Water Tower Place

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View of the Water Tower Place (its mall on left and skyscraper is on the right) with Chicago Avenue Pumping Station in the foreground and the John Hancock Center in the background
View of the Water Tower Place skyscraper
View showing the Water Tower Place shopping mall at the base of the skyscraper, with Chicago Avenue Pumping Station in foreground

The Water Tower Place is a large urban, mixed-use development comprising a 758,000 sq ft (70,400 m2) shopping mall and 74 story skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois, United States. The complex is located at 835 North Michigan Avenue, along the Magnificent Mile. It is named after the nearby Chicago Water Tower. It is owned by General Growth Properties.

History[edit]

Originally conceived in the late 1960s by the Mafco Company (the former shopping center development division of Marshall Field & Co.), the skyscraper was eventually built in 1975 by Urban Retail Properties, a company led by Philip Morris Klutznick and his son Thomas J. Klutznick. The project received a J.C. Nichols Prize from the Urban Land Institute in 1986. Modernist architect Edward D. Dart of Loebl Schlossman Bennett and Dart, was the chief architect.[1]

The tower section is a 78-story 859-foot (262 m) reinforced concrete slab, faced with gray marble, and is the eighth tallest building in Chicago and the twenty-sixth tallest in the United States. When built, it was the tallest reinforced concrete building in the world. It contains an award-winning Ritz-Carlton hotel, luxury condominiums, and office space and sits atop a block-long base containing an atrium-style retail mall that fronts on the Magnificent Mile.

Water Tower Place's opening changed the economic dynamics of the Magnificent Mile by bringing middle-class shops to what had been a street dominated by luxury retailers, tony hotels, and expensive apartments. It shifted downtown Chicago's retail center of gravity north from State Street to North Michigan Avenue. Decades after its construction, its residences and hotel remain sought after addresses, and the mall is typically fully leased, drawing large enough crowds that some retailers operate outlets both inside the mall and outside it along Michigan Avenue.

The 360 condo units in the tower were designed in 1974. Richard A. Meyers Realty, Inc., was the contracted sales and marketing consultant. In a recessionary market, the company was given the challenge of demonstrating the product and obtaining hard contracts before construction began. This was a challenging assignment in the recessionary climate of 1974–1976.[citation needed]

A detailed product research study was conducted by Gary S. Meyers [1], which included examining on a room-by-room basis over luxury 100 high-rise condominiums in the Chicago metropolitan area and a like number around the nation. The product analysis was then compared with sales velocities of other projects to determine buyer needs and wants and their respective acceptable price points. The net result was a mathematically designed housing product that allowed for specific space allocation for each room in each unit. The results were efficient units, where each room had a competitive advantage. Because of this unique design methodology, the condominium units are still considered well designed, even decades after their construction.[citation needed]

After the product was designed, Richard A. Meyers Realty, Inc. and Urban Investment and Development took an entire floor in the Blair Building, 645 N. Michigan Avenue, and built several full-scale condominium units, several blocks away from the site. This combined marketing approach produced sales of over 100 units before the building was ready for occupancy, a pace that surpassed units ready for occupancy in competing buildings during the same period.

In 2001, a program of refurbishments was begun, including enclosing the exterior arcade along Michigan and adding a loading dock in the middle of the block for additional retail space. Also included were updates to the escalators and fountains leading into the mall from North Michigan Avenue lobby, as well as enhancements to the sidewalk areas, the mall's exterior facades, and department store entrances. Some of the changes included the addition of exterior glass walls and display areas for the department stores, some small specialty retail space in the renovated lobby area, and large exterior rounded, corner glass bay windows and lighted "fins" on the North Michigan Avenue and side street exterior walls of the mall. These last additions broke up the boxy nature of the original architecture and added some dimension and scale to the monolithic marble walls. The interior fountain between the escalators leading from the North Michigan Avenue lobby were also updated with a tiered "pop jet" fountain with cascading waterfalls and balls of water, controlled by computer-based choreography.

The Rouse Company acquired the center in 2002 during the breakup of the then Dutch-owned Urban Shopping Centers, Inc. It was subsequently acquired by General Growth Properties.

The building's most famous full-time resident is Oprah Winfrey [2]. Having bought a $6,000,000 condo on November 28, 2006, Oprah says she is planning to eventually sell her residence in Water Tower Place, according to the Chicago Sun Times.[citation needed]

Shopping center[edit]

The mall in the Water Tower Place has eight levels of shops.

Water Tower Place continues to be a shopping destination due to its size and its wide variety of shops, despite only having one anchor. The stores include three of Abercrombie & Fitch's stores (Hollister Co., abercrombie Kids, and Abercrombie & Fitch). American Eagle Outfitters opened in fall 2007. Chocolatier Godiva has a location in the mall. Other retailers include Lego, bebe, Banana Republic, Lacoste, Victoria's Secret, Sephora, CUSP, Chico's, Ann Taylor, White House Black Market, J. Jill, Oakley, The Limited, Finish Line, Inc., LIDS, Aldo, Coach, Forever 21, Wet Seal and the official Chicago Cubs Clubhouse Shop.

Instead of a classic style food court, Water Tower Place offers multiple restaurant and cafeteria style eateries on the mezzanine level of the center (Mity Nice Grill and Foodlife, both owned by Lettuce Entertain You Restaurants) as well as Wow Bao in the entrance area and Auntie Anne's Pretzels and Red Mango on the 7th Floor.

The eight-level mall has over 100 shops, including Macy's (formerly a branch of the renowned Marshall Field's), the flagship American Girl store (occupying the former Lord & Taylor which closed in March 2007), a live theatre, and several restaurants, arranged around a chrome-and-glass atrium with glass elevators. It was one of the first vertical malls in the world, although along North Michigan Avenue it has been joined by The Shops at North Bridge and the Avenue Atrium (better known as 900 North Michigan), both of which contain higher end retail mixes. The building's design successfully addresses the challenge of providing separate entries and vertical circulation for, what amounts to a regional mall-scaled retail center, one department store, the theater, offices, hotel, and residences.

Education[edit]

Residents of Water Tower Place are zoned to schools in the Chicago Public Schools.[2][3]

Position in Chicago's skyline[edit]

311 South Wacker Willis Tower Chicago Board of Trade Building 111 South Wacker AT&T Corporate Center Kluczynski Federal Building CNA Center Chase Tower Three First National Plaza Mid-Continental Plaza Richard J. Daley Center Chicago Title and Trust Center 77 West Wacker Pittsfield Building Leo Burnett Building The Heritage at Millennium Park Crain Communications Building IBM Plaza One Prudential Plaza Two Prudential Plaza Aon Center Blue Cross and Blue Shield Tower 340 on the Park Park Tower Olympia Centre 900 North Michigan John Hancock Center Water Tower Place Harbor Point The Parkshore North Pier Apartments Lake Point Tower Jay Pritzker Pavilion Buckingham Fountain Lake Michigan Lake Michigan Lake MichiganThe skyline of a city with many large skyscrapers; in the foreground are a green park and a lake with many sailboats moored on it. Over 30 of the skyscrapers and some park features are labeled.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anonymous (December 1999). "Edward D. Dart (1922-1975) Collection, 1841-1993 (bulk 1940-1993)". Ryerson and Burnham Archives, Ryerson and Burnham Libraries The Art Institute of Chicago (Accession Number: 1996.2). Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  2. ^ "Near North/West/Central Elementary Schools." Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved on September 17, 2009.
  3. ^ "West/Central/South High Schools." Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved on September 17, 2009.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°53′52.5″N 87°37′20.5″W / 41.897917°N 87.622361°W / 41.897917; -87.622361