Ways and Means (Xenophon)

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Ways and Means (Greek: Πόροι ἢ περὶ Προσόδων, Poroi e peri Prosodon, "Revenues") was written in 354 BC and is believed to be the last work written by Xenophon.[1] Half a century after Athens' defeat in the Peloponnesian War, the city was facing financial ruin.[2]

Ways and Means consists of 5 chapters. In chapter 1 Xenophon lists the qualities of Athens that make it qualified for large revenue. The qualities that Xenophon lists are that the seasons in Attica are mild, the land and the sea near it are productive, and Athens is not near the land of the barbarians.[3]

In chapter 2 Xenophon suggests that Athens should increase the metic (foreigners who are not granted citizenship) population within Athens as a means of increasing revenue.


  1. ^ Xenophon the Athenian by W. E. Higgins (1977), p. 138
  2. ^ Economic and Social History of Ancient Greece by M. M. Austin (1980), p. 123
  3. ^ Ways and Means, Ch. 1, Xenophon

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