Washington Metro rolling stock

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The rolling stock of the Washington Metro system consists of 1,126[1] 75-foot (22.86 m) cars, delivered in six shipments. All rail cars in the Metrorail system operate in married pairs (consecutively numbered even-odd), with systems shared across the pair. The system rail gauge is a modified, or near, standard gauge 4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm), 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) closer than standard gauge.[citation needed] The platform height is said[by whom?] to be 38.5 inches (980 mm) above top of rail (ATR) and rolling stock floor height is also 3812 ± 34 in (978 ± 19 mm) ATR for level entry.[citation needed] Washington Metrorail’s floors and platforms are lower than those of most other East Coast mass transit systems, such as in New York City, Boston, and Philadelphia.[citation needed]

As of January 2013[needs update], Metro operates 1130 revenue cars.[2] With the addition of the 7000 series cars beginning in 2015, the size of Metro's fleet will increase to 1268 revenue cars.

1000-series[edit]

A train of Rohr cars arrives at Cheverly station.
Interior of Rohr 1112.
Rohr cab

The original order of 300 Metro cars was manufactured by Rohr Industries, with delivery in 1976. These cars are numbered 1000–1299, and were rehabilitated in the mid-1990s by Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (now AnsaldoBreda) and WMATA at their Brentwood Shop in northeast Washington, D.C.

There are two major characteristics that distinguish the 1000-series from the later series cars. On their sides, the cars had two mylar curtain rollsigns, one above a window next to the doors on each end, while the other car classes have a single flip-dot or LED sign above a window next to the center doors. Second, the bulkheads on each end of the 1000-series cars feature windows that extend to the top of the bulkhead frame, whereas other car classes' bulkhead windows only extend slightly higher than the side windows.

The 1993 rehabilitation converted one rollsign on each side into an exterior loudspeaker while the other rollsign, as well as the bulkhead signs, were converted to flip-dot displays, replacing the original rollsigns. The cars also received AC propulsion, replacing the cam-controlled DC propulsion systems, making them the first cars on the system to use such propulsion.

The original interiors have a white grained appearance with 82 orange and brown seats. Future orders would have seating reduced down to 64 or 68, as seats next to the doors would be removed for additional standing areas.

Of these original 300 cars, 290 remain in active revenue service. Car 1028, separated from its mate after it was destroyed during the Federal Triangle derailment in 1982, has become the feeler car that checks system clearances . Cars 1114-1115 are used only in work service. Four cars 8000–8003, serve as the money train to collect the revenue from station fare card machines These are former passenger cars 1010+1011 and 1044+1045. 1076 is also permanently out of service after its mate was destroyed in the 2004 accident at Woodley Park station.[3] 1079[1] was the lead car on the second train involved in the June 22, 2009 Washington Metro train collision.[4]

As of August 2008, Metrorail was testing new overhead handles of different styles on 1122, 1123, 1126, 1127, as well as some 3000-series cars to gauge public opinion.[5]

Following the June 22, 2009 collision, Metro implemented a policy of no longer placing 1000-Series rail car pairs at the ends of train consists in order to prevent telescoping in a collision, as they are the weakest rolling stock structurally.[6] The new policy places 1000-Series cars in the center of six and eight-car consists, with rail cars of other series in the end positions.

These cars, and the 4000 series, are expected to be retired by the 7000 series between 2014 and 2017.[7]

  • Car Builder: Rohr Industries, Winder, Georgia, USA
  • Dates Built: 1973–1976
  • Rehabilitated: 1993–1996
  • Rehabilitated by: WMATA Brentwood Shop/Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (now AnsaldoBreda), Washington, DC, USA
  • Car Body: Extruded Aluminum
  • Car Numbers: 1000–1299
  • Car Length: 75 feet (22.86 m)
  • Car Width: 10 feet (3.05 m)
  • Car Height: 11.8 feet (3.60 m)
  • Track Gauge: 4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
  • Truck Type: Cast Steel
  • Maximum Operating Speed: 75 mph (121 km/h)
  • Propulsion System: Four General Electric "5GEB" 3 Phase, 4 pole, Asynchronous AC Traction Drives with GTO Inverters (post rehab)[8]
  • Power Output (Per Motor): 186.5 kilowatts (250.1 horsepower)[8]
  • Power Output (Per Car): 746 kilowatts (1,000 horsepower)
  • Braking System: Abex Hydraulics
  • Seating capacity: 82
  • Total Capacity: 175

2000-series[edit]

A train of 2000-series Breda cars at Huntington following rehabilitation.
Interior of Breda 2075 following rehabilitation.

The second order, of 76 cars, was through Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (now AnsaldoBreda), with delivery in 1982.

These cars are numbered 2000–2075, and were rehabilitated in 2003 and 2004 by Alstom in Hornell, New York. The cars, as part of a rehabilitation project, have received new AC propulsion systems with IGBT technology, replacing the original cam-controlled DC propulsion systems. Also included were railcar monitoring systems, advanced ATC/ATS control systems, exterior LED destination signs, interior LED next stop signs, and improved emergency exit signage.

The refurbished railcars also received the red, white, and blue interior found on the 5000-series cars.

  • Car Builder: Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie now AnsaldoBreda, Pistoia, Italy
  • Dates Built: 1981–1983
  • Rehabilitated: 2002–2004
  • Rehabilitated by: Alstom Transportation, Hornell, New York, USA
  • Car Body: Extruded Aluminum
  • Car Numbers: 2000–2075
  • Car Length: 75 feet (22.86 m)
  • Car Width: 10 feet (3.05 m)
  • Car Height: 11.8 feet (3.60 m)
  • Track Gauge: 4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
  • Truck Type: Fabricated Steel
  • Maximum Operating Speed: 75 mph (121 km/h)
  • Propulsion System: Four Alstom ONIX 2000 AC Traction Drives with IGBT Inverters (post rehab)[9]
  • Power Output (Per Motor): 165 kilowatts (221 horsepower)[9]
  • Power Output (Per Car): 660 kilowatts (890 horsepower)
  • Seating capacity: 68
  • Total Capacity: 175

3000-series[edit]

A train of Breda 3000-series cars prior to rehabilitation arrives at Van Dorn Street station.
Interior of Breda 3267 prior to rehabilitation.
Breda 3283 with modified floor plan. Note the side-facing bench seats in the center, the strap handles along the ceiling, and the lean rests near the end of the car.

The third order consisted of 290 cars, also from Breda, with delivery in 1987.

These cars are numbered 3000–3289 as delivered, and were rehabilitated by Alstom in Hornell, New York. As part of this rehabilitation project, they received AC propulsion systems with IGBT technology, replacing the chopper-controlled DC propulsion system. Also included in the rehabilitation is the addition of railcar monitoring systems, advanced ATC/ATS control systems, exterior LED destination signs, interior LED next stop signs, and improved emergency exit signage. The refurbished 3000-series cars also received the red, white, and blue interior found on the 5000-series cars.

On January 6, 1996, a revenue train collided with an out-of-service train, both consisting entirely of Breda 3000-series cars, at the Shady Grove station, fatally injuring the operator of the revenue train. 3252, the lead car of the revenue train, collided with 3191, the car at the inbound end of the out-of-service train.[10] The mates of these two cars, 3253 and 3190 respectively, were later mated together. 3190 reentered revenue service as 3290, and 3253 reentered service as 3291.

Beginning in 2005, a number of 3000-series cars that had not yet undergone rehabilitation were modified as part of a pilot program to study passenger movements to improve the seating arrangement for future rail cars. Sixteen cars received a new seating arrangement that included modified handholds and seat positions, including some longitudinal seating. These cars, as well as other cars being used as control cars in the experiment, received on-board cameras in order for planners to observe passenger movements.[11][12][13][14]

As of August 2008, Metrorail is testing new overhead handles of different styles on 3034, 3035, 3094, 3095 as well as some 1000-series cars to gauge public opinion.[5]

  • Car Builder: Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie now AnsaldoBreda, Pistoia, Italy
  • Dates built: 1984–1988
  • Rehabilitated: 2004–2009
  • Rehabilitated by: Alstom Transportation, Hornell, NY, USA
  • Car Body: Extruded Aluminum
  • Car Numbers: 3000–3289
  • Car Length: 75 feet (22.86 m)
  • Car Width: 10 feet (3.05 m)
  • Car Height: 11.8 feet (3.60 m)
  • Track Gauge: 4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
  • Truck Type: Fabricated Steel
  • Maximum Operating Speed: 75 mph (121 km/h)
  • Propulsion System: Four Alstom ONIX 2000 AC Traction Drives with IGBT Inverters (post rehab)[9]
  • Power Output (Per Motor): 165 kilowatts (221 horsepower)[9]
  • Power Output (Per Car): 660 kilowatts (890 horsepower)
  • Seating capacity: 68
  • Total Capacity: 175

4000-series[edit]

A Blue Line train of Breda 4000-series cars arrives at King Street – Old Town station.
Interior of Breda 4018.

The fourth order consisted of 100 cars from Breda, numbered 4000–4099. These cars were delivered in 1991.

There are some minor differences between these and the earlier Breda cars prior to rehabilitation. First, the bulkhead windows are rounded as compared to being squared, and unlike other cars, these are also the only cars in the system not to have been originally built with or retrofitted with exterior speakers.

However, these cars still use the original flip-dot exterior destination signs, chopper-controlled DC propulsion system, and the original cream, orange, and yellow interior.

On July 4, 2010, Metro took all 100 4000-series cars out of service to repair the door motors to prevent them from unintentionally opening while the train is in motion, a situation that Metro engineers were able to duplicate in a rail yard.[15] On July 20, the cars were returned to service after the repair was completed.[16]

These cars were to be rehabilitated starting 2014 onward based on design specifications that were partially drafted in 2010,[17][18] however, WMATA has indicated in subsequent budgets that it wishes to replace these rail cars with an additional one hundred 7000 series cars instead of overhauling them. This would result in an increase of new cars being delivered.[19] According to an April 2013 Washington Post news story, the transit agency said that it would forgo updating the 4000 series rail cars, and Metro had exercised an option with Kawasaki to purchase an additional one hundred 7000 series cars to replace its 4000 series cars, costing an additional $215 million under the contract.[20] It is expected to take over five years to replace the 4000 series cars.[20]

Car 4018 was damaged in the Woodley Park accident but eventually repaired.

  • Car Builder: Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie now AnsaldoBreda, Pistoia, Italy
  • Dates Built: 1991–1993
  • Car Body: Extruded Aluminum
  • Car Numbers: 4000–4099
  • Car Length: 75 feet (22.86 m)
  • Car Width: 10 feet (3.05 m)
  • Car Height: 11.8 feet (3.60 m)
  • Floor Height: 40 inches (1,016 mm) ATR
  • Track Gauge: 4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
  • Truck Type: Fabricated Steel
  • Maximum Operating Speed: 75 mph (121 km/h)
  • Propulsion System: Westinghouse 1462 chopper controlled DC motors
  • Power Output (Per Motor): 159.25 kilowatts (213.56 horsepower)
  • Power Output (Per Car): 637 kilowatts (854 horsepower)
  • Maximum Acceleration: 3 miles per hour per second (4.8 km/(h·s))
  • Maximum Deceleration: 3 miles per hour per second (4.8 km/(h·s))
  • Electric Braking: to 3.125 mph (5.029 km/h)
  • Time to 50 mph (80 km/h) at max acceleration: 23 seconds
  • Seating capacity: 68
  • Total Capacity: 175

[21]

5000-series[edit]

An Orange Line train of CAF cars at Minnesota Avenue station.
Interior of CAF 5134.
Cab of 5000-series rail car.

The fifth order consisted of 192 rail cars from a joint venture of Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) of Spain and AAI Corporation of Hunt Valley, Maryland. These cars are numbered 5000–5191, with delivery in 2001.

Service introduction of these cars was heavily delayed due to software “glitches” which plagued delivery. At one point, WMATA looked to impose penalties against CAF for the service entry delays.

The contract consisted of CAF engineering and designing the cars and managing the project, while AAI performed assembly. These cars were the first Metrorail cars to originally feature alternating current traction inverters and motors.[citation needed] They were also the first to have LED destination signs on the exterior and LED “next stop” indication signs on the interiors.[citation needed] Along with these improvements, they were also the first to have intercar safety barriers (which have since been added to all other rolling stock) and railcar monitoring systems.[citation needed] The 5000-series cars premiered the red, white, and blue interior. This interior color scheme has since been used on the 2000/3000-series rehabilitation project and the 6000-series cars from Alstom.

Another feature is the return of cast steel trucks, which were previously only used on the Rohr cars.[22] This was done as a cost-saving measure, since fabricated trucks take additional time to manufacture due to the machining required.

The National Transportation Safety Board has begun an investigation about service life of these cars[citation needed] due to recent non-revenue service derailments in Metrorail yards, and the January 7, 2007 derailment of a revenue train on the Green Line at the Mt Vernon Square station.

The planned midlife rehabilitation of the 5000-series cars is to take place in the late 2010s through the early 2020s. Design specifications are to be drafted in 2017, with the first cars rehabbed in 2022. This series of cars will be the third series of cars to have automated station announcements and the stainless steel paint scheme once they have been rehabilitated. The cars will be compatible with the 7000-series once the rehabilitation process is completed.[23] Metro announced in November 2013 that within two years, all 5000-series and 6000-series cars would feature new resilient flooring, replacing the existing carpeting.[24]

Cars 5066-5067 were wrecked on June 22 2009.

  • Car Builder: CAF/AAI, Zaragoza and Bessain, Spain and Hunt Valley, Maryland, USA
  • Dates Built: 2001–2004
  • Dates of Rehabilitation: 2022–2027
  • Car Body: Extruded Aluminum
  • Car Numbers: 5000–5191 (4 cars out of service)
  • Car Length: 75 feet (22.86 m)
  • Car Width: 10 feet (3.05 m)
  • Car Height: 11.8 feet (3.60 m)
  • Floor Height: 1,000 mm (39.37 in)
  • Track Gauge: 4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
  • Truck Type: Cast Steel
  • Maximum Operating Speed: 75 miles per hour (121 km/h)
  • Propulsion System: Four Bombardier Mitrac DR1000 AC Traction Drives with IGBT Inverters[25]
  • Power Output (Per Motor): 175 kilowatts (235 horsepower)
  • Power Output (Per Car): 700 kilowatts (940 horsepower)
  • Maximum Acceleration: 2.75 mph/s (4.43 km/(h·s))
  • Maximum Service Braking: 2.86 mph/s (4.60 km/(h·s))
  • Emergency Braking: 3.146 mph/s (5.063 km/(h·s))
  • Seating capacity: 68
  • Total Capacity: 175

[26]

6000-series[edit]

Alstom 6024 at Branch Avenue.
Interior of Alstom 6026.
WMATA Alstom Car 6143 - Resilient Floor
WMATA Alstom Car 6014 - Resilient Floor

Subsequently, Metro ordered 184 rail cars from Alstom, the same company that rehabilitated the Breda 2000, and 3000 series cars. Delivery began in late 2005. These cars are being used on Metro trains; the first ones were deployed onto the Green Line. They look similar to the 5000-series cars built by CAF, but feature revised styling.

This is evident with bulkhead doors that have rounded windows compared to squared, and a revised operator window design which eliminates the top horizontal bar. These stylistic features are similar to what is found on the Rohr 1000-series cars. A major change that occurred for the first time since the Breda 2000-series cars is the reduction of seating. The 6000 series cars seats 64 instead of 68.

The interior has been completely redesigned to allow for additional standing room (mostly around the center doors) and easier access to all portions of the car. New to the 6000-series cars is the addition of two interior LED next stop indicators located at the center of the car, which brings the total to four interior displays per car (two facing each direction). Also new is an intercom located next to the center doors; previous railcars only have them at the front and back of each car.

Another new feature is that they are the first series of cars that will be manufactured with the flashing brake indicators on the far ends of each car. These are similar to what is used on the Rohr cars and the rehabilitated Bredas, and indicate when the train is in the final stages of stopping. Mechanically, the 6000 series cars features the same cast trucks as the CAF cars, and use the same propulsion systems and advanced cab signaling systems found in the Breda 2000/3000-series rehabilitation from Alstom.

The body shells of the 6000-series were built in Barcelona, Spain, with assembly completed in Hornell, New York.[27]

Metro has been testing new resilient flooring on four 6000-series cars, 6104–6105, and 6142–6143.[28]

Metro announced in November 2013 that within two years all 5000-series and 6000-series cars would feature the new resilient flooring.[24]

On November 17, 2008, Metro completed the installation of new stainless steel-grab bars to all 184 6000-series cars.[29]

Metro is testing new fabric seating on cars 6026–6027. This type of seating will also be installed on cars 6014–6015.[30][31]

  • Car Builder: Alstom Transportation, Barcelona, Spain and Hornell, New York, USA
  • Dates Built: 2005–2008
  • Car Body: Extruded Aluminum
  • Car Numbers: 6000–6183
  • Car Length: 75 feet (22.86 m)
  • Car Width: 10 feet (3.05 m)
  • Car Height: 11.8 feet (3.60 m)
  • Track Gauge: 4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
  • Truck Type: Cast steel[22]
  • Maximum Operating Speed: 75 mph (121 km/h)
  • Propulsion System: Four Alstom ONIX 2000 AC Traction Drives with IGBT Inverters[9]
  • Power Output (Per Motor): 165 kilowatts (221 horsepower)[9]
  • Power Output (Per Car): 660 kilowatts (890 horsepower)
  • Seating capacity: 64
  • Total Capacity: 175

The first 6000-series railcar was placed into service on Friday, October 6, 2006, at 11:30 am on its inaugural trip from Greenbelt to Branch Avenue.[27]

7000-series[edit]

Washington Metro 7000 series
Metro 7000-Series railcar debut 3.jpg
7000-series railcar at Greenbelt station, January 6, 2014.
In service Expected to enter service in Early 2015
Manufacturer Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Built at Kawasaki Rail Car, Yonkers, New York, Lincoln, Nebraska, and Kobe, Japan[32]
Replaced
  • 1000 series
    * 4000 series
Constructed 2012-2017
Entered service 2015 (expected)
Number under construction 748 railcars on order.
Number built 8
Number in service 0
Formation 4 cars per trainset
Fleet numbers 7000-7747
Capacity Seating:
A-Car: 64 (transverse), 58 (longitudinal)
B-Car: 68 (transverse), 64 (longitudinal)[33][34]
Total: A-Car: 175 (Transverse seating), 184 (Longitudinal seating)
B-Car: 184 (Transverse seating), 192 (Longitudinal seating)
Operator Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Specifications
Train length 300 feet (91.44 m)
Car length 75 feet (22.86 m)
Width 10 feet (3.05 m)
Height 11.8 feet (3.60 m)
Doors Sliding, 6 per car
Maximum speed 75 mph (121 km/h)
Weight 80,000 lb (36,000 kg)
Traction system Toshiba SEA-430 AC with IGBT-VVVF Inverter[35][36]
Motors were tested for the ability to function underwater[37]
Power output 140 kilowatts (190 horsepower)[38] per motor
560 kilowatts (750 horsepower) per car
Acceleration 2.8 mph/s (4.5 km/(h·s)) to 32 mph (51 km/h)
Deceleration 2.2 mph/s (3.5 km/(h·s))
3.2 mph/s (5.1 km/(h·s)) (emergency)
Electric system(s) 750 DC third rail
Current collection method Contact shoe
Coupling system Fabricated steel truck[39]
Track gauge 4 ft 8 14 in (1,429 mm)
WMATA 7000-Series interior.

In April 2013, Metro moved forward with plans to order 528 railcars from Kawasaki called the 7000-series to replace older 1000-series and to provide service for the Dulles Corridor Metrorail extension, otherwise known as the Silver Line.[40] Metro also exercised an option under the contract to purchase additional railcars to replace all of its older 4000-series cars. [40] In a February 8, 2007 press release, Metro stated that the new 7000-series cars would have a similar appearance to the 6000-Series cars manufactured by Alstom.[41] However, in a January 2008 press release, Metro indicated that the design for the 7000-series cars would have a completely different appearance from that of the current rail cars. The exterior would feature a stainless steel body rather than the aluminum of earlier designs.[42] Inside, seats would be taller and more ergonomically designed, carpeting would be replaced with a resilent floor covering,[42] the grab bars along the ceiling would contain spring-loaded handles,[43] and the cars would contain security cameras, as well as LCD displays to provide train information.[42]

There is also an option to install longitudinal seating instead of the traditional transverse seating found in all previous stock. Such an option would decrease seating capacity, but increase overall car capacity.

Car configuration would also be changed, requiring all 7000-series trains to run with four or eight cars. While still operating as married pairs, the cab in one car would be removed, essentially turning it into a B car (odd numbers), whereas cars with cabs would be A cars (even numbers). An eight-car configuration would look something like this:

WMATA 7000-Series consist.png

The crosses between cars represent couplers, while the dashes represent link bars.[44]

The 7000-series cars will be so technologically advanced as to render them incompatible with the existing fleet. Presented with that issue, Metro's board members recognized the seriousness of the decision but former Metro general manager John B. Catoe indicated that the board needed to decide "in months" on whether to go ahead with the rail car order, regardless of whether or not the Dulles extension was approved.[45]

The bidding process begun in December 2008. WMATA issued a notice to proceed to Kawasaki on July 27, 2010, after receiving funding from the Federal Transit Administration.[46]

Under the contract, Metro originally agreed to purchase 428 7000-series railcars, both to replace 1000-series cars as well as staff the new Silver Line, and in April 2013 Metro elected to exercise an option in the contract to purchase an additional one hundred cars to replace its one hundred 4000-series cars, which it decided do not warrant being overhauled in light of chronic mechanical issues.[40] In September 2013, Metro announced it exercised another option under the contract to purchase an additional 220 7000-series railcars, bringing the total order to 748 railcars.[47] In total, the new 7000-series railcars will make up just more than fifty percent of Metro's rolling stock by 2018.[47]As of November 2013, it was being reported that the first 4 cars of the 7000-series would arrive before the end of 2013, and that they would then be tested for 30 weeks, which will allow Metro to troubleshoot any issues before full production begins.[48]According to documents introduced at a November Metro Board meeting, by October 2016, 300 of the 7000-series cars are expected to be in service and thus replace the 1000-series cars, and by September 2017, 100 of the 7000-series cars intended to replace the 4000-series are also expected to be in service, with additional cars arriving so that the entire order of 7000-series cars is in service in 2018.[49]

Procurement requirements and preliminary car specifications are available online.[50]

Metro unveiled the first 7000-series quad set at Greenbelt on January 6, 2014. The set is to commence acceptance testing for 8 months in order to finalize design specs and work out any problems, thereby allowing production and delivery of the remaining cars to commence during the summer of 2014.[51]

In September 2014, Metro reported that is was about one month away from finishing tests on the 7000-series test train and it stated that it expected an eight-car train made up of 7000-series cars would start carrying paying passengers early in January 2015. By 2015, Metro indicated that it would 56 7000-series cars on hand. [52] At the same time, Metro revealed that during testing on the 7000-series test train a software issue was discovered that it was still addressing, although Metro was confident that the hardware itself was solid. [53] Looking ahead, Metro indicated that "[t]he mass production schedule calls for 56 new cars to be delivered by June [2015]. Combined with the eight cars in the test group, that would give Metro 64 new cars, meaning eight [7000-series] trains of eight cars each would be in service next summer. After that, 300 more cars would arrive by February 2017, followed by an additional 100, for a total of 528 new cars at an overall cost of $1.46 billion . . . ." [54] Metro has warned its funding partners - VA, MD, and DC - that its option to purchase an addition 220 7000-series cars expires June 2015, and requires a funding commitment of $614 million for rolling stock, and $856 million for related infrastructure upgrades. [55] [56]

8000-series[edit]

Following the replacement of the 1000-series and 4000-series cars with the new 7000-series between 2015 and 2017, Metro has proposed that all 366 2000-series and 3000-series cars be replaced by the 8000-series cars. The design phase is to commence in 2018, with the contract awarded the following year. Delivery of the cars is scheduled to begin in 2023.[57]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Tuesday Red Line service altered as a result of Monday collision" (Press release). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. June 23, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  2. ^ Capital Needs Inventory, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, February 19, 2010, retrieved February 8, 2013 
  3. ^ Whitehorne, Wayne; Mark Greenwald. "Washington, D.C.". nycsubway.org. Retrieved January 21, 2008. 
  4. ^ Posted by Mike DeBonis on June 22, 2009, at 9:01 pm. "Old Questions About Crashworthiness of Metro Cars – City Desk". Washington City Paper. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b "Metro testing new overhead handles inside Metrorail cars" (Press release). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. August 21, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  6. ^ Thomson, Robert (May 7, 2014). "D.C. streetcar opening still months away, but plans develop for next phase in Anacostia". WashPost. Retrieved May 8, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Customer Service and Operations Committee Board Information Item IV-A, 7000 Series Railcar Update". wmata.com. WMATA. 2013-10-13. Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  8. ^ a b "WMATA Induction Motor". imgur. May 1995. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "ALSTOM Transport – Metro in Washington, USA". Alstom. Archived from the original on March 25, 2006. Retrieved June 9, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Railroad Accident Report Collision of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Train T-111 with Standing Train at Shady Grove Passenger Station, Gaithersburg, Maryland January 6, 1996" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. October 29, 1996. Retrieved February 1, 2007. 
  11. ^ Laris, Michael (March 4, 2005). "Metro to Monitor Seating Patterns". The Washington Post. p. B02. Retrieved February 1, 2007. 
  12. ^ Lindeman, Todd (August 1, 2006). "More Room to Stand". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2007. 
  13. ^ "Metro Recommends First Phase of a Pilot Program to Enhance Railcar Capacity Aboard Metrorail Trains" (Press release). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. March 3, 2005. Retrieved February 1, 2007. 
  14. ^ "Railcar Capacity Analysis" (PDF). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. November 3, 2005. Retrieved February 1, 2007. 
  15. ^ "Metro removes 100 rail cars as a safety precaution". WTOP. July 4, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Pulled Metrorail Cars Back in Service". NBC Washington. July 20, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Performance Vehicle Planning" (PDF). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. October 10, 2008. p. 3. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Section 23: 4000 Series Rehabilitation". 7000 Series Railcars Technical Specification. WMATA. January 30, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  19. ^ Proposed FY2013 Operating and Capital Budget. WMATA. January 12, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  20. ^ a b Hedgpeth, Dana (April 8, 2013). "Metro to replace troubled rail cars with new ones". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  21. ^ "Washington HRV". AnsaldoBreda. Retrieved February 15, 2014.  Specification sheet from AnsaldoBreda; still applicable since these cars have not been overhauled.
  22. ^ a b On Track With Added Value, Sharon Kruse, Engineered Casting Solutions
  23. ^ "5000 Series Rail Car Mid-Life Rehabilitation". FY2011 – FY2020 Capital Needs Inventory. WMATA. October 21, 2008. p. 4. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  24. ^ a b "Metro to begin gradual replacement of carpet with resilient flooring" (Press release). WMATA. November 21, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Traction drives for metro, regional, intercity and high speed trains". Bombardier. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  26. ^ "CAF – Metro Unit Trains – Washington Metro". Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "Metro Unveils New 6000 Series Train On Green Line" (Press release). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. October 3, 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2008. 
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  29. ^ "Spring-loaded overhead handles installed on series 6000 Metrorail fleet" (Press release). WMATA. November 17, 2008. Retrieved December 12, 2008. 
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  53. ^ . WashingtonPost. September 26, 2014 [hhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/dr-gridlock/wp/2014/09/26/metro-says-its-new-generation-rail-cars-are-on-track-for-passenger-service-in-january hhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/dr-gridlock/wp/2014/09/26/metro-says-its-new-generation-rail-cars-are-on-track-for-passenger-service-in-january]. Retrieved September 27, 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  54. ^ . WashingtonPost. September 26, 2014 [hhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/dr-gridlock/wp/2014/09/26/metro-says-its-new-generation-rail-cars-are-on-track-for-passenger-service-in-january hhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/dr-gridlock/wp/2014/09/26/metro-says-its-new-generation-rail-cars-are-on-track-for-passenger-service-in-january]. Retrieved September 27, 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  55. ^ . WashingtonPost. September 26, 2014 [hhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/dr-gridlock/wp/2014/09/26/metro-says-its-new-generation-rail-cars-are-on-track-for-passenger-service-in-january hhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/dr-gridlock/wp/2014/09/26/metro-says-its-new-generation-rail-cars-are-on-track-for-passenger-service-in-january]. Retrieved September 27, 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  56. ^ . WAMU. September 26, 2014 http://wamu.org/news/14/09/26/metro_dream_of_all_eight_car_trains_may_be_derailed_by_funding_challenges. Retrieved September 27, 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  57. ^ 2000/3000 Series Rail Car Replacement. WMATA. October 21, 2008. p. 2. Retrieved February 15, 2014. "Replace all 366 of the 2000 and the 3000 Series rail cars with new 8000 Series rail cars." 

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