Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan, BWV 99
|Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan|
|Chorale cantata by J.S. Bach|
Nikolaikirche, c. 1850
|Occasion||15th Sunday after Trinity|
|Performed||17 September 1723Leipzig –|
|Vocal||SATB choir and solo|
Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan (What God does is well done), BWV 99, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed the chorale cantata in Leipzig for the 15th Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 17 September 1724. It is based on the hymn by Samuel Rodigast (1674).
History and words
Bach wrote the cantata in his second year Bach in Leipzig as part of his second annual cycle of chorale cantata for the 15th Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 17 September 1724. The prescribed readings for the Sunday were from the Epistle to the Galatians, Paul's admonition to "walk in the Spirit" (Galatians 5:25–6:10), and from the Gospel of Matthew, from the Sermon on the Mount the demand not to worry about material needs, but to seek God's kingdom first (Matthew 6:23–34). The cantata text is based on the chorale "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan" (1674) by Samuel Rodigast, which is generally related to the Gospel. Bach used the chorale in several other cantatas, especially later in another chorale cantata, Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan, BWV 100. All six stanzas begin with the same line. An unknown author kept the text of the first and last stanza, and paraphrased the inner four stanzas to as many movements, even keeping some of the rhymes in movement 2. In movement 4 he refers to the Gospel, paraphrasing the last verse to "Even if every day has its particular trouble". He introduced references to the cross twice in movement 5, stressing the suffering of Jesus and his followers.
Scoring and structure
- Chorale: Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan
- Recitative (bass): Sein Wort der Wahrheit stehet fest
- Aria (tenor): Erschüttre dich nur nicht, verzagte Seele
- Recitative (alto): Nun, der von Ewigkeit geschloß'ne Bund.
- Duet aria (soprano, alto): Wenn des Kreuzes Bitterkeiten
- Chorale: Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan
The opening chorus is a distinct concerto movement. The strings open with a theme derived from the chorale melody. After 16 measures, a concertino of flute, oboe d'amore and violin I begins, the oboe playing the theme introduced by the strings, the flute playing a virtuoso counterpoint. Three measures later the voices enter, with the cantus firmus in the soprano, doubled by the horn. In the interlude following the Stollen of the bar form, finally all instruments participate in the concerto. The complete sequence is repeated for the second Stollen. For the Abgesang Bach combines differently, now strings and woods play tutti, the flute appears as a solo, alternating with the oboe. Therefore the instrumental postlude is not a repeat of the introduction, but a more complex combination. According to Julian Mincham, "this movement would still work perfectly well if the vocal parts were entirely removed."
The first secco recitative ends on a long coloratura on the last word "wenden", "turn" in "can turn aside my misfortune". The first aria is accompanied by the flute, another work for an able flute player, following Was frag ich nach der Welt, BWV 94 and Nimm von uns, Herr, du treuer Gott, BWV 101, composed only a few weeks earlier. The text mentions "erschüttern" (shudder); shaking and torment of the soul are pictured in virtuoso figuration, although the soul is asked, not to shudder. The second recitative is similar to the first, ending on the last word "erscheinet", "appeareth" in "when God's true loyal will appeareth". In the last aria, a duet, the strings are still silent, flute and oboe accompany the voices. The instruments begin with a ritornello, a trio with the continuo. After a first vocal section, a second section presents new material, but refers to the first section by a repeat of instrumental motifs from the first section and a complete repeat of the ritornello as a conclusion. The closing chorale is set for four parts.
- Die Bach Kantate Vol. 52, Helmuth Rilling, Gächinger Kantorei, Bach-Collegium Stuttgart, Arleen Augér, Helen Watts, Lutz-Michael Harder, John Bröcheler, Hänssler 1979
- J.S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk – Sacred Cantatas Vol. 5, Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Tölzer Knabenchor, Concentus Musicus Wien, soloist of the Tölzer Knabenchor, Paul Esswood, Kurt Equiluz, Philippe Huttenlocher, Teldec 1979
- Bach Edition Vol. 8 – Cantatas Vol. 3, Pieter Jan Leusink, Holland Boys Choir, Netherlands Bach Collegium, Ruth Holton, Sytse Buwalda, Knut Schoch, Bas Ramselaar, Brilliant Classics 1999
- J.S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 12, Ton Koopman, Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir, Lisa Larsson, Annette Markert, Christoph Prégardien, Klaus Mertens, Antoine Marchand 2000
- Bach Cantatas Vol. 8: Bremen / Santiago / For the 15th Sunday after Trinity / For the 16th Sunday after Trinity, John Eliot Gardiner, Monteverdi Choir, English Baroque Soloists, Malin Hartelius, William Towers, James Gilchrist, Peter Harvey, Soli Deo Gloria 2000
- J.S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 25 – Cantatas from Leipzig 1723, Masaaki Suzuki, Bach Collegium Japan, Yukari Nonoshita, Daniel Taylor, Makoto Sakurada, Peter Kooy, BIS 2003
- Wolff, Christoph. The transition between the second and the third yearly cycle of Bach's Leipzig cantatas (1725) (PDF). pregardien.com. p. 2. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Dürr, Alfred (1981). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German) 1 (4 ed.). Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. pp. 442–444. ISBN 3-423-04080-7.
- "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan / Text and Translation of Chorale". bach-cantatas.com. 2005. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Mincham, Julian (2010). "Chapter 15 BWV 99 Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan". bach-cantatas.com. 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Cantatas, BWV 91-100: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Cantata BWV 99 Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan: history, scoring, sources for text and music, translations to various languages, discography, discussion, bach-cantatas website
- BWV 99 - "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan": English translation, discussion, Emmanuel Music
- Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan: history, scoring, Bach website (German)
- BWV 99 Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan: English translation, University of Vermont
- BWV 99 Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan: text, scoring, University of Alberta