Waterloo Bridge

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Waterloo Bridge
River Thames and Waterloo Bridge, London-17Aug2009.jpg
River Thames and Waterloo Bridge
(as seen from the London Eye)
Carries A301 road
Crosses River Thames
Locale London, United Kingdom
Design Box girder bridge
Total length 375 m (1,230 ft)
Width 24 m (80 ft)
Longest span 71 m (233 ft)
Opened 1945; 69 years ago (1945)
Heritage status Grade II* listed structure

Waterloo Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge crossing the River Thames in London, between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge. The name of the bridge is in memory of the Anglo-Dutch and Prussian victory at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Thanks to its location at a strategic bend in the river, the views of London (Westminster, the South Bank and London Eye to the west, the City of London and Canary Wharf to the east) from the bridge are widely held to be the finest from any spot at ground level.

History[edit]

Crowds attend the opening of the first Waterloo Bridge on 18 June 1817

First bridge[edit]

The first bridge on the site was designed in 1809-10 by John Rennie for the Strand Bridge Company and opened in 1817 as a toll bridge. The granite bridge[1] had nine arches, each of 120 feet (36.6 m) span, separated by double Grecian-Doric stone columns and was 2,456 feet (748.6 m) long, including approaches. Before its opening it was known as 'Strand Bridge'. During the 1840s the bridge gained a reputation as a popular place for suicide attempts. In 1841, the American daredevil Samuel Gilbert Scott was killed while performing an act in which he hung by a rope from a scaffold on the bridge.[2] In 1844 Thomas Hood wrote the poem The Bridge of Sighs about the suicide of a prostitute there.[3] Paintings of the bridge were created by the French Impressionist Claude Monet and the English Romantic, John Constable. The bridge was nationalised in 1878 and given to the Metropolitan Board of Works, who removed the toll from it.

Michael Faraday tried in 1832 to measure the potential difference between each side of the bridge caused by the ebbing salt water flowing through the Earth's magnetic field.[4] See magnetohydrodynamics.

View of the old Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall stairs, John Constable, 18 June 1817

From 1884, serious problems were found in Rennie's bridge piers, after scour from the increased river flow after Old London Bridge was demolished damaged their foundations. By the 1920s the problems had increased, with settlement at pier five necessitating closure of the whole bridge while some heavy superstructure was removed and temporary reinforcements put in place.[5]

Second bridge[edit]

The design called for supporting beams only at the outside edges, to bring "light and sweetness" to the underside--Giles Gilbert Scott, quoted in Hopkins (1970)

London County Council decided to demolish the bridge and replace it with a new structure designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. The engineers were Ernest Buckton and John Cuerel of Rendel Palmer & Tritton. However Scott, by his own admission, was no engineer and his design, with reinforced concrete beams (illustrated) under the footways, leaving the road to be supported by transverse slabs, was difficult to implement. The pairs of spans on each side of the river were supported by beams continuous over their piers, and these were cantilevered out at their ends to support the centre span and the short approach slabs at the banks. The beams were shaped "to look as much like arches as...beams can".[5] They are clad in Portland stone from the South West of England; the stone cleans itself whenever it rains.[6] To guard against the possibility of further subsidence from scour, each pier was given a number of jacks which can be used to level the structure.[5]

The new crossing was partially opened on Tuesday 11 March 1942 and completed in 1945.[7] The new bridge was the only Thames bridge to have been damaged by German bombers during World War II. The building contractor was Peter Lind & Company Limited. It is frequently asserted that the work force was largely female and it is sometimes referred to as "the ladies' bridge".[8][9]

Georgi Markov was a Bulgarian dissident assassinated (7 September 1978) on Waterloo Bridge by agents of the Bulgarian secret police assisted by the KGB.

Reuse of the original stones[edit]

Granite stones from the original bridge were subsequently "presented to various parts of the British world to further historic links in the British Commonwealth of Nations". Two of these stones are in Canberra, the capital city of Australia, sited between the parallel spans of the Commonwealth Avenue Bridge, one of two major crossings of Lake Burley Griffin in the heart of the city. Stones from the bridge were used to build a monument in Wellington, New Zealand, to Paddy the Wanderer, a dog that roamed the wharves from 1928 to 1939 and was befriended by seamen, watersiders, Harbour Board workers and taxi drivers. The monument built in 1945 is found on Queens Wharf, opposite the Museum of Wellington City & Sea. It includes a bronze likeness of Paddy, a drinking fountain and drinking bowls below for dogs.[10][11]

Geography[edit]

The south end of the bridge is in the area known as South Bank and includes the Royal Festival Hall, Waterloo station, Queen Elizabeth Hall, the Royal National Theatre, and the National Film Theatre (directly beneath the bridge).

In the 1950s the National Film Theatre (a legacy from the Festival of Britain) was built directly underneath Waterloo Bridge. In the 1980s the award winning Museum of the Moving Image was also built directly underneath the bridge and became perhaps the only museum in the world to have stalactites (from water leaking through the Bridge) growing within it.[citation needed]

The north end passes above the Victoria Embankment where the road joins the Strand and Aldwych alongside Somerset House. This end previously housed the southern portal of the Kingsway Tramway Subway until the late 1950s. The entire bridge was given Grade II* listed structure protection in 1981.[12]

The nearest London Underground station is Waterloo. London Waterloo is also a National Rail station.

In popular culture[edit]

Robert E. Sherwood's 1930 play, Waterloo Bridge, about a soldier who falls in love and marries a woman he meets on the bridge during an air raid in World War I, was made into films released in 1931, 1940 and 1956. The 1940 film starred Vivien Leigh and Robert Taylor.

After the Lunch, a poem by Wendy Cope about two lovers parting on Waterloo Bridge, now forms the lyric of the song Waterloo Bridge by Jools Holland and Louise Marshall.

The bridge features in scenes at the beginning and end of the 1966 film Alfie starring Michael Caine. In the final scene of the film the title character is seen crossing the bridge followed by a stray dog.[13]

A scene in the BBC series Sherlock episode The Great Game takes place beneath the bridge's northern side, where members of Sherlock's homeless network congregate.

The song "Waterloo Sunset" by the British band The Kinks tells about living in London and watching life from Waterloo Bridge.

Waterloo Bridge features in the 2013 short film 'On The Bridge' starring Dean Lennox Kelly and Christopher Tester, based on a true story about a man who meets a soldier on Waterloo Bridge one night who wants to jump into the River Thames.

[14]

Looking east from Waterloo Bridge at night. The City of London landmarks are north of the river; the illuminated National Theatre is among the buildings along the South Bank.
Waterloo Bridge viewed from the Golden Jubilee Bridge.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The granite came from quarries at Mabe in Cornwall; Mee, Arthur (1937) Cornwall. London: Hodder & Stoughton, p. 132
  2. ^ Jay, Ricky (1987) Learned Pigs & Fireproof Women: Unique, Eccentric and Amazing Entertainers: Stone Eaters, Mind Readers, Poison Resisters, Daredevils, Singing Mice, etc., etc, etc., etc.. New York: Villard Books, p. 150. ISBN 0-394-53750-5
  3. ^ Brewer, Ebenezer (1970) Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. London: Cassell, p. 152.
  4. ^ Faraday, Michael "Experimental Researches in Electricity", vol. I, London, 1839, p. 55.
  5. ^ a b c Hopkins, Henry (1970). A Span of Bridges. Newton Abbot, England: David and Charles. pp. 257–260. 
  6. ^ Sutcliffe, Anthony (2006). London: an architectural history. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 212. 
  7. ^ Where Thames Smooth Waters Glide
  8. ^ Staff writer. "The Ladies Bridge". Peter Lind & Company Limited. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  9. ^ Karen Livesey. "The Ladies Bridge". Retrieved 2012-10-25. 
  10. ^ Haworth, Dianne (2007). Paddy the Wanderer. Auckland, New Zealand: Harper Collins. pp. 158–159. 
  11. ^ Moor, Christopher (2009-07-30). "Remembering Paddy the Wanderer Tales of a unique dog". The Wellingtonian. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  12. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (204770)". Images of England.  accessed 27 November 2008
  13. ^ Neil Mitchell (11 May 2012). World Film Locations: London. Intellect. ISBN 184150484X. 
  14. ^ "Locations: Waterloo Bridge". Sherlockology: The ultimate guide for any BBC Sherlock fan. sherlockology.com. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°30′31″N 0°07′01″W / 51.50861°N 0.11694°W / 51.50861; -0.11694