Water scarcity in India
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Water scarcity involves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis. This may be due to both natural and human factors. But, many reports suggest that the scarcity is more due to the human factor than anything - such as industrialization, irrigation, domestic use, etc.
Factors of water scarcity in India
As a country that receives copious rain, water scarcity in India is mainly attributed to human factors such as:1-india-is-inching-towards-acute-water-scarcity
- India's population has increased bit by bit since independence. The absence of comprehensive family planning, and lack of education, may have contributed this. This in turn has increased the demand for water, but no government has so far been able to resolve the difference of water distribution - more than 50% of the country's population lack access to safe drinking water.
- Corruption and lack of planning and coordination are also blamed as factors of water scarcity in India. Many projects to supply safe drinking water are often stuck in red tape.
- More than 80% of water needs of the country is met by exploiting the ground water resources of India. This has aggravated the depletion of water table, and led to an unprecedented water shortage.
- More than 75% of the water resource are wasted or washed off due lack of storage planning
Effect on Animals
The acute water shortage prevailing in the forest areas of Tamil Nadu's districts of Madurai and Dindigul has led the Indian gaurs found in the forest of the region, to death as they come in search of water and end up dead by falling into the wells.
Community led initiatives
With support from government and UNICEF, villagers in Palve Budruk, located in the drought-prone Parner Block in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra, developed a catchment plan covering 1,400 hectors – that’s over 80% of the land available. The system has three check dams, 20 canal bunds, two small percolation tanks linked to the main tank and 19 village ponds. Water stored in the percolation tank, is strictly meant for domestic use only. Piped water is supplied for an hour a day in the morning, during which time families fill up water for drinking and cooking
Government led initiatives
SIS Seoul International School is Fundraising to bring water to India, and can be found in South Korea, or siskorea.org
The Canadian start-up Decode Global has developed the mobile game Get Water!, a game for social change focusing on the water scarcity in India and the effect it has on girls' education. The game's primary goal is to raise awareness of the water crisis, by educating children as well as adult gamers. To put more focus on children'd learning, the company has published a 6-part lesson plan for 4-6 grade teachers, available for download as a pdf from the game's website.
Exploitation of Ground water
The Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA)has notified 82 areas (Districts,Blocks, Mandals, Talukas, Municipalities) for regulation of ground water development. In these areas, installation of new ground water abstraction structures is not permitted without prior specific approval of the Authority / Authorized officer. Moreover, proposals for setting up/expansion of ground water based industries including bottled water manufacturing units are forwarded by State Pollution Control Boards and Bureau of Indian Standards to CGWA for seeking No Objection Certificate (NOC) for ground water withdrawal. NOC is not accorded to such industries including bottled water manufacturing units proposed to be located in areas notified by the Authority. In non- notified areas, NOC is issued with mandatory pre-conditions of adoption of rain water harvesting system, monitoring of ground water abstraction as well as monitoring of ground water level and quality etc. by the industry. For enforcement of the regulatory directions issued under Section 5 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986,concerned Deputy Commissioners/ District Collectors have been authorized to take necessary action in case of violations of directives of CGWA in the notified areas.
- Rainwater harvesting - Rain water is accumulated and used for ground water recharge. This increases the ground water availability.
- Farm pond - Farm ponds are constructed near the farming field. The rain water which runs off the ground are collected by these ponds. These ponds helps agriculture in dry lands.
- "Rainwater harvesting". Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board, India. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Farm ponds play big role in tiding over drought". The Hindu (India). 17 April 2013.
- Vidya Kulkarni. "Overcoming Water Scarcity". UNICEF - India. Retrieved 11 June 2013.