Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12
|Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen|
The Schloßkirche at the Weimar palace
|Composer||Johann Sebastian Bach|
|Related||movement 2 base for Crucifixus of Mass in B minor|
|Performed||12 April 1714Weimar –|
|Cantata text||Salomon Franck|
|Chorale||by Samuel Rodigast|
Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen (Weeping, lamenting, worrying, fearing), BWV 12, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach composed the cantata in Weimar for Jubilate, the third Sunday after Easter, and first performed it in the Weimar court chapel on 22 April 1714.
History and words
On 2 March 1714 Bach was appointed concertmaster of the Weimar court capelle of the co-reigning dukes Wilhelm Ernst and Ernst August of Saxe-Weimar. As concertmaster, he assumed the principal responsibility for composing new works, specifically cantatas for the Schloßkirche (palace church), on a monthly schedule. Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen is the second cantata in this series, composed for the third Sunday after Easter, called Jubilate. The prescribed readings for the Sunday were from the First Epistle of Peter, "Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man" (1 Peter 2:11–20), and from the Gospel of John, Jesus announcing his second coming in the so-called Farewell Discourse, saying "your sorrow shall be turned into joy" (John 16:16–23). The text, depicting the affliction of the Christians, is assumed to have been written by Salomon Franck, the Weimar court poet. The poet follows details of the Gospel. The text of the opening chorus corresponds to John 16:20, the text of the first recitative is taken from Acts 14:22, "we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God". The poet expands that this is true not only for the disciples who were addressed then, but also for every Christian. Movement 4 sees the suffering of Jesus as a consolation for the afflicted Christian, movement 5 voices the decision to follow Jesus even in suffering, movement 6 offers the consolation that it will be only a short while until all sadness is overcome, alluding as already in movement 4 to Revelation 2:10. The cantata is closed by the first stanza of the chorale Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan (1674) by Samuel Rodigast.
Bach first performed the cantata in the Weimar court chapel on 22 April 1714, then performed it in Leipzig in his first year as Thomaskantor on 30 April 1724. He reworked the first section of the first chorus to form the Crucifixus movement of the Credo in his Mass in B minor.
Franz Liszt based works for keyboard (organ or piano) on the first section of movement 2, S.179, Prelude after a theme from Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen by J. S. Bach (1854) and S.180, Variations on a theme from Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen by J. S. Bach (1862).
Scoring and structure
- Coro: Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen
- Recitativo (alto): Wir müssen durch viel Trübsal
- Aria (alto): Kreuz und Kronen sind verbunden
- Aria (bass): Ich folge Christo nach
- Aria (tenor): Sei getreu, alle Pein
- Chorale: Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan
The autograph score is titled "Concerto a 1 Oboe, 2 Violini, 2 Viole, Fagotto è 4 Voci coll' Organo". The cantata is opened by a Sinfonia, marked adagio assai, which resembles the slow movement of an oboe concerto, with an expressive and plaintive solo. The first choral movement is in da capo form. The first section is built upon a basso ostinato as an old-style passacaglia in 3/2 time. The lamento, a chromatic ostinato, is repeated twelve times. The first four words are each sung by a different vocal part, overlapping the next one. Beginning with the highest voice, each sings an extended sigh. The setting is intensified, until in the seventh repeat all voices continue the text simultaneously: "Angst und Not" ("dread and need" or "anguish and trouble"). The ninth repeat is similar to the first, but in more extreme harmonies. The 12th repeat is instrumental. The middle section on the line about the Christians "die das Zeichen Jesu tragen" (that bear the marks of Jesus), first marked "un poco allegro", is in a contrasting mood. Its last section is marked Andante, the voices enter one after the other, beginning with the lowest one and rising. Throughout the middle section, the instruments play colla parte with the voices. John Eliot Gardiner describes the first section as a "tombeau, one of the most impressive and deeply affecting cantata movements Bach can have composed to that point". The only recitative is accompanied by the strings. During the last aria, the trumpet plays the chorale tune Jesu, meine Freude as a cantus firmus; Bach may have thought of the stanza "Weicht, ihr Trauergeister". The form of the aria follows the bar form of the chorale. The closing chorale is set for four parts, illuminated by an instrumental obbligato part, likely intended for a violin.
- Die Bach Kantate Vol. 32, Helmuth Rilling, Gächinger Kantorei, Bach-Collegium Stuttgart, Helen Watts, Adalbert Kraus, Wolfgang Schöne, Hänssler 1972
- J.S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk – Sacred Cantatas Vol. 1, Gustav Leonhardt, Tölzer Knabenchor & King's College Choir, Leonhardt Consort, Paul Esswood, Kurt Equiluz, Max van Egmond, Teldec 1972
- Bach Cantatas Vol. 2 – Easter, Karl Richter, Münchener Bach-Chor, Münchener Bach-Orchester, Anna Reynolds, Peter Schreier, Theo Adam, Archiv Produktion 1974
- J.S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 2, Ton Koopman, Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir, Barbara Schlick, Kai Wessel, Christoph Prégardien, Klaus Mertens, Antoine Marchand 1995
- Bach Cantatas Vol. 24: Altenburg/Warwick, John Eliot Gardiner, Monteverdi Choir, English Baroque Soloists, William Towers, Mark Padmore, Julian Clarkson, Soli Deo Gloria 2000
- Bach Edition Vol. 20 – Cantatas Vol. 11, Pieter Jan Leusink, Holland Boys Choir, Netherlands Bach Collegium, Sytse Buwalda, Knut Schoch, Bas Ramselaar, Brilliant Classics 2000
- J.S. Bach: “Actus Tragicus” – Cantatas BWV 4, 12, 106 & 196, Konrad Junghänel, Cantus Cölln, Johanna Koslowsky, Elisabeth Popien, Gerd Türk, Wilfried Jochens, Stephan Schreckenberger, Harmonia Mundi France 2000
- J.S. Bach: Weinen, Klagen..., Philippe Herreweghe, Collegium Vocale Gent, Daniel Taylor, Mark Padmore, Peter Kooy, Harmonia Mundi France 2003
- J.S. Bach: Cantatas for the Complete Liturgical Year Vol. 11, Sigiswald Kuijken, La Petite Bande, Gerlinde Sämann, Petra Noskaiová, Christoph Genz, Jan van der Crabben, Accent 2009
- Koster, Jan. "Weimar 1708–1717". let.rug.nl. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- John Eliot Gardiner (2005). "Cantatas for the Third Sunday after Easter (Jubilate) / Schlosskirche, Altenburg" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. p. 1. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Dürr, Alfred (1971). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German) 1. Bärenreiter-Verlag. OCLC 523584.
- "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan / Text and Translation of Chorale". bach-cantatas.com. 2005. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- Christoph Wolff (1995). "Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen" BWV 12" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. p. 9. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan". bach-cantatas.com. 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
The first source is the score.
Several databases provide additional information on each cantata:
- Cantata BWV 12 Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen history, scoring, sources for text and music, translations to various languages, discography, discussion, bach-cantatas website
- BWV 12 – "Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen" English translation, discussion, Emmanuel Music
- Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen history, scoring, Bach website (German)
- BWV 12 Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen English translation, University of Vermont
- BWV 12 Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen text, scoring, University of Alberta