Wembley Stadium (1923)

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This article is about the original stadium opened in 1923. For the new stadium opened in 2007, see Wembley Stadium.
Wembley Stadium
The Twin Towers, Old Wembley
Wembley Stadium (1923) logo.svg
Wembley Twin Towers.jpg
View from Wembley Way before the Germany v England semi-final at Euro 96
Former names Empire Stadium
British Empire Exhibition Stadium
Location Wembley, London, England
Coordinates 51°33′20″N 0°16′47″W / 51.55556°N 0.27972°W / 51.55556; -0.27972Coordinates: 51°33′20″N 0°16′47″W / 51.55556°N 0.27972°W / 51.55556; -0.27972
Owner Wembley Company
Capacity 82,000 (originally 127,000)
Surface Grass and track
Construction
Broke ground 1922
Opened 1923
Renovated 1963
Closed 2000
Demolished 2003
Rebuilt Replaced 2007 by Wembley Stadium (also known as New Wembley)
Construction cost £750,000 GBP (1923)
Architect Sir John William Simpson and Maxwell Ayrton
Sir Owen Williams (engineer)
Tenants
England national football team
(1923–2000)
London Monarchs
(1991–1992)
Wembley Lions speedway team
(1946–1957, 1970–1971)
Arsenal FC European games
(1998–2000)
Leyton Orient FC
(1930)
World Games 1985

The original Wembley Stadium /ˈwɛmbli/, officially known as the Empire Stadium, was a football stadium in Wembley, London, England, standing on the site now occupied by the New Wembley Stadium that opened in 2007.

It was famous for hosting the annual FA Cup finals, five European Cup finals, the 1948 Summer Olympics, the 1966 World Cup Final, the final of Euro 96, Queen's Magic Tour, the 1985 Live Aid concert, and both the 1992 and 1995 Rugby League World Cup Finals. Of Wembley Stadium, Pelé said, "Wembley is the cathedral of football. It is the capital of football and it is the heart of football"[1] in recognition of its status as the world's best-known football stadium.

The twin towers were an icon for England and Wembley and their demolition in 2003 upset many members of the public.[2] Debris from the Old Wembley Stadium was used to make the award-winning Northala Fields in Northolt, Ealing.

History[edit]

The Twin Towers of Wembley Stadium.

The stadium's first turf was cut by King George V, and it was first opened to the public on 28 April 1923. First known as the British Empire Exhibition Stadium[3] or simply Empire Stadium, it was built by Sir Robert McAlpine[4] for the British Empire Exhibition[5][6][7] of 1924 (extended to 1925).[8][9][10][11]

The stadium cost £750,000, and was constructed on the site of an earlier folly called Watkin's Tower. The architects were Sir John Simpson and Maxwell Ayrton[12] and the Head Engineer Sir Owen Williams. It was originally intended to demolish the stadium at the end of the Exhibition, but it was saved at the suggestion of Sir James Stevenson[citation needed], a Scot who was chairman of the organising committee for the Empire Exhibition. The ground had been used for football as early as the 1880s[13]

At the end of the exhibition, an entrepreneur Arthur Elvin (later to become Sir Arthur Elvin) started buying the derelict buildings one by one, demolishing them, and selling off the scrap. The stadium had gone into liquidation, after it was pronounced "financially unviable".[14] Elvin offered to buy the stadium for £127,000, using a £12,000 downpayment and the balance plus interest payable over ten years.[15]

After complications following the death of James White the original Stadium owner, Elvin bought Wembley Stadium from the new owners, (Wembley Company) at the original price, since they honoured Elvin's original deal. They then immediately bought it back from Elvin, leaving him with a healthy profit. Instead of cash he received shares, which gave him the largest stake in Wembley Stadium and he became chairman.[15]

The electric scoreboard and the all encircling roof, made from aluminium and translucent glass, were added in 1963.

The Royal Box in 1986.

The stadium's distinctive Twin Towers became its trademark and nickname.[16] Also well known were the thirty-nine steps needed to be climbed to reach the Royal box and collect a trophy (and winners'/losers' medals). Wembley was the first pitch to be referred to as "Hallowed Turf", with many stadia around the world borrowing this phrase. In 1934, the Empire Pool was built nearby. The 'Wembley Stadium Collection' is held by the National Football Museum. The stadium closed in October 2000, and was demolished in 2003 for redevelopment. The top of one of the twin towers was erected as a memorial in the park on the north side of Overton Close in the Saint Raphael's Estate.

Football[edit]

Wembley is best known for hosting football matches, having hosted the FA Cup annually as well as numerous England International fixtures.

White Horse Final[edit]

Main article: 1923 FA Cup Final
Billy the White Horse, saviour of the 1923 FA Cup Final

The Empire Stadium was built in exactly 300 days at the cost of £750,000. Described as the world's greatest sporting arena, it was ready only 4 days before the White Horse Final. The FA had not considered admission by ticket, grossly underestimating the anticipation of the number of fans turning up to the 104 gates on match day. However, after the game, every event, apart from the 1982 replay,[17] was ticketed.

Crowds define the edges of the pitch

The first event held at the stadium was the FA Cup final on 28 April 1923 between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United. This is known as the White Horse Final. Such was the eagerness of fans and casual observers to attend the final at the new national stadium that vast numbers of people crammed through the 104 turnstiles into the stadium, far exceeding its official 127,000 capacity. The crowds overflowed onto the pitch as there was no room on the terraces. Estimates of the number of fans in attendance range from 240,000[18] to well over 300,000.[19] It is estimated that another 60,000 were locked outside the gates. The FA were forced to refund 10% of the total gate money to fans unable to reach the terraces. The White Horse Final has the highest ever unofficial "non-racing" sports attendance in the world,[citation needed] which is very unlikely to be broken in the near future. It was thought that the match would not be played because of the volume of spectators inside the stadium that had spilled onto the pitch. That was until mounted police, including Police Constable George Scorey and his white horse, Billy, slowly pushed the masses back to the sides of the field of play for the FA Cup Final to start, just 45 minutes late. In honour of Billy, the footbridge outside the new Wembley Stadium has been named the White Horse Bridge. The official attendance is often quoted as 126,047. The match was a 2–0 victory for Bolton Wanderers, with David Jack scoring the first ever goal at Wembley.

Matthews Final[edit]

Main article: 1953 FA Cup Final

The 1953 FA Cup Final between Blackpool and Bolton Wanderers was dubbed the "Matthews Final" after Blackpool's winger Stanley Matthews. At 38, he was making his third and ultimately his final attempt at winning an FA Cup medal.[20] In the previous six years, he failed to earn a winner's medal against Manchester United in 1948 and Newcastle United in 1951.[20] It featured a hat-trick by Blackpool's Stan Mortensen in his side's 4–3 win, with Matthews almost single-handedly turning the game around for Blackpool who had trailed 3–0 to Bolton Wanderers before fighting back to win the game. It remained the only hat-trick ever scored in an FA Cup Final at the original Wembley.

The FA Cup final was played there in April or May until 2000 (excluding the 1970 replay when Chelsea beat Leeds at Old Trafford). It was also the venue for Finals of the FA Amateur Cup, League Cup (except for the early years when this was settled on a home and away basis) and in later years the Associate Members' Cup and the Football League promotion play-off finals (in the early years of play-offs they were home and away fixtures). The 1988 final of the Middlesex Charity Cup was also played there.[21]

International fixtures[edit]

England v Scotland in 1981

Prior to the 1923 Wembley stadium, international football games had been played by England at various different stadia. Most early internationals (including the first ever international football match (1870)) were played at the Oval, which had been built in 1845 and has always been a major cricket venue. For the first 27 years the only International England games played at Wembley were fixtures against Scotland, with other games played elsewhere until 1951. The first team other than Scotland to face England at the venue was Argentina.[22]

In 1956 and 1971, it was the venue of the home matches of the Great Britain national football team for the qualification matches to the Summer Olympic Games against Bulgaria.[23]

In 1966 it was the leading venue of the World Cup. It hosted the final game, where the tournament hosts, England, won 4–2 after extra-time against West Germany. Thirty years later, it was the principal venue of Euro 96, hosting all of England's matches, as well as the tournament's final, where reunified Germany won the cup for a third time with the first international Golden Goal in football history. (Germany - Czech Republic 2:1)

Germany had beaten England on penalties in the semi-final after a 1-1 draw, with Gareth Southgate missing a penalty for England in the shoot-out.

England's final two competitive games played at the stadium resulted in 0–1 defeats for England to Scotland and Germany respectively. The first defeat was in the play-off for the Euro 2000 qualifiers in November 1999, but England still went through as they won the other leg 2-0 at Hampden Park. The very last game at Wembley, however, was the opening qualifier for the 2002 World Cup, and defeat prompted the resignation of England manager Kevin Keegan at the end of the game after just 18 months in charge.

Club football[edit]

In all, the stadium hosted seven European Cup finals. The first two were 1963 final between AC Milan and Benfica, and the 1968 final between Manchester United and Benfica. In 1971 it again hosted the final, between Ajax and Panathinaikos, and once more in 1978, this time between Liverpool and Club Brugge, another in 1992, when Barcelona played Sampdoria. Wembley was selected for the 2011 and 2013 finals.

Wembley has also hosted two UEFA Cup Winners' Cup finals: in 1965, when West Ham United beat 1860 Munich, and in 1993, when Parma overcame Antwerp.

It was also the venue for Arsenal's home Champions League matches in 1998–99 and 1999–2000. It has hosted an individual club's home matches on two other occasions, in 1930 when Leyton Orient played two home Third Division South games whilst their Lea Bridge Stadium was undergoing urgent remedial works,[24] and in 1930–31 for eight matches by non-League Ealing A.F.C.[25] It was also to be the home of the amateur club which made several applications to join the Football League, the Argonauts.[25]

In March 1998, Arsenal made a bid to buy Wembley in hope of gaining a larger stadium to replace their Highbury ground which had a capacity of less than 40,000 and was unsuitable for expansion, but the bid was later abandoned in favour of building the 60,000 capacity Emirates Stadium which was opened in 2006.[26]

Last matches[edit]

On 20 May 2000 the last FA Cup final to be played at the old Wembley saw Chelsea defeat Aston Villa with the only goal scored by Roberto Di Matteo.[27] The last competitive club match there was the 2000 First Division play-off final on 29 May between Ipswich Town and Barnsley, a 4–2 win resulting in promotion to the Premier League for Ipswich.[28] The last club match of all was the 2000 Charity Shield in which Chelsea beat Manchester United 2–0. The last international match was on 7 October in Kevin Keegan's last game as England manager. England were beaten 0-1 by Germany, with Dietmar Hamann scoring the last goal at Wembley. On that day Tony Adams made his 60th Wembley appearance, a record for any player.[29] Adams also claimed England's final goal at the stadium, having scored in the previous home fixture against Ukraine on 31 May.[30]

Other sports[edit]

Rugby league[edit]

A marching band entertains the incoming crowd prior to the 1956 Rugby League Cup Final

In the sport of rugby league, the RFL has held its Challenge Cup final at Wembley from 1929 onwards.[31] The stadium was also regularly used by the sport for major international matches, such as Great Britain versus Australia. In 1949 the France national rugby league team became the first French national team of any sport to win at Wembley. The largest crowd for a Challenge Cup final at Wembley was set in 1985 when Wigan beat Hull F.C. 28–24 in front of 99,801 spectators, which as of 2014 remains the second highest rugby league attendance in England behind only the 1954 Challenge Cup Final replay at Bradford's Odsal Stadium when a then World Record attendance of 102,575 saw Warrington defeat Halifax 18-4.[citation needed]

The stadium set the international record crowd for a rugby league game when 73,631 turned out for the 1992 Rugby League World Cup Final between Great Britain and Australia. The Mal Meninga-led Australian team won the game 10–6 on the back of a Steve Renouf try in the north-east corner and Meninga's goal kicking. The 1995 World Cup final between England and Australia was also played at Wembley with 66,540 spectators watching Australia win 16–8. The final of the 1999 Challenge Cup was the last to be played at the stadium, with the annual fixture moving to other grounds before returning to the new Wembley upon its completion in 2007.

Internationals[edit]

Game# Date Result Attendance
1 12 March 1949 France def. England 12-5 15,000
2 16 October 1963 Australia def. Great Britain 22-16 13,946
3 3 November 1973 Great Britain def. Australia 21-12 9,874
4 27 October 1990 Great Britain def. Australia 19-12 54,569
5 24 October 1992 Australia def. Great Britain 10-6 73,631
6 16 October 1993 Great Britain def. New Zealand 17-0 36,131
7 22 October 1994 Great Britain def. Australia 8-4 57,034
8 7 October 1995 England def. Australia 20-16 41,271
9 28 October 1995 Australia def. England 16-8 66,540
10 1 November 1997 Australia (SL) def. Great Britain 38-14 41,135

1948 Summer Olympics[edit]

Wembley was the main athletics venue for the 1948 Summer Olympics, with Fanny Blankers-Koen and Emil Zátopek among the notable winners. The Stadium also hosted the semi-finals and finals of the Olympic hockey and football tournaments, the Prix des Nations event in the equestrian competition, and a demonstration match of lacrosse.[32]

Speedway[edit]

Speedway first took place at Wembley in 1929, and operated until the outbreak of World War II in 1939, a few days before the 1939 World Championship Final was due to be held, but was cancelled as a result of the war. The Lions returned in 1946 and operated in the top flight until the end of the 1956 season winning a number of League titles. A short lived revival saw the Lions in the British League in the 1970 and 1971 seasons. Lionel Van Praag, Tommy Price, and Freddie Williams, all won World Championships whilst riding for Wembley. The ashes for the speedway track were supplied by Richard Biffa Ltd who's operating base at the time was in Wembley Hill Road. Richard Biffa later became Biffa Waste Services.

Between 1936 and 1960 Wembley hosted all of the first fifteen finals of the Speedway World Championship. It hosted another nine World Finals before the last one at Wembley took place in 1981 in front of a record speedway attendance at the venue of 92,500 fans.[33] Riders who won the World Championship at Wembley include 1936 World Champion Van Praag, Price, Williams, Jack Young, Ronnie Moore, Ove Fundin, Barry Briggs, Ole Olsen, Bruce Penhall (the winner of the 1981 championship), and legendary rider Ivan Mauger.

Wembley was also the home to the Wembley Lions motorcycle speedway team, formed by the Wembley Stadium chairman Sir Arthur Elvin.[15]

The Speedway track at Wembley Stadium was 345 metres (377 yards) in length. It was located inside of the Greyhound racing track, but intersected the stadiums playing field. The pits were located in the tunnel.

Stock Car Racing[edit]

Two meetings were held at Wembley in 1974 promoted by Trevor Redmond. The first meeting held featured BriSCA Formula 1 Stock Cars and National Hot Rods. The second meeting featured the BriSCA Formula 2 Stock Cars World Final with F1's in support. Before the first meeting the Wembley groundsman threatened to resign over possible damage to the hallowed turf. The pitch was surrounded by wooden beams and little damage was caused.[34]

Rugby union[edit]

Though the venue was not traditionally a regular host of rugby union matches, England played a friendly against Canada on 17 October 1992, as their regular home stadium at Twickenham was undergoing redevelopment. Wales played their Five Nations and autumn international home matches at Wembley (as Twickenham Stadium would not accommodate them) while Cardiff Arms Park was being rebuilt as the Millennium Stadium in the late 1990s (a deal reciprocated for FA Cups during the construction of the new Wembley Stadium). In total there were seven internationals.

Date Competition Home team Away team
17 October 1992 1992 Autumn International Series England 26 Canada 13
29 November 1997 1997 Autumn International Series Wales 7 New Zealand 42
5 April 1998 1998 Five Nations Championship Wales 0 France 51
7 March 1998 1998 Five Nations Championship Wales 19 Scotland 13
14 November 1998 1998 Autumn International Series Wales 20 South Africa 28
20 February 1999 1999 Five Nations Championship Wales 23 Ireland 29
11 April 1999 1999 Five Nations Championship Wales 32 England 31

Greyhound racing[edit]

Wembley was also a regular venue for greyhound racing. It was the first sport Sir Arthur Elvin introduced to the stadium. The opening meeting was in 1927 and 50,000 people attended to watch the first race won by a greyhound named Spin.[35] The dog racing provided the stadium with its main source of regular income, especially in the early days, and continued to attract crowds of several thousand up until the early 1960s (Photo of Wembley Stadium, prepared for the next greyhound race:[3]).

Two of the biggest events in the greyhound racing calendar are the St Leger and Trafalgar Cup[36] Both were originally held at Wembley, the St Leger from 1928 until 1998 after which it moved to Wimbledon Stadium and the Trafalgar Cup from 1929 until 1998 after which it moved to Oxford Stadium. In 1931 the famous greyhound Mick the Miller won the St Leger.

Wembley's owner's refusal to cancel the regular greyhound racing meant that the match between Uruguay and France in the 1966 World Cup was played at White City.

American football[edit]

The National Football League held nine preseason American football games at Wembley between 1983 and 1993. The Minnesota Vikings and the St. Louis Cardinals played the first game on 6 August 1983. The Detroit Lions and the Dallas Cowboys played the last game on 8 August 1993. The United States Football League also played an exhibition game there on 21 July 1984 between the Philadelphia Stars and Tampa Bay Bandits. The London Monarchs of the World League of American Football played at the venue in 1991 and 1992. Wembley hosted the inaugural World Bowl where the Monarchs defeated the Barcelona Dragons 21–0.

Gaelic football[edit]

From 1958 until the mid-1970s, hurling and gaelic football tournaments known as the "Wembley Tournaments" were held at Wembley Stadium to bring the Irish sports to expatriates in Britain at the time. Several Gaelic football games were played in Wembley Stadium, most of them exhibition matches, most notably Kerry and Down in 1961.

Other events[edit]

The stadium also staged women's field hockey matches in which England appeared in their annual match between 1951 to 1969 and then from 1971 to 1991.

On 26 May 1975, in front of 90,000 people, Evel Knievel crashed while trying to land a jump over thirteen single decker city buses, an accident which resulted in his initial retirement from his daredevil life.

In 1992, the World Wrestling Federation (now known as WWE) drew a sellout of 80,355 when SummerSlam was hosted at Wembley Stadium. The main event featured English wrestler Davey Boy Smith winning the Intercontinental Championship from Bret Hart.

Music[edit]

The stadium became a musical venue in August 1972 with The London Rock and Roll Show, an all-star concert. It later played host to a number of concerts and events, most notably the British leg of Live Aid, which featured such acts as David Bowie, Queen, Paul McCartney, Elton John, The Who, Dire Straits and U2, held at the stadium on 13 July 1985. Phil Collins made news by performing at Wembley, then boarding a helicopter to London Heathrow Airport, taking a British Airways Concorde to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and performing at that segment of Live Aid at JFK Stadium on the same day.

Other charity concerts which took place in the stadium were the 1988 Human Rights Now! and Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute concert, The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert for AIDS Awareness and the NetAid charity concert.

Acts who played at Wembley Stadium include:

  • Michael Jackson (15 times, most by any artist in the history of Wembley Stadium, selling over 1.1 million tickets in the process)

During Michael Jackson's Bad World Tour in 1988, seven sell-out concerts were staged at Wembley which included five in a row, and two at a later date. Each concert had an attendance of 72,000 people. According to the Guinness Book of World Records Jackson set a new world record with 504,000 people attending the seven sold out concerts. Over 2 million people tried to buy tickets. More concerts could have been staged but the stadium's quota was full. These seven concerts were highly anticipated and created huge media attention. He was also given a special award by Wembley Stadium Officials for achieving this milestone. The concert on 16 July 1988 (One of the seven sell-out concert) was attended by Princess Diana and Prince Charles. The DVD of this concert (Michael Jackson: Live at Wembley July 16, 1988) was released on 18 September 2012 as part of the 25th Anniversary reissue of his 1987 hit album Bad and as well as a stand alone DVD. A further five sell-out concerts followed in 1992 during his Dangerous World Tour and his last three shows in 1997 during HIStory World Tour brought total tickets sale over 1.1 million. To date, this record is not broken.

References[edit]

  1. ^ [dead link] Mayor of London – Case for Wembley Stadium
  2. ^ Campbel, Denis (13 June 1999). "Foster topples the Wembley towers". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
    "Wembley loses twin towers". BBC News. 29 July 1999. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
    "The road to Wembley". The Daily Telegraph. 25 September 2002. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Staff (17 June 1924). "Asks Premier to Stop Rodeo Steer Roping; British Society Appeals 'in Name of Humanity' Against Contest of American Cowboys". The New York Times. 
  4. ^ Sir Robert McAlpine Project Archive
  5. ^ Photograph of exhibition site
  6. ^ Map of exhibition site
  7. ^ Sunday Tribune of India (newspaper) Article on exhibition (2004)
  8. ^ British Pathe (agency) Film of British Empire Exhibition, reel one
  9. ^ British Pathe (agency) Film of British Empire Exhibition, reel two
  10. ^ British Pathe (agency) Film of British Empire Exhibition, reel three
  11. ^ British Pathe (agency) Film of British Empire Exhibition, reel four
  12. ^ Sutcliffe, Anthony (2006). London: An Architectural History. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11006-5. p. 172 (via Google Books). Retrieved 4 February 2009.
  13. ^ [1]. Wembley Stadium.
  14. ^ de Lisle, Tim (14 March 2006). "The height of ambition". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  15. ^ a b c Jacobs, N and Lipscombe, P (2005). Wembley Speedway: The Pre-War Years. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-3750-X.
  16. ^ "Gates' Microsoft Becomes Wembley Stadium Backer". Forbes. 20 October 2005. 
  17. ^ Collett, Mike (2003). The Complete Record of The FA Cup. p. 35. ISBN 1-899807-19-5. 
  18. ^ Bateson, Bill; Albert Sewell (1992). News of the World Football Annual 1992/93. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-85543-188-1. 
  19. ^ Matthews, Tony (2006). Football Firsts. Capella. ISBN 1-84193-451-8. 
  20. ^ a b "The Matthews Final". BBC News. 24 February 2000. Retrieved 20 July 2009. 
  21. ^ Francis, Tony (22 August 2005). "Future returns to the past". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 January 2010. 
  22. ^ [2].
  23. ^ Barker, Philip (June 2003). "Wembley Stadium – An Olympic Chronology 1923–2003" (PDF format; Adobe Reader required). Journal of Olympic History. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved 14 January 2010. 
  24. ^ Inglis, Simon (1984). The Football Grounds of England and Wales. London: Willow Books. p. 236. 
  25. ^ a b Twydell, Dave (2001). Denied F.C. – The Football League Election Struggles. Harefield: Yore Publications. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-874-42798-8. 
  26. ^ Hodgson, Guy; Yates, Andrew (13 March 1998). "Football: FA Infuriated by Arsenal's Bid for Wembley". The Independent. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  27. ^ FA Cup 2000 facupfootball.co.uk
  28. ^ Scott, Matt (9 May 2005). "Ipswich Bank on Better Luck in the Annual Lottery – Suffolk Club Grow Used to End-of Season Suffering". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  29. ^ "Player profile: Tony Adams". The Daily Telegraph.
  30. ^ "England v Ukraine: previous meetings". The Daily Telegraph.
  31. ^ "The History Of Rugby League". Rugby League Information. napit.co.uk. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  32. ^ 1948 "Summer Olympics official report" (PDF format; requires Adobe Reader). LA84 Foundation. pp. 42, 44–6.
  33. ^ Bamford, R.; Jarvis J.(2001). Homes of British Speedway. Stroud: Tempus Publishing ISBN 0-7524-2210-3.
  34. ^ BriSCA Formula One - The first 50 years 1954-2004 Keith Barber p 178-179
  35. ^ Harris, Neil (6 October 2000). "Magnificent monument to vision of one man". The Independent. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  36. ^ Baiden, Gary (2009). The History of Oxford Stadium. authorhouse. ISBN 978-1-4490-2054-5. 
  37. ^ "Tina Turner Wembley Events". 

External links[edit]

Events and tenants
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Stamford Bridge
FA Cup
Final Venue

1923–2000
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Millennium Stadium
Cardiff
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Olympiastadion
Berlin
Summer Olympics
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1948
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Helsingin olympiastadion
Helsinki
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Olympic Athletics competitions
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1948
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Helsingin olympiastadion
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Summer Olympics
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1948
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1963
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Vienna
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Brussels
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1965
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Glasgow
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FIFA World Cup
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Mexico City
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Milan
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Rotterdam
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Munich
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1992
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Copenhagen
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1996
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