operates over 750 cars, and is the second-largest system in the country, after the Silesian system. There are about 25 regular lines, forming a part of the city's integrated public transport system organized by the Warsaw Transport Authority. Since 1994 the system is operated by the municipal-owned company Tramwaje Warszawskie Sp. z.o.o.
The history of tram transport in Warsaw dates back to 1866 when a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) long horsecar line was built to transport goods and passengers between the Vienna Railway Station and the Wilno and Terespol stations across the Vistula River. This was in order overcome limitations placed by the occupational Russian authorities which, for strategic reasons, prevented the construction of a railway bridge. In 1880 a second line was constructed with Belgian capital, this time intended as public transit within the city. The Belgian company quickly expanded its own lines, and in 1882 took over the line between the railway stations, which has lost most of its original purpose after a railway bridge was built in 1875. In 1899 the entire tram system, by then 30 kilometres (19 mi) of tracks with 234 tram cars and 654 horses operating 17 lines, was purchased by the city. By 1903 plans were drafted to convert the system to electric trams, which was done by 1908.
The development mostly stagnated for the next 10 years with only a few short stretches built. After World War I, the network developed rapidly handling increased traffic and extending to the outskirts of the city with the network reaching the length of 60 kilometres (37 mi) and 757 tram cars in 1939. In 1927, a privately owned light rail line called EKD (today Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa) was built, connecting several neighboring towns with the center of Warsaw using electric railcars similar to trams, only larger and more massive, with frequent stops and tracks running along the streets in city; however the system was incompatible with the Warsaw trams as it used standard gauge tracks while the city network still used broad gauge left from Russian times. In 1925, the company operating the Warsaw trams decided to construct a rapid transit system. Preliminary boring started, but the Warsaw Metro was postponed because of the Great Depression; the idea resurfaced in 1938, but was again buried with the outbreak of World War II.
Second half of the 20th century
The tram system remained operational, although gradually deteriorating, during most the Nazi occupation until the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, after which all the infrastructure was systematically destroyed. After the war it was rebuilt relatively fast. As the system was practically built from scratch the occasion was used to convert it to standard gauge. During the 1950s and 1960s, the network was extended to newly built districts of soviet style panel houses and industrial plants and newer trams based on the design of Presidents' Conference Committee were introduced. Due to the city's lack of a metro system and restriction on car ownership, the tram system remained the backbone of Warsaw's transport system. In the 1960s, however, a political decision was made to increase the dependency on oil imported from Russia, while Polish coal was to be exported to Western Europe in exchange for hard currency; as a result, newly developed districts were connected with the city center by buses rather than trams, and some of the existing tracks were closed.
After 1989, the tram system in Warsaw initially received little investment with a large part of the city's budget spent on the construction of the first Warsaw Metro line. However, since 2005, the situation is changing with the purchase of new rolling stock, modernization of key tram lines, deployment of a passenger information system. Plans also include an "intelligent" traffic management system which is to prioritize trams on traffic lights and plans to extend the network. In August 2008, a tender for delivery of 186 completely low-floor, air-conditioned trams was launched, allowing for a dramatic change of the outlook of the tramway system.
As of the 2013 city is in the process of laying two completely new tram routes. The first in the northern part of the city across the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Bridge presently recently erected over the Vistula River, linking a quickly growing remote residential district on the north eastern outskirts of the city with the existing network at the terminus of Warsaw's first metro line. The second in the western part of city, a short segment linking two existing lines in order to create a direct connection between two districts. Both projects are significantly delayed, the first one has been partially opened using specially purchased bi-directional trams that do not require a turning loop.
|Image||Tram car type||Number||Description|
|Konstal 105Na and derived,
|551 cars||The most commonly used in Warsaw. Produced from 1973 to 2007.
An evolution of the earlier Konstal 13N, the city's first modern tram, a copy of the PCC streetcar derived Czechoslovak Tatra T1 widely used throughout the soviet bloc. First cars were based on the electrical systems from the 13N placed in a lighter body, later ones had them replaced with more efficient ones.
Most commonly used in sets of two, however sets of three and single units also appear.
|30 sets||A single prototype Konstal 112N partially low-floor two segment articulated tram based on 105Na, built in 1995. Additional units extended to three segments, designated 116N/116Na, produced between 1998 and 2000|
|PESA 120N/120Na||199 sets
further 2 on order
|Produced in 2007 (120N) and from 2010 (120Na) by PESA in Bydgoszcz a modern fully low-floor five segment articulated tram.
The initial 15 sets (120N) were purchased specifically for a modernized tram line in Aleje Jerozolimskie.
Further 186 sets (120Na) were purchased to operate a planned new line and to replace some of the oldest trams.
At the request of the city a tranche 6 sets were converted to bi-directional, designated 120NaDuo to allow using them on an unfinished line lacking a turning loop.
In 2013 an additional 45 bi-directional trams of a new design were purchased from PESA to be delivered in 2014, planned to allow operating on possible new lines during their construction and sections of existing tracks during maintenance work.
|PESA 134N||30 sets ordered||Ordered January 2014 from PESA in Bydgoszcz - due for delivery in 2015.|
This is a list of Warsaw Tramway lines. There are currently several track closures all over the tramway system, due to the building of works of the second underground line. This list shows tram lines which are operating as of 3 October 2012 and the routes they operate on as of the same date.
- "Tramwaje Warszawskie Sp. z o. o. - Informacje ogólne: Stan inwentarzowy taboru". Tw.waw.pl. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- "Tramwaje Warszawskie Sp. z o. o. — O nas: Tabor tramwajowy". Tw.waw.pl. Retrieved 2013-05-19.
- "ztm Warszawa — rail transport scheme". ztm.waw.pl. Retrieved 2013-05-19.
- Barrow, Keith (2014-01-21). "Warsaw Tramways orders Pesa Jazz LRVs". International Railway Journal (International Railway Journal). Retrieved 2014-01-22. "WARSAW Tramways signed a Zlotys 167.9m ($US 54.8m) contract with Pesa, Poland on January 15 for 30 type 134N Jazz low-floor LRVs, which will be used on lower-density routes in the city."
- Map of Tramlines (Valid as of March 27, 2013)
- Official website of Tramwaje Warszawskie (Polish)
- Tramwar - a private website about trams in Warsaw (Polish)