||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the German Wikipedia. (June 2011)|
SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Best
10 July 1903|
|Died||23 June 1989
|Years of service||1931 — 1945|
|Commands held||Amt I, RSHA|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Dr. Werner Best (10 July 1903 – 23 June 1989) was a German Nazi, jurist, police chief, SS-Obergruppenführer and Nazi Party leader from Darmstadt, Hesse. He studied law and in 1927 obtained his doctorate degree at Heidelberg. Best served as civilian administrator of France and Denmark while Nazi Germany occupied those countries during World War II.
The Nazi state and World War II
Best joined the NSDAP with member number 341,338. He went on to join the SS with membership number, 23,377. Prior to September 1939, as an SS-Brigadeführer, Best while head of Department 1 of the Gestapo oversaw organization, administration, and legal affairs. He was a deputy to Reinhard Heydrich. In September 1939 the security and police agencies of Nazi Germany were consolidated into Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt or RSHA), headed by Heydrich. Best was made head of Amt I (Department I) of the RSHA: Personnel. That department dealt with the legal and personnel issues/matters of the SS and security police. Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler relied on Best to develop and explain legally the activities against enemies of the state and in relation to the Nazi Jewish policy. In 1939 Best became one of the directors of Heydrich's foundation, the Stiftung Nordhav.
According to one source, Werner Best lost a power struggle in 1939 and had to leave Berlin thereafter. In 1940, with the military grade of War Administration Chief (Kriegsverwaltungschef), Best was appointed chief of the Section "Administration" (Abteilung Verwaltung) of the Administration Staff (Verwaltungsstab, Dr Schmid) under then (Militärbefehlshaber in Frankreich or MBF) "Military Commander in France", general Otto von Stülpnagel) in occupied France; a position Best kept until 1942.
In his efforts as the RSHA emissary in France, Best's unit drew up radical plans for a total reorganization of Western Europe based on racial principles: he sought to unite Netherlands, Flanders and French territory north of the Loire river into the Reich, turn Wallonia and Brittany into German protectorates, merge Northern Ireland with the Republic of Ireland, create a decentralized British federation and break the Spanish State into independent entities of Galicia, Basque Country and Catalonia.
In November 1942 after the Telegram Crisis, Best was appointed the Third Reich's Plenipotentiary (Reichsbevollmächtigter) in Denmark. He was accredited to King Christian X, who, unlike most Heads of state under Nazi German occupation, remained in power, along with the Danish Parliament, cabinet (a coalition of national unity) and courts.
In this role, Best supervised civilian affairs in occupied Denmark. He kept his position until the end of the war in May 1945, even after the German military commander had assumed direct control over the administration of Denmark on 29 August 1943.
Best hoped to maintain good relations between Germany and Denmark in order to make Denmark an example of what life in Nazi Europe could be. As a result conditions were better in Denmark, by comparison with conditions in other areas occupied by Germany. Best was unenthusiastic about taking punitive measures against Jews until after the fall of the Danish government.
Administration by the Permanent Secretaries
To avoid deportation of Danes to German concentration camps, the permanent secretary of the ministry of foreign affairs, Nils Svenningsen, in January 1944 proposed establishment of an internment camp within Denmark. Best accepted this proposal, but on condition that the camp be built close to the German border. Frøslev Prison Camp was opened in August 1944.
In compliance with the Danish cabinet's decision on 9 April 1940 to accept cooperation with German authorities, the Danish police did cooperate with German occupation forces. This arrangement remained in effect even after the Danish government resigned on 29 September 1943. On 12 May 1944, Best demanded that the Danish police should assume responsibility for protection of 57 enterprises the Germans deemed at risk of sabotage by the Danish resistance movement, which was growing in strength. Should the Danish civil service not do so, total Danish police strength would be reduced to 3,000 men. Nils Svenningsen, who functioned as de facto head of the Danish civil administration in the absence of a Danish government, was inclined to accept this demand, but the organizations of the Danish police opposed it. The rejection of the German request was delivered to Best on 6 June 1944. This reduced the Gestapo's already limited trust in Danish police even further. On 19 September 1944 the German army began arresting members of the Danish police forces; 1,960 policemen were arrested and deported to German concentration and prisoner-of-war camps.
After the war
After the war, Best testified as a witness at the Nuremberg Trial of the Major War Criminals and was later extradited to Denmark. In 1948, Best was sentenced to death by a Danish court, but his sentence was reduced to five years in prison (of which he had already served four years). This created outrage among the Danish public, and the Supreme Court changed the sentence to 12 years. Best was released in 1951. In 1958 Best was fined by a Berlin de-Nazification court for his actions during the war. In 1972 he was charged again when further war crimes allegations arose. He was found medically unfit to stand trial and was released.
- Biondi, Robert, ed., SS Officers List: SS-Standartenführer to SS-Oberstgruppenführer (As of 30 January 1942), Schiffer Military History Publishing, 2000, p 13.
- McNab, Chris. The SS: 1923-1945, p 156.
- Lumsden, Robin. A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine - SS, pp 80-84.
- Lumsden, Robin. A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine - SS, p 83.
- "Gads leksikon om dansk besættelsestid 1940-1945." Published 2002.
- This function was less important than the one Best had had in the RSHA. The Military Command in France had two Staffs: Administration and Command (Kommandostab); the Administration Staff had four Sections : "Central" ; "Administration" ; "Economy" ; "War Economy". Ref. : La France pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Atlas historique, Editions Fayard, 2010
- Langbehn & Salama (2011), German Colonialism: Race, the Holocaust, and Postwar Germany, p. 61, ISBN 0-231-14973-5
- "Gads leksikon om dansk besættelsestid 1940-1945." Published 2002. Page 178.
- "Gads leksikon om dansk besættelsestid 1940-1945." Published 2002. Page 367.
- "Gads leksikon om dansk besættelsestid 1940-1945." Published 2002. Page 41.
- Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War, p 749.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Werner Best.|
- WorldStatesmen - Denmark
- Westermann Verlag, Großer Atlass zur Weltgeschichte (in German)
- "Gads leksikon om dansk besættelsestid 1940-1945." Published 2002.
- Lumsden, Robin (2002). A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine - SS, Ian Allan Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7110-2905-9.
- McNab, Chris (2009). The SS: 1923-1945, Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5.