Waverly Hills Sanatorium
Waverly Hills Tuberculosis Sanatorium Historic Buildings
Waverly Hills Sanatorium main entrance
|Architect||James J. Gaffeney (1863–1946); Dennix Xavier Murphy (1854–1933)|
|MPS||Jefferson County MRA|
|NRHP Reference #||83002746|
|Added to NRHP||July 12, 1983|
The Waverly Hills Sanatorium is a closed sanatorium located in southwestern Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky. It opened in 1910 as a two-story hospital to accommodate 40 to 50 tuberculosis patients. In the early 1900s, Jefferson County was ravaged by an outbreak of tuberculosis (the "White Plague") which prompted the construction of a new hospital. The hospital closed in 1962, due to the antibiotic drug streptomycin that lowered the need for such a hospital.
Waverly Hills has been popularized on the televison show, Ghost Hunters, as being one of the "most haunted" hospitals in the eastern United States. The sanatorium was featured on ABC/FOX Family Channel's Scariest Places On Earth, VH1's Celebrity Paranormal Project, Syfy's Ghost Hunters, Zone Reality's Creepy, the British show Most Haunted, Paranormal Challenge, and Ghost Adventures on Travel Channel.
- 1 History
- 2 Tunnel
- 3 Recent developments
- 4 Structures
- 5 Legends & Ghosts
- 6 Sounds of the Underground music festival
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The land that is today known as Waverly Hill was purchased by Major Thomas H. Hays in 1883 as the Hays' family home. Since the new home was far away from any existing schools, Mr. Hays decided to open a local school for his daughters to attend. He started a one-room schoolhouse on Pages Lane and hired Lizzie Lee Harris as the teacher. Due to Miss Harris' fondness for Walter Scott's Waverley novels, she named the schoolhouse Waverley School. Major Hays liked the peaceful-sounding name, so he named his property Waverley Hill. The Board of Tuberculosis Hospital kept the name when they bought the land and opened the sanatorium. It is not known exactly when the spelling changed to exclude the second "e" and became Waverly Hills. However the spelling fluctuated between both spellings many times over the years.
In the early 20th century, Jefferson County was severely stricken with an outbreak of tuberculosis. There were many tuberculosis cases in Louisville at the time because of all the swampland, which was perfect for the tuberculosis bacteria. To try to contain the disease, a two-story wooden sanatorium was opened which consisted of an administrative/main building and two open air pavilions, each housing 20 patients, for the treatment of "early cases".
"In the early part of 1911, the city of Louisville began to make preparations to build a new Louisville City Hospital, and the hospital commissioners decided in their plans that there would be no provision made in the new City Hospital for the admission of pulmonary tuberculosis, and the Board of Tuberculosis Hospital was given $25,000 to erect a hospital for the care of advanced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis".
On August 31, 1912, all tuberculosis patients from the City Hospital were relocated to temporary quarters in tents on the grounds of Waverly Hills pending the completion of a hospital for advanced cases. In December 1912 a hospital for advanced cases opened for the treatment of another 40 patients. In 1914 a children’s pavilion added another 50 beds making the known “capacity” around 130 patients. The children's pavilion was not only for sick children but also for the children of tuberculosis patients who could not be cared for properly otherwise. This report also mentions that the goal was to add a new building each year to continually grow so there may have even been more beds available than specifically listed.
Due to constant need for repairs on the wooden structures, need for a more durable structure, as well as need for more beds so that people would not be turned away due to lack of space, construction of a five-story building that could hold more than 400 patients began in March 1924. The new building opened on October 17, 1926, but after the introduction of streptomycin in 1943, the number of tuberculosis cases gradually lowered, until there was no longer need for such a large hospital. The remaining patients were sent to Hazelwood Sanatorium in Louisville. Waverly Hills closed in June 1961.
Woodhaven Medical Services
The building was reopened in 1962 as Woodhaven Geriatric Center, a nursing home. Primarily treating aging patients with various stages of dementia and mobility limits, as well as the severely mentally handicapped. Woodhaven was closed by the state in 1982 allegedly due to patient neglect, as is sometimes common in these environments of under staffed and overcrowded institutions. Rumors later inaccurately termed Woodhaven as an insane asylum lending to many urban legends.
A tunnel was constructed at the same time as the main building beginning on the first floor and traveling 500 feet (150 m) to the bottom of the hill. One side had steps to allow workers to enter and exit the hospital without having to walk a dangerous, steep hill. The other side had a set of rails and a cart powered by a motorized cable system so that supplies could easily be transported to the top. Air ducts leading from the roof of the tunnel to above ground level were incorporated every hundred feet to let in light and fresh air.
Removal of Bodies
As antibiotics had not been discovered when Waverly opened, treatment consisted of heat lamps, fresh air, high spirits, and reassurances of an eventual full recovery . Once tuberculosis hit its peak, deaths were occurring about one every other day. The sight of the dead being taken away in view of patients was not good for morale which plummeted, causing them to lose hope or the will to live and become depressed, which only contributed more to the death rate. With deaths occurring at such a high rate, the tunnel took on another use, and when patients died, the bodies were placed on the cart and lowered to the bottom where a hearse would be waiting to take them away discreetly, out of patient view, saving morale. The doctors also thought this would combat the disease and keep it from spreading.
Simpsonville developer J. Clifford Todd bought the hospital in 1983 for $3,005,000. He and architect Milton Thompson wanted to convert it into a minimum-security prison for the state, but the developers dropped the plan after neighbors protested. Todd and Thompson then proposed converting the hospital into apartments, but they counted on Jefferson Fiscal Court to buy around 140 acres (57 ha) from them for $400,000, giving them the money to start the project.
In March 1996, Robert Alberhasky bought Waverly Hills and the surrounding area. Alberhasky's Christ the Redeemer Foundation Inc. made plans to construct the world's tallest statue of Jesus on the site, along with an arts and worship center. The statue, which was inspired by the famed Christ the Redeemer statue on Corcovado Mountain in Rio de Janeiro, would have been designed by local sculptor Ed Hamilton and architect Jasper Ward. The first phase of the development, coming in at a cost of $4,000,000, would have been a statue of 150 feet (46 m) tall and 150 feet (46 m) wide, situated on the roof of the sanatorium. The second phase would convert the old sanatorium into a chapel, theater, and a gift shop at a cost of $8,000,000 or more.
The plan to construct this religious icon fell through because donations to the project fell well short of expectations. In a period of a year, only $3,000 was raised towards the project despite efforts to pool money from across the nation. The project was canceled in December 1997.
After Alberhasky's efforts failed, Waverly Hills was sold to Tina and Charlie Mattingly in 2001. The Mattinglys hold tours of Waverly Hills and host a haunted house attraction each Halloween, with proceeds going toward restoration of the property. They're also currently restoring all the windows in the decrepit building while restoring the interior of the old sanatorium also.
Much of the following information comes from a hand drawn map and accompanying pages of building descriptions that were obtained from the Waverly Herald. The exact date is not on the pages that were acquired however it is estimated that it was from the May 1953 issue.[original research?]
- Originally the home of the Hayes family, this building was already standing when the land was purchased in 1908. It was used by the sanatorium as a nurses dormitory, and later as staff housing. It was eventually destroyed by fire.
See No.15 on the above map
- Original sanatorium
- The original wooden structure, opened on July 26, 1910, was an administrative building which contained offices, treatment rooms, and a kitchen. It was torn down due to its poor condition.
- Pavilion buildings
- The wooden pavilion buildings were built at various times in the operation of the sanatorium. The first two were standing in 1910 when the original sanatorium opened. One housed 20–25 male patients, the other 20–25 female patients. Later, with the construction of the new Main building, the southernmost pavilion building was moved to the parking lot to make room for the north wing. This building was used as housing for male staff members.
See numbers 3 & 11 on the above maps. Also see 2,12, and 13 for additional pavilion type buildings on the property.
- Hospital for advanced cases
- This two story structure opened December 18, 1912, and was designed to care for 50 advanced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Later, with the opening of the Main building, this building became the Colored Hospital, and later still was used as staff housing.
See No.21 on the above map
- Main building
- This building was given an official opening ceremony and dedication on October 20, 1926. It was considered state of the art. It is one of the few buildings still standing on the property.
Legends & Ghosts
An episode of the Sci-Fi Channel television show Ghost Hunters featured the cast's investigation of Waverly Hills, including a local myth about the death of a nurse by murder or suicide in Room 502. Legend says the nurse found out she was pregnant by the owner of the sanatorium without being married and had contracted tuberculosis, so she hanged herself with a light bulb wire outside the room she was in at the time.
Some urban legends claim that 63,000 deaths occurred at the Sanatorium. According to Assistant Medical Director Dr. J. Frank W. Stewart, the highest number of deaths in a single year at Waverly Hills was 152. Stewart wrote that the worst time for deaths was at the end of the Second World War when troops were returning from overseas with very advanced tuberculosis cases. Some independent researchers suggest that since 162 people died at Waverly Hills in 1945, the highest total number of deaths possible over 50 years was approximately 8,212.
"Body chute" or "Death tunnel"
In recent years the popularity of the Sanatorium as a haunted attraction and exaggerations of numbers of dead that were moved through the first floor tunnel have led to nicknames such as “Death Tunnel” or “Body Chute.”
Waverly Hills in entertainment
- The Syfy Channel show Ghost Hunters features three episodes that took place at Waverly Hills Sanatorium, March 29, 2006; October 31, 2007, (a live Halloween special); and November 9, 2011.
- On July 19, 2001, ABC Family's Scariest Places On Earth was taped at Waverly Hills by Triage Entertainment featuring noted ghosthunter Jay Gravatte.
- In 2004, the horror film Death Tunnel and the documentary Spooked: The Ghosts of Waverly Hills Sanatorium were filmed at Waverly Hills. Death Tunnel was released by Sony Pictures on February 28, 2006. Spooked premiered on June 7, 2006 on the SciFi Channel.
- The VH1 celebreality show Celebrity Paranormal Project which premiered on October 22, 2006 was recorded at Waverly Hills.
- A portion of the documentary Haunted, set to premiere in 2007, was filmed at Waverly Hills.
- Terror Normal, a paranormal investigative series, filmed "Episode 1: The Ghosts of the Waverly Hills Sanatorium" in December 2006, and was released in February 2007.
- A French comic book series, Pandemonium by Christophe Bec and Stefano Raffaele, is based on the paranormal events supposed to have occurred at Waverly Hills Sanatorium.
- On October 31, 2003, the 39 minute radio show Live From Waverly Hills was supposedly broadcast "live" on 91.9 WFPK-FM (Louisville, Kentucky) from a "secret room" of the sanatorium. The cast included a station on-air personality, a ghost hunter, two station interns, a professor of medical history, and a medium who conducted an on-air seance. By the end of the seance, it became clear that it was actually an edited and fictional taped drama (the professor, interns, and medium were actors) as the characters attempted to escape from malevolent forces. Although the show was recorded in WFPK's studio, it did include sound effects made on location from Waverly Hills. The show was written, directed and produced by Adam Watson.
- An episode of Most Haunted aired on November 25, 2008 featuring Yvette Fielding and her team of investigators who claim to have witnessed various phenomenon and had scratches inflicted on one during their 24 hours spent at the sanatorium.
- The sanatorium and its legend were featured in a special Halloween documentary on French TV TF1, on October 31, 2009. It was entitled Soirée de l'étrange ("Strange Evening").
- On October 2, 2010, the Travel Channel show Ghost Adventures broadcast a paranormal investigation in the building.
- On October 17, 2012, "American Horror Story: Asylum" began to air on FX, seemingly influenced by the Waverly Hills Sanatorium, including the use of an old haunted hospital, the idea of redevelopment as a prison, and a death tunnel. Though the similarities are striking, no one involved with the production of the show has named Waverly Hills directly as its inspiration.
Sounds of the Underground music festival
Waverly Hills Sanatorium hosted the last show of the touring music festival Sounds of the Underground 2007 on August 11. The show featured prominent acts in the extreme metal and metalcore scene, including Job for a Cowboy, The Acacia Strain, Hatebreed, Shadows Fall, Chimaira, GWAR, Lamb of God and The Number Twelve Looks Like You. Similar festivals or concerts will likely not happen again at the Waverly Hills Sanatorium, due to complaints made by local residents.
- Ghost Adventures : TV Shows. Travel Channel (2011-02-28).Aswell as fact or faked, paranormal files Retrieved on 2011-11-27.
- Davis, Alex. "Spooky Waverly Hills may return as hotel", Courier-Journal, 7 August 2008.
- Renovations hopeful for haunted hotel, Fox41.com
- Detert, Fred. "How Waverly Hills Got Its Name", Waverly Herald, circa 1953.
- Postcard (with 2nd E), located in display case in the laundry building at Waverly
- Postcard (without 2nd E)
- Endowment booklet (with 2nd E)
- Report of Board of Tuberculosis Hospitals (1915). Freepages.history.rootsweb.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-27.
- "History of Waverly Hills", The Waverly Herald, pages 3 & 4
- "History of Waverly Hills", The Waverly Herald
- Wilson, Dunning S.; Dittmar, L. J. Report of the Board of Tuberculosis Hospital, Dr. Dunning S Wilson was Medical Director of Waverly Hills. L. J. Dittmar was President of the Board of Tuberculosis Hospital.
- "Sanatorium Has Waiting List for Treatment, Effective In Early Stages", The Louisville Times, 5 December 1928.
- "Famed hospital now a white elephant", The Courier-Journal, 13–14 August 1986, p.1.
- "World tallest Christ statue planned for Waverly Hills", The Courier-Journal [Louisville], March 1996: 1.
- "Jesus statue 'would take a miracle'." Kentucky Post 12 December 1997: 1.
- Seewer, John. "Haunted houses mix big-budget scenes and settings for ghoulish getaways", The Canadian Press, 2 October 2009.
- "Waverly Hills Sanatorium Haunted House", Louisville Courier-Journal, 3 October 2009.
- GhostHunters Episode 214 Waverly Hills Investigation (2003-03-29)
- Sunrise/Sunset-Autobiography written by Dr. J. Frank W. Stewart who was Assistant Medical Director at Waverly Hills. Worked at Waverly Hills from 1945–1955
- Official Waverly Hills Sanatorium/ Woodhaven Geriatric Center Memorial & Historical Resource. Whsmemorial.tripod.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-27.
- Interview with Jason and Grant from Ghost Hunters[dead link]
- "PLEASURE RIDGE PARK: Waverly Hills rock concert was its last: Neighbors outraged by noise, vulgarities", Courier Journal, 22 August 2007. "There will be no more loud rock concerts at the old Waverly Hills hospital in Pleasure Ridge
Park like the one on Aug. 11 that upset nearby residents, metro officials say."
- Spooked: The Ghosts of Waverly Hills Sanatorium (2006), documentary
- The Waverly Hills Historical Society Official Website
- Waverly Hills Sanatorium at Abandoned
- Asylum Projects info & history at Asylum Projects
- Waverly Hills at The Motor City Ghost Hunters
- Waverly Hills Sanatorium – includes Jay Gravatte's story of hosting "Fox's Scariest Places on Earth" at Prairie Ghosts
- Waverly Hills Sanatorium/Woodhaven Geriatric Center Memorial & Historical Resource
- A History of the Waverly Hills Sanatorium from Southern Military Messenger
- Louisville author, James Markert, publishes series of fiction based on Waverly Hills
- Waverly Hills Sanatorium complete information, photos and map of the complex Ermak Travel site devoted to the sanatorium
- Waverly Hills, Sanitorium, Ghost Hunting
- Vintage aerial photo