Weather and climate
Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time. For example, on a particular day in Pakistan, the weather is warm in the afternoon. But later in the day, when there are clouds blocking Sun's rays, the weather would become cooler.
While weather describes the condition of the atmosphere at a particular time, climate refers to the weather pattern of a place over a long period, maybe 25 to 30 years, long enough to yield meaningful averages (). For example, although the weather in Pakistan may be cool and dry today, Pakistan's climate is hot today.
Elements of weather and climate
- There are several elements that make up the weather and climate of a place. The major of these elements are five: temperature, pressure, wind, humidity and rain. Analysis of these elements can provide the basis for forecasting weather.
- These same elements make also the basis of climatology study, of course, within a different time scale rather than it does in meteorology.
Elements of weather and climate a) Temperature is how hot or cold the atmosphere is, how many degrees Celsius (centigrade) it is above or below freezing (0°C). Temperature is a very important factor in determining the weather, because it influences or controls other elements of the weather, such as precipitation, humidity, clouds and atmospheric pressure. b) Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. c) Precipitation: is the product of any condensation process Precipitation includes snow, hail, sleet, drizzle, fog, mist and rain. d) Atmospheric pressure (or air pressure) is the weight of air resting on the earth's surface. Pressure is shown on a weather map, often called a synoptic map, with lines called isobars. e) Wind is the movement of air masses from high pressure areas (highs) to low pressure areas (lows).
Modifying factors of weather and climate
- Arthur Newell Strahler. Physical Geography. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1960, Second Edition, p. 185
- F. J. Monkhouse. A Dictionary of Geography. London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., 1978