Ayapana triplinervis

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Ayapana triplinervis
Ayapanatriplinervis.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Eupatorieae
Genus: Ayapana
Species: A. triplinervis
Binomial name
Ayapana triplinervis
(M.Vahl) R.King & H.Robinson
Synonyms

Eupatorium ayapana Vent.[1]
Eupatorium triplinerve M.Vahl[1]

Ayapana triplinervis (aya-pana, Water Hemp) is a tropical American shrub in the Asteraceae family. This plant has long slender leaves which are often used to make a stimulating medicine.[1] It contains Herniarin, a methoxy analog of umbelliferone, while its essential oil contains thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether.[2]

The flowers are pale pink and the thin, hairless stem is reddish in color.[1]

Names include aypana, aiapana, aiapaina, aipana, cagueña, curia, daun panahan, daun perasman, diapalma iapana, diarana-guaco, japana, japana-branca, sekrepatoe wiwir, pool root, white snakeroot, yapana,[3] Diapana, Zèbe cont'la fièv ', Zèbe vulnéraire, Zèbe à thé, Zèbe cout'la[4]

Tall water hemp is an annual weed, Amaranthus tuberculatus.

Description[edit]

An ascending, slender perennial. Leaves purple, subsessile, lanceolate, 3-nerved, acuminate, subentire, glabrous. Inflorescence a lax, few-headed corymb, heads pedicellate, about 20-flowered; flowers slaty blue. Constituents

  • A rich source of naturally occurring coumarin chemicals.
  • Leaves contain a volatile oil, ayapana oil, 1.14%.
  • Plant yields cineol, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-terneol, ayapanin, ayapin, borneol, coumarin, sabinene, umbelliferone among many others.
  • Hemarin, one of the coumarins is used as an anti-tumor remedy in herbal medicine.
  • Phytochemical analysis of a methanolic extract yielded hexadecanoic acid (14.65%), 2,6,10-trimethyl,14-ethylene-14-pentadecne (9.84%), Bicyclo[4.1.0] heptane, 7-butyl- (2.38%), Decanoic acid, 8-methyl-, methyl ester (3.86%), 1-undecanol (7.82%), 1-hexyl-1-nitrocyclohexane (2.09%), 1,14-tetradecanediol (6.78%), Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy- 1,3-propanediyl ester.

Usage[edit]

The herb is stimulant, tonic in small doses and laxative when taken in quantity. A hot infusion is emetic and diaphoretic. Decoction of the leaves is antiseptic and haemostatic; useful against various kinds of haemorrhage and to clean foul ulcers. An aqueous extract of the dried leaves is a cardiac stimulant. Fresh leaves are used by the Marma for cut and stomachache. Ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant possess antibacterial and anti fungal properties.

Chemical constituents[edit]

The leaves contain an essential oil and the coumarins, ayapanin and ayapin, stigmasterol, esculetin methylene ether (the Methylene ether of esculetin), vitamin C and carotene. Ayapanin and ayapin are non-toxic and possess pronounced haemostatic properties and are effective when applied locally or when administered by subcutaneous injection or orally.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, Thomas Brendler (2003). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Indian Ocean Islands. p. 135. ISBN 978-3-88763-094-2. 
  2. ^ Anne Gauvin-Bialecki, Claude Marodon (November 2008). "Essential oil of Ayapana triplinervis from Reunion Island: A good natural source of thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 36 (11): 853–858. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2008.09.006. 
  3. ^ Ayapana on www.rain-tree.com
  4. ^ Avapana on www.ladograve.com (French)