Wellington International Airport
|Wellington International Airport|
|Aerial photo of Wellington International Airport (north is at left)|
|Wellington Airport from Mt Victoria|
|IATA: WLG – ICAO: NZWN
|Owner||Infratil, Wellington City Council|
|Operator||Wellington International Airport Ltd|
|Serves||Wellington, New Zealand|
|Location||Rongotai, Wellington, New Zealand|
|Hub for||Air New Zealand|
|Elevation AMSL||13 m / 42 ft|
Wellington International Airport (formerly known as Rongotai Airport) (IATA: WLG, ICAO: NZWN) is an international airport located in the suburb of Rongotai in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. It is 3 NM or 5.5 km South-East from the City Centre. It is a hub for Air New Zealand and its subsidiaries. The airport is operated by Wellington International Airport Limited, a joint venture between Infratil and the Wellington City Council.
Wellington is the third-busiest airport in New Zealand (after Auckland and Christchurch) handling a total of 5,134,230 passengers in the year ending 31 March 2011. The airport, in addition to linking many New Zealand destinations with national and regional carriers, also has links to major cities in eastern Australia. It is the home of some smaller general aviation businesses, including Wellington Aero Club, which operates from the general aviation area on the western side of the runway.
The airport is on a small 110-hectare (270-acre) site on the Rongotai isthmus, a stretch of low-lying land between Wellington proper and the Miramar Peninsula. It operates a single 2,081-metre (6,827 ft) runway with ILS in both directions, capable of handling aircraft up to the Boeing 767-300 and Airbus A330-200 (although the largest aircraft to use Wellington in regular service in 2013 are the Airbus A320 and the Boeing 737-800). The airport is bordered by residential and commercial areas to the east and west, and Wellington Harbour and Cook Strait to the north and south respectively.
Rongotai Airport started with a grass runway in November 1929. The airport opened in 1935, but was closed down due to safety reasons on 27 September 1947 (grass surface often became unusable during winter months). During the closure, Paraparaumu Airport, 35 miles north of Wellington, was Wellington's airport, and became the country's busiest airport in 1949.
A proposal to relocate the terminal from the east side to the site of the Miramar Golf Course was put forward in 1956. Houses were moved and hills were bulldozed to make way for the construction of the new Wellington Airport in 1958, at a total cost of ₤5 million. The current airport was officially reopened on 25 October 1959, after lobbying by the local Chamber of Commerce for a location that was much closer to the city centre. Paraparaumu Airport was deemed unsuitable for large planes due to adverse terrain. The original length of the runway was 1630 m (5350 ft), and was extended to the length of 1936 m in the early 1970s, to handle DC-8s.
Wellington's original domestic terminal was built as a temporary measure inside a corrugated iron hangar, originally used to assemble de Havilland aircraft. It was known for being overcrowded, leaky and draughty. This building remained visible from the SoundsAir Terminal from which a covered walkway used to link the old Terminal to the new one, but has since been removed. An upgrade of the domestic terminal, budgeted at NZ$10 million, was announced in 1981, but by 1983 the plans were shelved after cost projections more than doubled. The terminal was extensively refurbished in 1986 by Air New Zealand, and Ansett New Zealand built a new terminal as an extension to the international terminal when it commenced competing domestic air services in 1986.
In 1991, the airport released plans to widen the taxiway to CAA Code D & E specifications and acquire extra space, which were abandoned after protests from local residents. The plan involved the removal of the nearby Miramar Golf Course and a large number of residential and commercial properties. The Airport purchased land from the Miramar Golf Course in 1994 for car park space.
As recently as 1992, several alternate sites for Wellington Airport were considered – Te Horo, Paraparaumu, Mana Island, Ohariu Valley, Horokiwi, Wairarapa and Pencarrow – but a decision was made to upgrade the existing site at Rongotai. A major new terminal was completed in 1999 and integrated with the international terminal, which had been built as an abortive first stage of a whole new terminal in 1977. A 90 m safety zone at the south end of the runway was constructed in order to comply with ICAO safety regulations, while a similar zone has been put in place at the runway's north end.
In April 2006, Air New Zealand and Qantas announced that they proposed to enter into a codeshare agreement, arguing that it would be necessary in order to reduce empty seats and financial losses on trans-Tasman routes. The airport counter-argued that the codeshare would stifle competition and passenger growth on Wellington's international flights, pointing to what it saw as a market duopoly dominated by Air New Zealand and Qantas. The codeshare was abandoned by the two airlines after it was rejected in a draft ruling by the ACCC in November 2006.
Terminal and piers
Wellington Airport operates a single terminal at the east of the airport, with three piers: South, South-West and North-West. The terminal and piers have a total floor area of 32,300 square metres (348,000 sq ft).
The main terminal building contains a common check-in area on the first floor and a common baggage claim area on the ground floor. Both connect to a large retail area on the first floor, looking out onto the runway. The main terminal has three gates, 18–20, which service small piston-engined and turboprop aircraft.
The South Pier contains six gates (4–9) that serve regional aircraft and Air New Zealand Link turboprop aircraft. All are airstair gates. The South West Pier contains eight gates (10–17) and is used by Air New Zealand domestic turbofan and Link turboprop aircraft; gates 10, 11, 16, and 17 are jetbridge gates used by Airbus A320 and Boeing 737–300 aircraft. There is also a koru lounge on the 2nd floor. The North West Pier contains nine gates (21-29 if a domestic flight or 41-49 if an international flight), 7 with jetbridge.
Air Movements Rongotai
Air Movements Rongotai sits on the opposite side of the Wellington airport runway from the main passenger terminals, its main use being the facilatation of RNZAF flights and flights of overseas military forces. The current building was built in the late 1980s when it housed not only the RNZAF Air movements unit but also 2 MCU (2nd Movements Control Unit) of the New Zealand army. The role of 2 MCU was the logistic control and movement of defence personal and freight throughout New Zealand and abroad, utilising both civilian and military modes of transport.
Ongoing issues and development
The length of the runway has limited the size of aircraft that can use the airport on a commercial basis, and overseas destinations are limited to the east coast of Australia and the South Pacific.
At 2,081 metres (6,827 ft), Wellington's runway is shorter than some New Zealand domestic airport runways; both Invercargill and Hamilton are longer. The Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 aircraft currently using Wellington cannot take off at their maximum take-off weight (MTOW) (2,300–2,550 m or 7,500–8,370 ft for the 737 and 2,100 m or 6,900 ft for the A320) thus limiting their range. Larger mid-sized airliners such as the Boeing 757, Boeing 767 and Airbus A330-200 can take off with ease but regular passenger numbers do not warrant their use, although both Air New Zealand and Qantas fly in their Boeing 767-300s for one-off events such as international sports fixtures, and the Royal New Zealand Air Force fly in their Boeing 757 transport aircraft.
Planes larger than the 767 and A330 do land at Wellington but not in regular service.
- An Air New Zealand Boeing 747-200 landed in 27 June 1999 for the opening of the new terminal building. The plane originally flew in from Auckland Airport with mainly flight crew and representatives, in which the plane never exceeded its MLW maximum landing weight with optimal amount of fuel to reach its destination.
- A Gulf Air Airbus A340-300 carrying the Bahrain national football team landed in November 2009 for the World Cup qualifier against New Zealand at Westpac Stadium. However, the short runway meant on the outbound leg that the plane had to stop at Sydney for refuelling.
- On 9 February 2011, Air New Zealand landed its brand new Boeing 777-300ER ZK-OKM for an open day of the aircraft's new long-haul cabin. Special training was required by the crew to be able to land the largest twinjet in the world at Wellington.
- Following the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, Air New Zealand utilised some of its Boeing 777-200ER fleet in evacuating people wanting to leave Christchurch and ferrying essential supplies into the city. As the flights were only 300 km (190 mi) long, requiring little fuel, the aircraft could operate at full payload in and out of Wellington.
A full-length runway extension, to accommodate long-haul aircraft such as the Boeing 747, has been previously investigated, but would require expensive land reclamation into Lyall Bay, and massive breakwater protection from Cook Strait. Doubts have existed over the viability of such an undertaking, particularly as Air New Zealand has repeatedly indicated that it has no interest in pursuing international service beyond Australia and the Pacific Islands, and no international airlines have shown serious interest in providing services beyond those points. Air New Zealand has questioned potential demand for such flights, citing the axing of its Christchurch-Los Angeles route in early 2006. Wellington business leaders point out that Christchurch's economy is mainly industrial and agricultural, while arguing that Wellington's economy is based mainly on what they see as the higher-value public service, financial, ICT, and creative sectors. In particular, a survey commissioned by the Wellington Chamber of Commerce found that respondents regarded the airport's limited international capacity as the biggest obstacle to the Wellington region's economic potential, by a long margin over other factors. It has also been pointed out that while Air New Zealand has been scaling back certain routes, it is adding others, most notably Auckland-Shanghai from 6 November 2006, and extending its Auckland-Hong Kong service to London Heathrow.
In 2011, the Wellington City Council, Mayor Celia Wade-Brown and local business leaders reiterated their support for lengthening the runway, as part of the Airport's 2030 Long Term Plan. The same year, Upper Hutt mayor Wayne Guppy called for further action on a runway extension, with a spokesman for the airport confirming a proposal to lengthen the northern end of the runway by 300m at an estimated cost of $300 million. In 2013, United Arab Emirates-based airline Emirates said it would consider Wellington as a destination while the airport operator said 1000 people connect with long-haul flights to and from the capital each day. China Southern Airlines has also expressed interest in starting a Guangzhou to Wellington service soon.
The SP era
Because of the runway limitations, Qantas purchased two short-bodied "Special Performance" 747SP for flights between Wellington and Australia during the first half of the 1980s. Air New Zealand operated DC-8s from Wellington on trans-Tasman routes, but when the planes were retired in 1981 none of its other planes were capable of operating international flights from Wellington – Air New Zealand's DC-10s required extra runway length, and twinjet planes were not yet ETOPS-certified. The 747SP addressed this gap in the market. Air New Zealand (after turning down an offer to purchase the type) codeshared with Qantas. Special markings on the runway assisted Qantas pilots where to touch down and to abort and go round to attempt a landing again. The SP service to Wellington continued until 1985 when Qantas and later Air New Zealand took delivery of the more capable and economical Boeing 767-200ER type. During this time Pan American Airways took an interest in the operation of SPs into the capital and proposed a possible long-range service to the US via Hawaii. However the New Zealand Government refused Pan Am's request for the route, citing Auckland Airport as the main gateway for overseas flights and the ability to generate passenger numbers amongst other things.[dead link]
Passenger terminal development
The international terminal – partially built by the now-defunct Ansett New Zealand in 1986 – has been upgraded in various stages since 2005. On 19 February 2008, Wellington Airport announced the proposed design for its new, expanded international terminal.  The design, nicknamed "The Rock" and penned by Studio Pacific Architecture and Warren and Mahoney, was a deliberate departure from traditional airport terminal design, and has aroused a great deal of controversy. "The Rock" opened in October 2010.
The upgrade of the international terminal is intended to double the existing capacity from 500 passengers per hour to 1000, and has been done in anticipation of the entry into service of the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350. According to WIAL, these aircraft could fly long-haul from Wellington, opening up the possibility of direct air links to Asia and the Americas if commercially viable. Regional business organisations and the airport have put forward their case to various international airlines for long-haul operations to and from Wellington. There have also been plans for expanding retail operations, as well as building a hotel above the carpark.
Vincent Aviation has a small passenger lounge on the Western apron which is used for air charters. The Life Flight Trust operates a hangar to the south of Vincent Aviation's two hangars.
In April 2009, the airport issued a new master plan outlining upgrade plans over the next 20 years, including expanded terminal and apron space, and scope for runway extensions.
Wellington will be spending $40 million expanding its south west pier at the domestic terminal to cope with increased passengers numbers work is expected to be finished in 2015.
Wellington Airport's access is by road.
The airport lies at the southern end of the North Island section of State Highway 1, which connects the airport to Wellington City via the Mount Victoria Tunnel. SH 1 then continues to the Wellington Urban Motorway, which takes traffic out of the city and further afield to Porirua and the Hutt Valley, and on to the Kapiti Coast and the Wairarapa. The distance from the airport to the city centre is roughly 8 km (5.0 mi). Several taxi and shuttle companies service the airport, with a fare to the city centre typically costing NZ$25–35 for a taxi and NZ$14–16 for a shuttle
Two Metlink bus routes service the airport. The major route is route 91 "Airport Flyer", which connects the terminal with central Wellington and Wellington Railway Station, then Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt. The second is Route 11 (Seatoun), a trolley bus route, which has a stop within a five-minute walk of the terminal. Connections to Porirua, Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa requires changing to a Metlink train at Wellington Railway Station.
Public transport to the airport is limited to buses as the Airport is quite distant from the Wellington Railway Station, making it difficult to link Wellington Airport to the CBD via a rail link. Feasibility studies, such as the Greater Wellington Regional Council's Ngauranga to Wellington Airport Corridor Plan, have been carried out to address this gap in the network, with light rail being touted as a solution by public transport advocates.
|Previous Stop||Metlink Bus Services||Next Stop|
In spite of the short runway and frequent winds, there have been very few safety incidents at the airport. However, at the air show held on opening day in 1959 there were two significant incidents. A Royal New Zealand Air Force Sunderland flying boat scraped its keel along the runway during a low pass in turbulent conditions; it returned to its base at Hobsonville and was beached for repair. A Royal Air Force Avro Vulcan bomber aborted its landing when it touched down short of the runway, rupturing its left main landing gear drag link, the wing attachments and engine fuel lines; the aircraft flew to Ohakea air base where it was stranded for several months being repaired.
- On 17 February 1963, Vickers 807 Viscount, ZK-BWO, "City of Dunedin" of the National Airways Corporation overran the southern end of the runway ending up damaged down an embankment on the adjacent public road.
- In 1991 a United Airlines Boeing 747 made an emergency landing after its intended destination, Auckland Airport, was closed by fog, it was estimated that the plane had it continued to its planned alternate, Christchuch, would have had an unacceptable 15 minutes of fuel on board.
- On 21 November 2007, a Cessna 172 owned by Wings over Whales, departing to Kaikoura on a whale-watching trip, flipped onto its roof as it was taxiing onto the runway in strong northerly winds. Two people were on board and escaped with only minor injuries. The airport was closed for approximately two hours.
- On 17 June 2008, a Pacific Blue 737–800 was moved sideways away from an airbridge after a strong gust of wind caught the tail section. Although passengers were disembarking at the time and ground crew were working under the aircraft, no-one was injured.
Airlines and destinations
|Air Post||Auckland, Blenheim|
|1||Australia, Sydney||303,951||0.1||Air New Zealand, Qantas|
|2||Australia, Brisbane||190,353||3.9||Virgin Australia|
|3||Australia, Melbourne||178,340||5.6||Air New Zealand, Qantas|
- List of airports in New Zealand
- List of airlines of New Zealand
- Transport in New Zealand
- List of busiest airports in New Zealand
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- Page Not Found | Victoria University of Wellington
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- International Airline Activity—Annual Publications
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wellington International Airport.|
- Wellington International Airport official site
- Airliner photos at Wellington International Airport (Airliners.net site)
- NZWN Details on AviationPage New Zealand
- Information about Wellington International Airport
- New Zealand AIP Operational Data Pages