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Website spoofing is the act of creating a website, as a hoax, with the intention of misleading readers that the website has been created by a different person or organization. Normally, the spoof website will adopt the design of the target website and sometimes has a similar URL. A more sophisticated attack results in an attacker creating a "shadow copy" of the World Wide Web by having all of the victim's traffic go through the attacker's machine, causing the attacker to obtain the victim's sensitive information.
The objective may be fraudulent, often associated with phishing or e-mail spoofing, or to criticize or make fun of the person or body whose website the spoofed site purports to represent. Because the purpose is often malicious, "spoof" (an expression whose base meaning is innocent parody) is a poor term for this activity so that more accountable organisations such as government departments and banks tend to avoid it, preferring more explicit descriptors such as "fraudulent" or "phishing".
As an example of the use of this technique to parody an organisation, in November 2006 two spoof websites, www.msfirefox.com and www.msfirefox.net, were produced claiming that Microsoft had bought Firefox and released Microsoft Firefox 2007.
How to identify
One of the main types of website spoofing occurs on websites that have anything to do with money. For example, any website one might use for banking, buying, selling or transferring money, may be subject to website spoofing. When using any website where a credit number must be entered, one of the first steps to identifying a spoofed website is making sure the website is secured with SSL/TLS. This means that it has “Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security”. SSL is used to verify the identity of the server. If the website does not have SSL, it is most likely a spoof.
The best way to prevent spoofing is to avoid using hyperlinks. For example, instead of using a link attached in an email, type the website’s address into the address bar yourself. One additional tip to avoid spoofing is to avoid using the same password for every website.
How to respond to website spoofing
There exist procedures that can be undergone in response to a spoofed website, which will help mitigate risks. These procedures will, in theory, eliminate the threat of identity theft and financial fraud.
Mitigating the risk of website spoofing can done in the following ways. Firstly, educating customers on how to be aware of a spoof can be helpful. This can be done with website alerts that explain and warn about various internet-related scams. If possible, certain employees should be assigned to monitor the site and make sure there are not fraudulent sites being created. If a fraudulent site is found, these employees are responsible for responding correctly.
The most common method of detecting a fraudulent site is encountering emails that return to a websites mail server, but were not sent by the website. A large increase in customer calls or contact to the website in general is also sometimes a sign that a website is being spoofed.
If it has been determined that a site has been targeted for spoofing, gathering information is necessary. This information will help identify the fraudulent website, determine whether customer information has been obtained, and assist law enforcement agencies in any investigation. It is also imperative to communicate promptly with the internet service provider (ISP)— responsible for hosting the fraudulent website demanding it be taken down. Contact the domain name registrars with the same intention, and demand the incorrect use of trademarks ends immediately. If necessary, contact the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Examples of website spoofing
Phil Bradley, a former British librarian, turned Internet Consultant has put together a reference list for website spoofs that he knows are in fact not reliable websites. Bradley has divided his list into two categories, Scientific and Commercial.
In the scientific portion of Bradley's list he includes websites that want you to donate to Dihydrogen Monoxide Research, save an endangered species known as the tree octopus , and sells an anti-effeminant drug called Hetracil .
Bradley also includes websites that were intended to sell products to customers. Website spoofs include a site selling exotic animals as food, a site offering free electricity just for signing up to witness a technology demonstration, and one selling dehydrated water .
It should not be hard to detect that this is a fake website. To start, it is telling you that you can find out if you are pregnant from an online website. This is scientifically impossible. Yes, they can make an educated guess as to whether you are pregnant based on your symptoms, but there is no way that they have a "99.9 percent accuracy". Once you fill in your name and press enter, it brings you to a page that has a spiral looking monitor, and above it is says "Please wait while your pre-natal body parameters are scanned". It also says, "Try to remain as motionless as possible until the scan is finished." Once the 10 second countdown on the left of the screen hits zero, it brings you to another page which shows you an X-ray of your womb. If there is a baby in it, it says "Pregnancy detected!" with details about your child below. If there is no baby in the X-ray, it tells you that you are not pregnant. If you are pregnant, there is an option to "view baby". If you click on that, it will show you a picture of what your baby will look like, along with its weight, height, eye color, and hair color.
http://havidol.com/ is another spoof/parody website that pokes fun at and humorlessly critiques drug ads as seen on television commercials, which make all viewers feel like they have all of the symptoms displayed in the ad. Havitol.com is a spoof website created by artist Justine Cooper which appears to sell a drug called Havidol. This website imitates an authentic drug’s website with its use of statistics, scientific facts, a logo design, catch phrases, merchandise, acronyms, photographs and additional multi-media features such as video commercials. The idea behind this ad is to raise awareness about the pharmaceutical industry’s questionable drug-selling tactics. Cooper has made this satirical pharmaceutical site in response to the marketing and advertising tactics of the pharmaceutical industry that attempts to sell as many drugs as they can by making people think that everyday conditions such as pressure, anxiety, etc. are diseases needing pharmaceutical treatment, rather than a normal part of life.
- "Spoof website will stay online", BBC News, 29 July 2004
- Anti-Phishing Technology", Aaron Emigh, Radix Labs, 19 January 2005
- See e.g.  or 
- "Fake Sites Insist Microsoft Bought Firefox", Gregg Keizer, InformationWeek, 9 November 2006