Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories
|Palestinian territories: Water and Sanitation|
|Water coverage (broad definition)||92%|
|Sanitation coverage (broad definition)||73%|
|Continuity of supply (%)||62.8 %|
|Average domestic water use (2005) (l/c/d)||West Bank: 50
Gaza strip: 76
|Average urban water tariff (US$/m3)||1.20|
|Share of household metering||n/a|
|Share of collected wastewater treated||West Bank: 15%
Gaza Strip: 62% (2001).
|Annual investment in WSS||n/a|
|Share of self-financing by utilities||low|
|Share of tax-financing||n/a|
|Share of external financing||high|
|Decentralization to municipalities||No|
|National water and sanitation company||No|
|Water and sanitation regulator||Palestinian Water Authority|
|Responsibility for policy setting||Cabinet of ministries/National Water Council|
|Sector law||Yes (2001)|
|Number of urban service providers||4 utilities|
|Number of rural service providers||n/a|
This article has last been comprehensively updated in 2009. Please feel free to update the article.
Compared to other countries in the Middle East and North Africa, water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage, which is exacerbated by the effects of Israeli occupation. According to the WaSH Monitoring Programme, Israelis use 87% of the water available from the mountain aquifer in the West Bank, and 82% of the water from the coastal aquifer under Gaza.
Generally, the availability and quality of services is considerably worse in the Gaza strip when compared to the West Bank. A 2011 survey shows that 70.9% of households in the West Bank consider the water quality to be good, while the share in the Gaza Strip is only 5.3%. The lasting blockade of the Gaza Strip and the 2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict have caused severe damage to the infrastructure in the Gaza Strip.
About half of the delivered water in the Palestinian territories is unaccounted-for water (UFW) because of losses and billing deficiencies. With a share of 70%, agriculture is the sector which uses most of the scarce water resources. Concerning wastewater, the existing treatment plants do not have the capacity to treat all of the produced wastewater, causing severe water pollution. The National Water Policy of 1995, the Water Resources Management Strategy of 1998 and the Water Law of 2002 aim at developing and improving the management of water resources. Furthermore, a new water pricing policy is being prepared. The development of the sector highly depends on external financing.
- 1 Access
- 2 Service quality
- 3 Water resources
- 4 Water use
- 5 History and recent developments
- 6 Responsibility for water supply and sanitation
- 7 Efficiency
- 8 Financial aspects
- 9 External cooperation
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
According to the Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF, 92% of the Palestinians had access to an improved water source in 2004, while 73% had access to improved sanitation. Unlike other MENA countries, the JMP does not provide figures for the share of sewerage connections according to urban and rural areas in the Palestinian territories.
|Access to Water and Sanitation in the Palestinian territories (2004)|
(72% of the population)
(28% of the population)
A 2011 survey carried out by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) reports similar figures. According to the survey, the number of households in the Palestinian territories connected to the water network increased from 85% in 1999 to 91.8% in 2011. In the West Bank, 89.4% of the households were connected while the connection share in the Gaza Strip was 96.3%. Concerning sanitation, cesspits were used by 39% of households, while access to the sewer network increased to 55% in 2011, up from 39% in 1999.
The Heinrich Böll Foundation reports low service levels especially in small villages and refugee camps. The gap between urban and rural areas concerning water supply house connections may be due to the fact that available water resources are not accessible for the Palestinian actors in many cases.
Effects of the occupation of the West Bank
In the West Bank Israeli settlers access water from 42 deep holes which provide them with enough water to fill swimming pools, water their gardens, and irrigate miles of crops and greenhouses. This also lowers the water table making it more difficult for Palestinians to access their own water. The Palestinians live under Israeli military rule, and, due to concerns about terrorist activities (such as hardened bunkers and tunnels), are largely prevented from digging such deep wells. This limits their access to water to natural springs, shallow wells, and swiftly evaporating rainwater. When Palestinians run out of water sources they must buy Israeli water which sells for a dollar a cubic meter.
Effects of Gaza war and the Gaza blockade
Following the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, the World Bank reported severe damages to the water and sanitation infrastructure in the Gaza Strip. Almost all sewage and water pumps were out of operation due to a lack of electricity and fuel. Spare parts and other maintenance supplies were in urgent need to be replenished. This situation resulted in a serious shortage of water and sewage overflows in urban areas, posing a threat to public health.
The Israeli blockade of the Gaza Strip impedes the provision of spare parts and thus contributes to exacerbate the problem. Several aid agencies and the top United Nations humanitarian official in the Palestinian territories therefore demanded the immediate opening of crossings. According to the United Nations, about 60% of the population in the Gaza Strip did not have access to continuous water supply in 2009.
Continuity of supply
The Euro-Mediterranean Water Information System (EMWIS) states that continuity in the Palestinian territories is 62.8% According a study by the Heinrich Böll Foundation, 42% of the localities get uninterrupted water supply and 19% receive it at least partially. Furthermore, about 40% of all served localities suffer from water shortages.
Drinking water quality
Data of a survey carried out in 2011 revealed that 47.2% of the households in the Palestinian Territories consider the water quality as good. The share is significantly higher in the West Bank (70.9%) than in the Gaza Strip (5.3%). Compared to an earlier study, the results indicate that the percentage of households which consider the water quality as good decreased from 67.5% in 1999.
Gaza strip. Out of the 110,000 m³ of wastewater per day which is produced in the Gaza Strip, 68,000 m³ was treated, according to a study from 2001. 20% of the treated wastewater was reused. The World Bank reported in 2009 that the three existing wastewater treatment plants work discontinuously. Damaged sewage infrastructure can often not be repaired due to the ongoing Israeli blockade. It leads to delays in repairs and a lack of electricity and fuel which would be necessary to operate the wastewater treatment facilities. The United Nations estimate that per day 50,000 to 80,000 cubic meters of untreated and partially treated wastewater are discharged into the Mediterranean Sea since January 2008, threatening the environment in the region.
West Bank. In the West Bank, only 13,000 out of 85,000 m³ of wastewater were treated in five municipal wastewater treatment plants in Hebron, Jenin, Ramallah, Tulkarem and Al-Bireh. The Al Bireh plant was constructed in 2000 with funding by the German aid agency KfW. According to a World Bank report, the other four plants perform poorly concerning efficiency and quality.
West Bank. At an average sustainable rate, the amount of renewable shared freshwater available throughout the entire Jordan Valley is roughly 2700 million cubic metres per year, which is composed of 1400 million cubic metres of groundwater and 1300 million cubic metres of surface water. However, only a fraction of this can be used by Palestinians in the West Bank. Israel has denied Palestinians access to the entire Lower Jordan River since 1967. After the start of Israel’s military occupation in 1967, Israel declared the West Bank land adjacent to the Jordan River a closed military zone, to which only Israeli settler farmers have been permitted access. Groundwater resources include two main aquifers: The highly productive mountain aquifer that slopes towards the more rainy West, and the less productive Eastern aquifer located under the drier part of the West Bank. Palestinians are not allowed to drill wells into the mountain aquifer. Most of its water thus flows underground towards the slopes of the hills and into Israeli territory. According to different estimates, between 80 and 85% of groundwater in the West Bank is used either by Israeli settlers or flows into Israel.
Gaza. The only source of water in the Gaza strip is the coastal aquifer, which is heavily overexploited resulting in seawater intrusion. The aquifer is thus polluted by salt as well as nitrate from wastewater infiltration and fertilizers. Only 5-10% of the aquifer yields drinking water quality.
Agriculture accounts for around 70% of total water use in the Palestinian territories, followed by domestic (27%) and industrial uses (3%).
West Bank. In 2009 the World Bank estimated residential water supply based on data from PWA and the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. In the West Bank it was estimated to be about 50 liters/capita/day after network losses, with large variations ranging from about 10-15 liters in parts of Hebron to almost 100 in Jericho. According to a 2009 report by Amnesty International, some 180,000-200,000 Palestinians living in rural communities have no access to running water and "the Israeli army often prevents them from even collecting rainwater". In contrast, Israeli settlers have irrigated farms, lush gardens and swimming pools. The 450,000 settlers use as much or more water than the 2.3 million Palestinians. Many Palestinians have to buy water, of often dubious quality, from tanker trucks at very high prices. Water tankers are forced to take long detours to avoid Israeli military checkpoints and roads which are out of bounds to Palestinians, resulting in steep increases in the price of water. According to Amnesty International, the Israeli army also destroys rainwater harvesting cisterns and confiscates water trucks.
Gaza. In the Gaza strip, the amount of water supplied is 152 liters/capita/day, but after taking into account water losses actual water use is estimated to be 76 liter.
History and recent developments
Since 1948, the development of the water and sanition sector in the Palestinian territories is strongly linked to the development of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. According to the Heinrich Böll Foundation, Jewish and Palestinian communities used similar quantities of water prior to the conflict. The first restrictions on the development of wells in the West Bank, which at that time was under Jordanian administration have been introduced by Israel in 1949. Since then the water consumption gap between Jordanians and Israelis began to widen.
Upon the signing of the Declaration of Principles (DOP) and the 1995 Interim Agreement, the Palestinian Authority (PA) inherited an extremely weak water sector characterized by serious institutional fragmentation. Inadequate conditions in terms of water access and quality are still common, and the legal framework of the relevant institutions often remains unclear. The increasing demand for this valuable resource has obliged the Palestinian government to secure additional quantities of water, increase the efficiency of water supply systems, and attempt to solve the obvious technical limitations to achieve sustainable development. Accordingly, the demand remains constrained by water allocations specified in the 1995 Interim Agreement.
In 1995, the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) was established by a presidential decree. One year later, its functions, objectives and responsibilities were defined through a by-law, giving the PWA the mandate to manage water resources and execute the water policy.
Private sector participation
Two management contracts were awarded for Gaza in 1996 and for the Bethlehem area in 1999. In 2002, soon after the outbreak of the Second Intifada, the Bethlehem contract was terminated and the Gaza contract expired.
In Gaza, a four-year management contract was awarded to a joint venture of Lyonnaise des Eaux (now Suez) and Khatib and Alami in 1996. The contract was entirely funded by a US$ 25 million World Bank credit. According to a 1998 World Bank paper, water quality improved since the contract became active. Furthermore, water losses fell and water consumption and revenues rose. However, actual responsibility for service provision remained with municipalities. When the contract ended in 2000, it was renewed twice for one year until 2002. The World Bank reports that from 1996 to 2002, 16,000 illegal connections have been identified and more than 1,900 km of pipes have been observed for leakage. Moreover, 22,000 connections have been replaced, more than 20 km of pipes have been repaired and more than 30,000 water meters have been replaced. The amount of non-revenue water (NRW) decreased to about 30%. After the end of the contract, the Coastal Municipal Water Utility (CMWU) has been established to manage water and sanitation in the Gaza strip.
Another managemenent contract was awarded in 1999 covering water supply of about 600,000 people in the governorates of Bethlehem and Hebron, with a focus on the former one. The contract was awarded to a joint venture of the French Vivendi and the Lebanese-Palestinian company Khatib and Alami. Among other things, it included the improvement of infrastructure and billing procedures. The contract was financed with a credit of US$ 21 million, while the European Investment Bank (EIB) provided US$ 35.7 million. Mainly due to the continuing hostilities and the premature cancellation of EIB support, the World Bank rates the total outcome of the project as unsatisfactory. According to the World Bank, non-revenue water was reduced from about 50% to 24% in Hebron and only 10% in Bethlehem in 2004. Illegal connections were eliminated in Hebron and more than halved in Bethlehem.
Responsibility for water supply and sanitation
Relevant laws and strategies
The current sector legislation was established after the 1995 Oslo Accords, with a by-law establishing the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) in 1996, a 1998 Water Resources Management Strategy and the 2002 water law. The Water Law of 2002 clarifies the responsibilities of the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) and establishes a National Water Council (NWC) with the task to set national water policies. It also establishes "national water utilities".
Policy and regulation
General water sector policies are set by the Palestinian cabinet of ministries and the National Water Council (NWC). The council has the authority to suspend or dismantle the services of the board of directors of the regional water and wastewater services providers. The members of the council include the main Palestinian ministries. The Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) acts as regulatory authority, responsible for the legislation, monitoring and human resources development in the sector. The PWA is also in charge of water resources management. It has the mandate to carry out regular inspections and to keep a register of all water related data and information. The authority shares responsibility for irrigation with the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and for environmental protection with the Environment Quality Authority (EQA).
The Joint Water Committee
As part of the 1995 Interim Agreement, a Joint Water Committee (JWC) has been established between Israel and the Palestinian territories. The JWC was expected to implement the regulations of article 40 of the agreement which concern water and sanitation. The committee is composed of an equal number of participants by the two parties, which means that each side has a veto. The JWC is not independent from Israel and the PWA. Instead, decisions can be passed to a higher political level. Jägerskog reports several delays concerning the implementation of Palestinian project proposals within the committee, partly due to missing Palestinian funding, time-consuming approval procedures, hydrological and political reasons. However, it is valued that the JWC facilitates cooperation between the two parties, even in times of high political tension like the second intifada.
The Water Law No. 3 provided the legal basis for the establishment of "national water utilities". The PWA's goal is to establish four regional utilities, one in Gaza and three in the West Bank (North, Center and South). However, in reality as of 2011 only the regional utility for Gaza has been established, while water services in the West Bank continue to be provided by municipalities, two sub-regional utilities and village councils.
West Bank. There are two regional utilities in the West Bank, namely the Jerusalem Water Undertaking (JWU) in the Ramallah area and the Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (WSSA) in the Bethlehem area. In other cities such as Tulkarem, Nablus, Jenin and Hebron as well as in small towns municipalities provide water and, if existing, sewer services. Both utilities and municipalities depend to a varying extent on bulk water supply by the Israeli water company Mekorot, which delivers about 80% of the water used by JWU. In rural areas, water is provided by Village Council water departments. In the North-Eastern Jenin area a Joint Service Council (JSC) formed by six villages provides water.
Gaza strip In all 25 municipalities in the Gaza strip, water provision is the responsibility of the Coastal Municipalities Water Utility (CMWU). However, the utility is still in the process of being set up and exercise its legal tasks. The intended procedure is that the municipalities receive technical assistance by the CMWU and gradually transfer their staff and assets to it. According to the World Bank, this model led to some improvements like faster repair of leakage and economies of scale. However, the plan is far from being fully implemented. The model experienced serious problems which are mainly caused by the unstable political conditions in the Gaza strip since 2008, including differences between municipalities governed by Hamas and Fatah, so that some municipalities refused to transfer their assets and staff to CMWU.
Non-governmental organizations and universities
Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are very active in the field of water and wastewater treatment and reuse. One NGO network is the Palestinian Environmental NGOs Network (PENGON) that was initiated after the 2000 al-Aqsa Intifada. It has more than 20 members, including NGOs, universities and research centers.
About half (44%) of the produced water is non-revenue water (NRW), water which is not billed due to leakage or water theft. The share varies widely from 25% in Ramallah to 65% in Jericho. In the Gaza Strip, NRW is estimated to be about 45%, out of which 40% is caused by physical losses and 5% by unregistered connections and meter losses.
Tariffs and cost recovery
A water-pricing policy is under preparation. Currently, increasing block tariffs are applied in the Palestinian territories. There is no price differentiation according to the purpose (residential, commercial, industrial). The average cost of water supply is $22 per month ($25 in the West Bank and $10 in Gaza). The Heinrich Böll Foundation reports an average tariff of US$ 1.20 (5 NIS) per m³. In areas where piped water is not available, water is purchased from water tankers for prices five to six times higher than for piped water. The long term objective to recover water production costs, or at least operation and maintenance costs, is still not reached.
The following table gives an overview of the distribution of households in the Palestinian Territories by the cost of monthly consumed water in 2003.
|Distribution of water consumption|
|Cost of monthly consumed water (US$)|| %
|Less than 25||69.4%|
|more than 100||6.8%|
Bill collection rates average 50% in the West Bank and only 20% in Gaza.
Investment and financing
The PWA issues periodic reports including information about projects and donor contributions. In the West Bank, the total investment cost of water projects from 1996 to 2002 amounted to about US$ 500 million, out of which 150 million were already spent on completed projects. The costs of ongoing projects were US$ 300 million, and the remaining US$ 50 million were committed to future projects. Out of the total cost of US$ 500 million, 200 million were invested in the water supply sector and 130 million in the wastewater sector. The remaining financial resources were spent in water conservation (80m), institutional and capacity building (30m), storm water, water resources and irrigation systems.
At the same time, the total investment costs of water projects in the Gaza Strip were about US$ 230 million, out of which most was spent on ongoing projects (US$ 170 mllion), while the remaining 60 million were implemented costs. About 90% of these investments were financed by grants and 10% by loans from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the World Bank. US$ 100 million were invested in the water sector and 40 million in the wastewater sector.
It is estimated that a future investment of about US$ 1.1 billion for the West Bank and US$ 0.8 billion is needed for the planning period from 2003 to 2015.
About 15 bilateral and multilateral donor agencies support the Palestinian water sector. In 2006, the PWA complained that coordination between PWA and donors was "still not successful" and that some donors and NGOs were "bypassing" the PWA. Donor coordination mechanisms in the sector include Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene group (EWASH) regrouping UN agencies and NGOs as well as Emergency Water Operations Center (EWOC) led by USAID. Both were established to coordinate the reconstruction after the 2002 Israeli incursions into the West Bank.
The European Investment Bank (EIB) provided loan funding for refurbishing water reservoirs and was expected to fund the construction of the south regional wastewater treatment plant and a section of the North-South municipal water carrier in Gaza. Within the framework of the Facility for Euro-Mediterranean Investment and Partnership (FEMIP), the EIB financed operations with more than 137 million Euro in the West Bank and Gaza between 1995 and 2010. 10% of the funds were allocated to the water and environment sector.
The French development agency, Agence française de développement (AFD), supports several projects in the Palestinian territories. For example, AFD finances the connection of densely populated areas of Rafah to the sewage system, the construction of water pipes and reservoirs in Hebron, and the construction of a water distribution network in six villages in the district of Jenin.  
German development cooperation has been engaged in the water and sanitation sector in the Palestinian Territories since 1994. It consists of financial cooperation through KfW and technical cooperation through GIZ, both working on behalf of the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.
KfW is engaged in Nablus, Tulkarem, Salfit, Ramallah / Al-Bireh, Jenin and Gaza City. The water supply activities focus on the reduction of non-revenue water so that the available water resources can be used more efficiently. One successful example of water loss reduction is the first phase of the KfW-supported program in Nablus: the frequency of supply for 8,000 inhabitants in the Rafidia neighbourhood was increased from every 4 days to every 2–3 days. This was achieved by reducing distribution losses from 40% to currently 30%. Sanitation activities include the construction of sewer networks and wastewater treatment. The town of Al Bireh had the only functioning wastewater treatment plant in the West Bank in 2009. The plant, which was funded by KfW, was commissioned in 2000 and operates in a satisfactory way despite the challenging environment of the West Bank. The construction of wastewater treatment plants in Gaza City, Western Nablus, Salfeet and the Tulkarem region, however, was substantially delayed as of 2009. Until 2008 new financial cooperation commitments were granted in the form of projects that identified specific investments at an early stage. This approach changed in 2008 with the approval of a new KfW-supported water and sanitation program for the West Bank and Gaza. This program is open for proposals from small and medium-sized towns if they comply with certain selection criteria. The program’s main focus is on water loss reduction.
Outcomes of technical cooperation include improved performance for the Jerusalem Water Undertaking, the utility serving Ramallah, as a result of capacity building and training. Employees of the municipality Al-Bireh were trained in operating the town's wastewater treatment plant. Wells have been drilled or rehabilitated in the Nablus and Ramallah area, supplying 120,000 people with drinking water. GTZ also supported the creation of the National Water Council in 2006. Furthermore, at least 6,000 schoolchildren have been taught water conservation measures.
The Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) has participated in the development of feasibility and design studies for the north regional wastewater treatment plant and associated sewerage collection systems in Gaza.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
USAID is a leading development agency within the sector in the Palestinian territories. Their work includes the repair and rehabilitation of small scale water and sanitation facilities, rehabilitation of water and sewage networks as well as replacement of water pumps. In addition, USAID helps communities without access to piped water through water supply via tankers. In rural areas, the agency provides water collection cisterns to poor families. USAID helps to connect households to water and to install rainwater drainage pipes.
On the official web page, USAID announces to provide more than 60 km of water pipes in oder to supply ten additional villages in the southern Nablus area with potable water. By 2009, USAID has improved water supply for more than 19,500 households while about 30,000 households gained improved sanitation and connections to sewage networks.
An example of USAID's work in the Palestinian territories is the Emergency Water and Sanitation and Other Infrastructure Program. Between 2008 and 2013 USAID finances the second phase of the program. It is supposed to address the urgent need of adequate water and sanitation systems e.g. by providing emergency relief and rehabilitation of existing systems. Another program funded by USAID from 2008-2013 is the Infrastructure Needs Program. It does not only focus on water, but also includes the financing of other infrastructure that is critical for economic growth. With regard to water, several achievements have been accomplished in 2010. For example, a water transmission line, water distribution systems, reservoirs, and steel water pipes have been built.
Under the Second Gaza Water and Sanitation Project which is active from 2005 to 2010, the World Bank provides US$20 million. One objective of the project is to develop a sustainable institutional structure of the water and sanitation sector. This is planned to be achieved through supporting the establishment of a Coastal Water Utility which is owned by the local governments and through increased private sector participation. In addition, the project seeks to strengthen the regulatory and institutional capacity of the PWA. The second objective of the project is the improvement of the water and sanitation services through rehabilitation, upgrade and expansion of the existing facilities.
In January 2008, another US$5 million for the project have been approved by the bank. The additional funding will contribute to finance the institutional strengthening of the Coastal Municipal Water Utility, which has suffered from a very difficult security situation. Moreover, operation and maintenance costs of the water and sanitation facilities in the Gaza Strip for one additional year are covered. One aim is to reduce non-revenue water from 45% to 35%, accompanied by an increase of revenues and customer satisfaction. The funding also provides for water meters, chemicals for water treatment and disinfection and the rehabilitation of water production wells.
In addition, the bank provides US$12 million for the North Gaza Emergency Sewage Treatment (NGEST) Project, which seeks to mitigate the health and environmental risks which arise from the Beit Lahia Waterwater Treatment Plant. Effluents of the treatment plant are discharged into a lake, putting the surrounding communities at risk. The objective of the project is to provide a long-term solution to wastewater treatment in the Gaza northern governorate. In order to achieve this, the lake is drained. New infiltration basins are built in another location, where the effluent of the lake will be transferred. A new wastewater treatment plant with improved quality standards will be built, covering the whole northern governorate.
In 2011, the World Bank approved three water and sanitation projects in the West Bank and Gaza. The Water Sector Capacity Building Project is supposed to support the Palestinian Water Authority by providing e.g. advisory support, technical assistance and staff training. The objective is to strengthen the PWA's capacity of monitoring, planning and regulating water sector development in the Palestinian territories. Furthermore, the Water Supply and Sanitation Improvements for West Bethlehem Villages Project aims at the preparation of a feasibility study and a project concept for wastewater management and reuse in selected rural communities. Other components shall strengthen the capacity of the Water and Wastewater Department and increase the reliability of an existing water supply system. Finally, the bank approved the third additional financing of the Second Gaza Emergency Water Project. Besides the capacity improvement of both the PWA and the coastal municipalities' water utility, the project shall ensure the management, operation and delivery of wastewater and water services.
- World Health Organization; UNICEF. "Joint Monitoring Program". Retrieved 2008-03-02.
World Health Organization; UNICEF (2006). "Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Coverage Estimates Improved Drinking Water.". Archived from the original on 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
World Health Organization; UNICEF (2006). "Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Coverage Estimates Improved Drinking Sanitation.". Retrieved 2008-03-07.[dead link]
- Euro-Mediterranean Water Information System (EMWIS) (September 2005). "Local Water Supply, Sanitation and Sewage. Country Report Palestine" (pdf). Retrieved 2011-12-20.
- Calculated by halving the amount of total water supplied, since water is lost or used for other purposes; source for the figures on water supply are PWA and PCBS, quoted in The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 2009-06-11., p. 16-17, 28
- Heinrich Böll Foundation (2004). Water as a human right: The understanding of water in the Arab countries of the Middle East - A four country analysis. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
- 5 Israeli New Shekel = 1.19591 US Dollar (02/26/09); source: http://oanda.com
- D. Fatta, Z. Salem, M. Mountadar, O. Assobhei and M. Loizidou, D.; Salem, Z.; Mountadar, M.; Assobhei, O.; Loizidou, M. (December 2004). "Urban Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation for Agricultural Irrigation: The situation in Morocco and Palestine.". The Environmentalist (Springer Netherlands) 24 (4): 227–236. doi:10.1007/s10669-005-0998-x. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
- [Sanitation and Hygiene Monitoring Programme (WaSH MP)] (2007-08). "Water for Life, The Inequitable Abstraction, Allocation and Consumption of Water Resources in the occupied Palestinian territory" (pdf). Retrieved 2011-12-22. , p.34
- [Sanitation and Hygiene Monitoring Programme (WaSH MP)] (2006). "Water for Life, The Dilemma of development under occupation". Retrieved 2011-12-22., p.24
- Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (2011). "Household Environmental Survey, 2011". Retrieved 2011-12-21., p. 85
- United Nations (09-03-2009). "Gaza water crisis prompts UN call for immediate opening of crossings". Retrieved 2009-11-25.
- World Bank (01-07-2009). "West Bank & Gaza - Fact Sheet: Gaza Strip Water and Sanitation Situation". Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), Household Environmental Survey 2008 Retrieved on 2009-06-18
- Belt, Don (2010-04). "Parting the Waters". National Geographic.
- The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 2009-06-11., p. 30
- The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 2009-06-11., p. 113
- The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 2009-06-11., p. 20
- Hiniker, Mike (1999). "Sustainable solutions to water conflicts in the Jordan Valley". Cambridge Review of International Affairs (Routledge) 12 (2): 255–273. doi:10.1080/09557579908400261. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
- Obidallah, Mohammed T. (2008). "Water and the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict". Central European Journal of International and Security Studies (CEJISS) (Metropolitan University Prague) 2 (2): 103–117. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
- Eckstein, Yoram; Eckstein, Gabriel (2003). "Groundwater Resources and International Law in the Middle East Peace Process". Water International 28 (2): 154–161. doi:10.1080/02508060308691680. SSRN 758637.
- Isaac, J. "The role of groundwater in the water conflict and resolution between Israelis and Palestinians". International Symposium on Groundwater Sustainability (ISGWAS), ARIJ. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
- Amnesty International (27 October 2009). "Israel rations Palestinians to trickle of water". Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 8 August 2011., p. 27-28
- Institute for Water Studies, Birzeit University (2005). "Prospects of Efficient Wastewater Management and Water Reuse in Palestine. Country Study" (pdf). Retrieved 2011-12-20, p. 5.
- The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 2009-06-11., p. 16-17
- Heinrich Böll Foundation (2004). Water as a human right: The understanding of water in Palestine (pdf). Retrieved 2011-12-20.
- Husseini, Hiba (no date). "The Palestinian Water Authority: Developments and Challenges involving the Legal Framework and the Capacity of the PWA" (pdf). Retrieved 2009-06-18. [dead link]
- Saghir, Jamal; Sherwood, Elisabeth; Macoun, Andrew (April 1998). "Management Contracts in Water and Sanitation–Gaza’s Experience" (pdf). World Bank. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
- Hall, David; Bayliss, Kate; Lobina, Emanuele (October 2002). "Water in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) - trends in investment and privatisation" (pdf). Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU). Retrieved 2009-04-13., p. 25
- World Bank (2003). "West Bank and Gaza update. World Bank Report on Impact of Intifada" (pdf). Retrieved 2009-04-13., p. 27
- Hall, David; Bayliss, Kate; Lobina, Emanuele (October 2002). "Water in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) - trends in investment and privatisation" (pdf). Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU). Retrieved 2009-04-13., p. 26
- World Bank. "Projects - West Bank and Gaza : Southern Area Water and Sanitation Improvement Project". Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- World Bank (2006). "Implementation Completion and Results Report for the Southern Area Water and Sanitation Improvement Project" (pdf). Retrieved 2009-06-06., p. 05-12
- World Bank. "West Bank and Gaza - Southern Area Water and Sanitation Improvement Project". Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- World Bank (2006). "Implementation Completion and Results Report for the Southern Area Water and Sanitation Improvement Project" (pdf). Retrieved 2009-06-06., p. 06
- EMWIS, International Coordination Unit Palestinian Water Authority (PWA): Palestine 2008
- Diabes, Fadia (2003). Water in Palestine. Problems-Politics-Prospects. Jerusalem: PASSIA Publications. ISBN 9950-305-04-7.
- Jägerskog, Anders (2003). "Why states cooperate over shared water: The water negotiations in the Jordan River Basin". Linköping Studies Arts Science 281. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
- Palestinian Water Authority (October 2006). "Water Sector Review West Bank & Gaza". Retrieved 5 August 2011.
- The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 2009-06-11., p. 43
- The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 2009-06-11., p. 15
- The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 2009-06-11., p. 65-66
- The Palestinian Environmental NGOs Network (PENGON) (2009). "Official website". Retrieved 2009-06-22.
- Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (2003). "Percent Distribution of Households in the Palestinian Territory by the Cost of Monthly Consumed Water". Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- The World Bank (April 2009). West Bank and Gaza. Assessment of Restrictions on Palestinian Water Sector Development. Retrieved 8 August 2011., p. viii and 29
- European Investment Bank (2011). "FEMIP - Financing operations in Gaza/West Bank" (pdf). Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- Agence française de développement. "Raccordement au réseau d’assainissement de quartiers de Rafah (bande de Gaza)". Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- Agence française de développement. "Adduction d’eau potable dans la région d’Hébron". Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- Agence française de développement. "Adduction d'eau à Jenine". Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- (German) KfW Entwicklungsbank:Wasserverlustreduzierung Nablus (Water loss reduction Nablus), June 2009[dead link]
- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). "GTZ. Water programme". Retrieved 2009-04-13.
- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) (no date). "GTZ Water Programme". Retrieved 2009-06-22. [dead link]
- United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (September 17, 2009). "USAID West Bank and Gaza - Water Resources and Infrastructure". Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (January 2011). "Emergency Water and Sanitation and Other Infrastructure (EWAS II)". Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (January 2011). "Infrastructure Needs Program (INP)". Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- World Bank. "Projects - West Bank and Gaza : Gaza Water and Sanitation Project (02)". Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- World Bank. "West Bank and Gaza - Overview". Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- World Bank. "Projects - West Bank and Gaza : GZ-NORTH GAZA SEWERAGE TREATMENT PLANT ADDITIONAL FINANCING". Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- World Bank. "Water Sector Capacity Building Project". Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- World Bank. "Water Supply and Sanitation Improvements for West Bethlehem Villages Project". Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- World Bank. "Second Gaza Emergency Water Project". Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA)
- Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
- Palestinian Economic Council for Development& Reconstruction - PECDAR
- Palestinian Water Authority
- Palestinian Water Program[dead link]
- Euro-Mediterranean Information System on know-how in the Water sector (EMWIS)
- Palestinian Hydrology Group
- The Water and Sanitation Hygiene Monitoring Program Water For Life Campaign