Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, using physical and chemical methods to stop weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants and livestock. In order to reduce weed growth, many "weed control" strategies have been developed in order to contain the growth and spread of weeds.
The most basic is ploughing which cuts the roots of annual weeds. Today, chemical weed killers known as herbicides are widely used.
A plant is often termed weed when it has one or more of the following characteristics:
- Little or no value (as in medicinal, nutritional, or energy)
- Very high growth rate and/or ease of germination
- Exhibits competition to crops, for space, light, water and nutrients
Weeds can compete with productive crops or pasture, or convert productive land into unusable scrub. Weeds are also often poisonous, distasteful, produce burrs, thorns or other damaging body parts or otherwise interfere with the use and management of desirable plants by contaminating harvests or excluding livestock.
Weeds tend to thrive at the expense of the more refined edible or ornamental crops. They provide competition for space, nutrients, water and light, although how seriously they will affect a crop depends on a number of factors. Some crops have greater resistance than others- smaller, slower growing seedlings are more likely to be overwhelmed than those that are larger and more vigorous. Onions are one of the crops most susceptible to competition, for they are slow to germinate and produce slender, upright stems. Quick growing, broad leafed weeds therefore have a distinct advantage, and if not removed, the crop is likely to be lost. Broad beans however produce large seedlings, and will suffer far less profound effects of weed competition other than during periods of water shortage at the crucial time when the pods are filling out. Transplanted crops raised in sterile seed or potting compost will have a head start over germinating weed seeds.
Weeds also differ in their competitive abilities, and can vary according to conditions and the time of year. Tall growing vigorous weeds such as fat hen (Chenopodium album) can have the most pronounced effects on adjacent crops, although seedlings of fat hen that appear in late summer will only produce small plants. Chickweed (Stellaria media), a low growing plant, can happily co-exist with a tall crop during the summer, but plants that have overwintered will grow rapidly in early spring and may swamp crops such as onions or spring greens.
The presence of weeds does not necessarily mean that they are competing with a crop, especially during the early stages of growth when each plant can find the resources it requires without interfering with the others. However, as the seedlings’ size increases, their root systems will spread as they each begin to require greater amounts of water and nutrients. Estimates suggest that weed and crop can co-exist harmoniously for around three weeks, therefore it is important that weeds be removed early on in order to prevent competition occurring. Weed competition can have quite dramatic effects on crop growth. Harold A Roberts cites research carried out with onions wherein "Weeds were carefully removed from separate plots at different times during the growth of the crop and the plots were then kept clean. It was found that after competition had started, the final yield of bulbs was being reduced at a rate equivalent to almost 4% per day. So that by delaying weeding for another fortnight, the yield was cut to less than half that produced on ground kept clean all the time." (The Complete Know And Grow Vegetables, Bleasdale, Salter and others, OUP 1991). He goes on to record that "by early June, the weight of weeds per unit area was twenty times that of the crop, and the weeds had already taken from the soil about half of the nitrogen and a third of the potash which had been applied".
Perennial weeds with bulbils, such as lesser celandine and oxalis, or with persistent underground stems such as couch grass (Agropyron repens) or creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens) are able to store reserves of food, and are thus able to grow faster and with more vigour than their annual counterparts. There is also evidence that the roots of some perennials such as couch grass exude allelopathic chemicals which inhibit the growth of other nearby plants.
Weeds can also host pests and diseases that can spread to cultivated crops. Charlock and Shepherd's purse may carry clubroot, eelworm can be harboured by chickweed, fat hen and shepherd's purse, while the cucumber mosaic virus, which can devastate the cucurbit family, is carried by a range of different weeds including chickweed and groundsel.
However, at times the role of weeds in this respect can be overrated. As far as insect pests are concerned, often the species that live on weeds are not the same as those that attack vegetable crops; "Tests with the common cruciferous weeds such as shepherds purse have shown that they do not act as hosts for the larvae of the cabbage root fly. One exception was found to be the wild radish, but this is not usually a weed of established vegetable gardens" (Roberts, The Complete Know And Grow Vegetables). However pests such as cutworms may first attack weeds then move on to cultivated crops.
While charlock, a common weed in southeastern USA, may be considered a weed by row crop growers, it is highly valued by beekeepers, who seek out places where it blooms all winter, thus providing pollen for honeybees and other pollinators. Its bloom is resistant to all but a very hard freeze, and even that will only kill it back briefly. By feeding an array of pollinators during a seasonal dearth, it can redound to the farmer's advantage. Many weeds are likewise highly beneficial to pollinators.
In domestic gardens, methods of weed control include covering an area of ground with several layers of wet newspaper or one black plastic sheet for several weeks. In the case of using wet newspaper, the multiple layers prevent light from reaching all plants beneath, which kills them. Saturating the newspaper with water daily speeds the decomposition of the dead plants. Any weed seeds that start to sprout because of the water will also be deprived of sunlight, be killed, and decompose. After several weeks, all germinating weed seeds present in the ground should be dead. Then the newspaper can be removed and the ground can be planted. The decomposed plants will help fertilise the plants or seeds planted later.
In the case of using the black plastic sheet, the greenhouse effect is used to kill the plants beneath the sheet. A 5–10 cm layer of wood chip mulch on the ground will also prevent most weeds from sprouting. Also, gravel can be spread over the ground as an inorganic mulch. In agriculture, irrigation is sometimes used as a weed control measure such as in the case of paddy fields. Many people find that although the black plastic sheeting is extremely effective at preventing the weeds in areas where it covers, but in actual use it is difficult to achieve full coverage.
Knowing how weeds reproduce, spread and survive adverse conditions can help in developing effective control and management strategies. Weeds have a range of techniques that enable them to thrive;
Annual and biennial weeds such as chickweed, annual meadow grass, shepherd's purse, groundsel, fat hen, cleaver, speedwell and hairy bittercress propagate themselves by seeding. Many produce huge numbers of seed several times a season, some all year round. Groundsel can produce 1000 seed, and can continue right through a mild winter, whilst Scentless Mayweed produces over 30,000 seeds per plant. Not all of these will germinate at once, but over several seasons, lying dormant in the soil sometimes for years until exposed to light. Poppy seed can survive 80–100 years, dock 50 or more. There can be many thousands of seeds in a square foot or square metre of ground, thus and soil disturbance will produce a flush of fresh weed seedlings.
See also Bradley Method of Bush Regeneration, which uses ecological processes to do much of the work.
"Stale seed bed" technique
One technique employed by growers is the ‘stale seed bed’, which involves cultivating the soil, then leaving it for a week or so.
When the initial flush of weeds has germinated, the grower will lightly hoe off before the desired crop is planted. However, even a freshly cleared bed will be susceptible to airborne seed from elsewhere, as well as seed brought in by passing animals which can carry them on their fur, or from freshly imported manure. The organic solution to the problem of spreading annual weeds lies in regular, properly timed weeding, preferably just before flowering (fortuitously, this is also the time at which they will be of the most value in composting).
This technique is also quite often used by farmers who let weeds germinate then return the soil before crop sowing.
Perennial weeds also propagate by seeding; the airborne seed of the dandelion and the rose-bay willow herb are parachuted far and wide. But they also have an additional range of vegetative means of spreading that gives them their pernicious reputation. Dandelion and dock put down deep tap roots, which, although they do not spread underground, are able to regrow from any remaining piece left in the ground. Removal of the complete tap root is the only sure remedy.
The most persistent of the perennials are those that spread by underground creeping rhizomes that can regrow from the tiniest fragment. These include couch grass, bindweed, ground elder, nettles, rosebay willow herb, Japanese knotweed, horsetail and bracken, as well as creeping thistle, whose tap roots can put out lateral roots. Other perennials put out runners that spread along the soil surface. As they creep along they set down roots, enabling them to colonise bare ground with great rapidity. These include creeping buttercup and ground ivy. Yet another group of perennials propagate by stolons- stems that arch back into the ground to reroot. Most familiar of these is the bramble.
All of the above weeds can be very difficult to eradicate- thick black plastic mulches can be effective to a degree, although will probably need to be left in place for at least two seasons. In addition, hoeing off weed leaves and stems as soon as they appear can eventually weaken and kill the plants, although this will require persistence in the case of plants such as bindweed. Nettle infestations can be tackled by cutting back at least three times a year, repeated over a three-year period. Bramble can be dealt with in a similar way. Some plants are said to produce root exudates that suppress herbaceous weeds. Tagetes minuata is claimed to be effective against couch and ground elder, whilst a border of comfrey is also said to act as a barrier against the invasion of some weeds including couch.
Use of herbicides
The above described methods of weed control avoid using chemicals. They are often used by farmers. However, these methods may damage a fragile soil by restructuring it, hence are not always used. They are those preferred by the organic gardener or organic farmer.
However weed control can also be achieved by the use of herbicides. Selective herbicides kill certain targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often based on plant hormones. Herbicides are generally classified as follows;
- Contact herbicides destroy only that plant tissue in contact with the chemical spray. Generally, these are the fastest acting herbicides. They are ineffective on perennial plants that are able to re-grow from roots or tubers.
- Systemic herbicides are foliar-applied and are translocated through the plant and destroy a greater amount of the plant tissue. Modern herbicides such as glyphosate are designed to leave no harmful residue in the soil.
- Soil-borne herbicides are applied to the soil and are taken up by the roots of the target plant.
- Pre-emergent herbicides are applied to the soil and prevent germination or early growth of weed seeds.
In agriculture large scale and systematic weeding is usually required, often by machines, such as liquid herbicide sprayers, or even by helicopter (such as in the USA), to eliminate the massive amount of weeds present on farming lands.
(See also section below on UK legislation regarding the control of certain weeds)
Typically a combination of methods are used in organic situations.
- Drip irrigation: Rubber hoses and other methods are used to bring water directly to the roots of the desired plants. This limits weed access to water.
- Manually pulling weeds: Labourers are used to pull weeds at various points in the growing process.
- Hot Foam: For example foamstream, the hot water infiltrates the cell walls and the high temperature causes the walls to rupture, the foam acts as a thermal blanket holding the boiling water in place.
- Boiling water: Pour boiling water to weed, they will become more green and then die in few hours. Best for weed in cracks or other hard to reach locations.
- Vinegar: Vinegar kills the visible part of the weed. They will wrinkle and die next day, although the root will still be in place to continue growing.
- Mechanically tilling around plants: Tractors are used to carefully till weeds around the crop plants at various points in the growing process. Besides tilling, other mechanical weed control methods also exist
- Ploughing: Ploughing includes tilling of soil, intercultural ploughing and summer ploughing. Ploughing through tilling of soil uproots the weeds which causes them to die. In summer ploughing is done during deep summers. Summer ploughing also helps in killing pests.
- Crop rotation: Rotating crops with ones that kill weeds by choking them out, such as hemp, Mucuna pruriens, and other crops, can be a very effective method of weed control. It is a way to avoid the use of herbicides, and to gain the benefits of crop rotation.
- Weed mat: A weed mat is an artificial mulch, fibrous cloth material, bark or newspaper laid on top of the soil preventing weeds from growing to the surface.
There are several thermal methods known to control weed. Hot foam (foamstream) causes the cell walls to rupture, killing the plant. Weed burners heat up soil quickly and destroy superficial parts of the plants. Weed seeds are often heat resistant and even react with an increase of growth on dry heat. Since the 19th century soil steam sterilization is used as a farming technique to clean soil completely from weeds. Several research results confirm the high effectivness of humid heat against weeds and its seeds.
The Weeds Act, 1959 is described as "Preventing the spread of harmful or injurious weeds", and is mainly relevant to farmers and other rural settings rather than the allotment or garden-scale grower. There are five ‘injurious’ (that is, likely to be harmful to agricultural production) weeds covered by the provisions of the Weeds Act. These are:
- Spear thistle (Cirsium vulgare)
- Creeping or field thistle (Cirsium arvense)
- Curled Dock (Rumex crispus)
- Broad leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius)
- Common ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) (n.b., this weed is poisonous to livestock. Livestock should not be allowed to graze where ragwort has grown until it is eradicated, and any traces have disintegrated. Ragwort should not be allowed to be harvested in hay or silage for feed).
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) provides guidance for the treatment removal of these weeds from infested land. Much of this is oriented towards the use of herbicides, the majority of which may not be acceptable to the organic producer (apart from non-synthetic substances like sulphur, which in some circumstances are accepted within Soil Association standards) but in most cases there are manual techniques that can be used such as digging out the roots, mulching out or carefully timed cutting before seeds are able to spread.
Primary responsibility for weeds control rests with the occupier of the land on which the weeds are growing, therefore it is important to be alert to potential weed problems and to take prompt action. However, it should be remembered that most common farmland weeds are not "injurious" within the meaning of the Weeds Act, and many such plant species have conservation and environmental value. When dealing with complaints under the Weeds Act, DEFRA has a duty in law to try to achieve a reasonable balance among different interests. These include agriculture, countryside conservation and the public in general. Constructive discussion about problems caused by weeds can often result in effective solutions and avoid the need for DEFRA to take official action. In addition to those weeds covered by the 1959 act, under section 14 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, it can be an offence to plant or grow certain specified plants in the wild (see Schedule 9 to the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981), including Giant Hogweed and Japanese Knotweed. Problems involving these plants can be referred to the local authority for the area where those weeds are growing as some local authorities have bye-laws controlling these plants. There is no statutory requirement for landowners to remove these plants from their property.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Weed control.|
- "HEMP AS WEED CONTROL". www.gametec.com. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
- "Hire a hubby". www.hireahubby.co.nz. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
- Research report of DLR Rheinlandpfalz, September 2010: Weed control in seed cultures, especially arugula, Author: Dr. Norbert Laun, Institute "Queckbrunnerhof", Schifferstadt (Germany). Viewed on 14. February 2011.