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A water board (Dutch: waterschap or hoogheemraadschap, Flanders and Northern France: watringue, France: agence de l'eau, German: Wasserverband) is a regional or national organisation that has very different functions from one country to another. The functions range from flood control and water resources management at the regional or local level (the Netherlands, Germany), water charging and financing at the river basin level (France), bulk water supply (South Africa), regulation of pricing and service quality of drinking water supply at the national level (Kenya) or the coordination of water resources policies between various Ministries and agencies at the national level together with the regulation of drinking water supply (the Philippines).
In Germany water boards (Wasserverbände), also sometimes translated as water associations, are organizations set up under public law for different purposes ranging from wastewater treatment, the operation of dams (primariliy for flood control and bulk water supply), irrigation, drainage, the restoration and protection of ecosystems to water resources monitoring.
Most water boards are established on the legal basis of the federal law on water and soil associations (Gesetz über Wasser- und Bodenverbände), complemented by state laws in several German states (Länder) such as in Lower Saxony where water boards are in charge of coastal protection. Membership can be voluntary or mandatory, depending on the purpose of the water board. Members can be individuals, typically landowners in the area covered by a water board, or municipalities. There are thousands of water boards in Germany, mostly in Northern Germany and usually consisting of individual members. The first such water boards were created for coastal protection in the 13th century as private associations that subsequently evolved into boards established under public law.
A different type of water boards are the ten water boards in the Ruhr area of North Rhine Westphalia, of which the Ruhrverband, the Emschergenossenschaft and the Wupperverband are the largest ones. Their legal basis are state laws passed specifically for the purpose of creating these agencies. The water boards in the Ruhr area consist of municipalities and companies. They were created beginning in 1913 in two forms, those aiming to clean up industrial pollution and those building operating and building dams, always covering a river basin such as the Ruhr, the Emscher and the Wupper, all tributaries of the River Rhine. In each of these river basins, the water boards in charge of wastewater treatment and those in charge of dams were eventually merged into single multi-purpose water boards.
Water Services Boards in Kenya are asset holding companies. They are responsible for the development and rehabilitation of water and sewerage facilities, for investment planning and implementation in their service area. There are 8 regional Water Service Boards in the country. The Water Service Boards have signed service provision agreements with 120 local Water Service Providers that are responsible for the operation of water and sewerage systems. The Water Service Providers are regulated by a national body called the Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB), a non-commercial state corporation established in March 2003 on the basis of the 2002 Water Act. Its functions comprise among others: issuing of licenses to water services boards and approval of service provision agreements between service providers and asset holding companies, developing tariff guidelines and carrying out tariff negotiations, setting standards and developing guidelines for service provision, publishing the results of sector monitoring in the form of comparative reports.
Dutch water boards (Dutch: waterschappen or hoogheemraadschappen) are regional government bodies charged with managing water barriers, waterways, water levels, water quality and sewage treatment in their respective regions. These regional water authorities are among the oldest forms of local government in the Netherlands, some of them having been founded in the 13th century.
The National Water Resources Board (NWRB), created in 1976 through the National Water Code, coordinates policies concerning water resources. Since 2002, the National Water Resources Board (NWBR) is also entrusted with the economic regulation of water supply systems operated by local government units and water districts.
Water Boards play a key role in the South African water sector. They operate dams, bulk water supply infrastructure, some retail infrastructure and some wastewater systems. Some also provide technical assistance to municipalities. Through their role in the operation of dams they also play an important role in water resources management. The Water Boards report to the Department of Water and Forestry.
Water level management