Werner Hartmann

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the German physicist, see Werner Hartmann (physicist). For other uses, see Werner Hartmann (disambiguation).
Werner Hartmann
Werner.hartmann.jpg
Born (1902-12-11)11 December 1902
Silstedt, Harz
Died 26 April 1963(1963-04-26) (aged 60)
Usseln, Waldeck
Allegiance  Weimar Republic (to 1933)
 Nazi Germany (to 1945)
 West Germany
Service/branch  Reichsmarine
 Kriegsmarine
 German Navy
Years of service 1921–45, 1956–62
Rank Kapitän zur See
Unit SSS Niobe
Hannover
Berlin
cruiser Emden
cruiser Karlsruhe
2nd U-boat Flotilla
6th U-boat Flotilla
12th U-boat Flotilla
27th U-boat Flotilla
Commands held torpedo boat Seeadler
torpedo boat Jaguar
U-26 May 1936 – 30 September 1938
U-37 25 September 1939 – 6 May 1940
U-198 3 November 1942 – 15 January 1944
Battles/wars

Spanish Civil War


World War II

Awards U-boat War Badge
Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves

Werner Friedrich Adolf Hartmann (11 December 1902 – 26 April 1963) was a German U-boat commander in World War II. He sank 26 ships, amounting to over 115,000 gross register tons (GRT) sunk, making him the 25th most successful U-boat commander of the war. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.

Early life and career[edit]

Hartmann was born on 11 December 1902 in Silstedt near Wernigerode in the Province of Saxony, a province of the Kingdom of Prussia in the German Empire. He was the third child of Albert Hartmann, an evangelic pastor in Wernigerode, and Helene Hartmann, née Wernicke. Hartmann had one older brother, Rudolf, and an older sister, Edith. From 1909 to 1914, he attended the Volksschule, a primary school, in Silstedt and later the Gymnasium, a secondary school, in the district of Magdeburg.[1]

On 1 April 1914, Hartmann joined the Königlich Preußischen Kadettenkorps (Royal Prussian Cadet Corps) in Oranienstein near Diez. He initially served in the Vorkorps (pre corps) before he transferred to the Hauptkadettenanstalt (Main Military Academy) in Berlin-Lichterfelde on 1 April 1917. There he graduated with his Abitur (diploma) in 1921. Following his graduation he began his naval career with the Reichsmarine of the Weimar Republic on 1 April 1921 as a member of "Crew 21" (the incoming class of 1921).[1]

Until 30 September 1925, he underwent a number of military and naval training courses.[2] It began with basic military training (1 April – 30 September 1921) in Stralsund at the Baltic Sea and weapons courses at the Naval Academy at Mürwik. Hartmann was then transferred to the Hannover (1 October 1921 – April 1922) for onboard training and then to the training ship Niobe (April – 30 June 1922).[3] During this timeframe, he advanced in rank to Fähnrich zur See (officer cadet) on 1 April 1923 and to Oberfähnrich zur See (Senior Ensign) on 4 April 1925.[2]

He went on to serve as commander of the torpedo boats Seeadler and Albatros, before transferring to the U-boat arm in 1935.

Spanish Civil War[edit]

As commander of U-26 he patrolled Spanish waters during the Civil War in 1937–38 with Günther Prien as his first watch officer.

World War II[edit]

From January–May 1940 Hartmann was commander of both U-37 and 2nd U-boat Flotilla, but directing U-boats while at sea proved inefficient, and the Befehlshaber der U-Boote ("U-boat High Command") decided henceforth to direct the U-boats from land. After three patrols, and sinking 19 ships totalling 78,559 GRT, Hartmann received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.[4] His senior officers on his four patrols on U-37 were future Knight's Cross winners, first watch officer Oberleutnant zur See Ernst Bauer (two patrols) and later Oberleutnant zur See Nicolai Clausen (two patrols), second watch officer Leutnant zur See Gustav Poel and chief engineer Oberleutnant (Ing.) Gerd Suhren.[5]

First patrol[edit]

Hartmann's first patrol (19 August 1939 – 15 September 1939) on U-37 left Wilhelmshaven almost two weeks before the outbreak of World War II on Friday 1 September 1939 when German forces invaded Poland.[2] Commander of U-37 on this patrol was Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Schuch.

Ashore[edit]

Hartmann then moved to the BdU as a staff officer, and in November 1940 became commander of the 2nd ULD (U-boat Training Division). A year later he took command of the 27th U-boat Flotilla in Gotenhafen. In November 1942 he took command of the large Type IXD U-198 for a patrol to the Indian Ocean lasting 200 days, the third longest patrol ever undertaken, and sank 7 ships totalling 36,778 GRT. Chief engineer was Johann-Friedrich Wessels who received the Knight's Cross for his services on this patrol. In 1944 Hartmann became Führer der Unterseeboote Mittelmeer ("Commander of U-boats in the Mediterranean") and in this post received the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves.[4]

Bundesmarine and later life[edit]

After the war he joined the Bundesmarine on 1 July 1956, commanding the 1. Schiffsstammregiment (1st Naval training regiment) in Glückstadt, retiring on 1 April 1962.[6] He died on 26 April 1963 in Usseln/Waldeck of pulmonary embolism. He was burried in a family grave in Glückstadt.[7]

Summary of career[edit]

Ships attacked[edit]

As a U-boat commander of U-37 and U-198 Werner Hartmann is credited with the sinking of 26 ships for a total of 115,337 gross register tons (GRT).

Date U-boat Name Nationality Tonnage
(GRT)
Fate
8 September 1939 U-37 Vistula  Sweden 1,018 Sunk at grid AF 7774, about 45 nmi (83 km; 52 mi) north of Muckle Flugga, Shetland[8]
12 October 1939 U-37 Artis  Greece 4,810 Sunk at 53°28′N 14°30′W / 53.467°N 14.500°W / 53.467; -14.500 (Vistula (ship))[8]
15 October 1939 U-37 Vermont  France 5,186 Sunk
17 October 1939 U-37 Yorkshire  United Kingdom 10,183 Sunk
24 October 1939 U-37 Ledbury  United Kingdom 3,528 Sunk
24 October 1939 U-37 Menin Ridge  United Kingdom 2,474 Sunk
24 October 1939 U-37 Tafna  United Kingdom 4,413 Sunk
30 October 1939 U-37 Thrasyvoulos  Greece 3,693 Sunk
4 February 1940 U-37 Hop  Norway 1,365 Sunk
4 February 1940 U-37 Leo Dawson  United Kingdom 4,330 Sunk
10 February 1940 U-37 Silja  Norway 1,259 Sunk
11 February 1940 U-37 Togimo  United Kingdom 290 Sunk
15 February 1940 U-37 Aase  Denmark 1,206 Sunk
17 February 1940 U-37 Pyrrhus  United Kingdom 7,418 Sunk
18 February 1940 U-37 Elin  Greece 4,917 Sunk
18 February 1940 U-37 P.L.M. 15  France 3,754 Sunk
10 April 1940 U-37 Sveaborg  Sweden 9,076 Sunk
10 April 1940 U-37 Tosca  Norway 5,128 Sunk
12 April 1940 U-37 Stancliffe  United Kingdom 4,511 Sunk
17 May 1943 U-198 Northmoor  United Kingdom 4,392 Sunk
29 May 1943 U-198 Hopetarn  United Kingdom 5,231 Sunk
5 June 1943 U-198 Dumra  United Kingdom 2,304 Sunk
6 June 1943 U-198 William King  United States 7,176 Sunk
6 July 1943 U-198 Hydraios  Greece 4,476 Sunk
7 July 1943 U-198 Leana  United Kingdom 4,742 Sunk
1 August 1943 U-198 Mangkalihat  Netherlands 8,457 Sunk

Awards[edit]

Wehrmachtbericht references[edit]

Date Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording Direct English translation
Friday, 1 March 1940 Wie durch Sondermeldung bereits bekanntgegeben, hat ein von Fernfahrt zurückgekehrtes, unter dem Kommando von Korvettenkapitän Werner Hartmann stehendes Unterseeboot die Versenkung von 45 000 BRT gemeldet. Das Unterseeboot hat damit in zwei Unternehmungen die Gesamt-Versenkungsziffer von 80 000 BRT erreicht.[15] As already announced by special bulletin, a submarine returning from war patrol under the command of Lieutenant Commander Werner Hartmann, reported the sinking of 45,000 GRT. The submarine has reached in two undertakings, the total of 80,000 GRT sunk.
Friday, 19 April 1940 Zu der schon bekanntgegebenen Torpedierung eines Kreuzers der "GLASGOW"-Klasse nördlich der Shetland Inseln meldet der von Feindfahrt zurückgekehrte Unterseeboot-Kommandant, daß der von feindlichen Zerstörern stark gesicherte Kreuzer durch eine unmittelbar nach dem Torpedotreffer ausgelösten innere Detonation vernichtet wurde. Die von diesem Unterseeboot-Kommandanten, Korvettenkapitän Hartmann, versenkte Tonnage beläuft sich nach der letzten Fernfahrt auf insgesamt rund 107 000 BRT.[16] In addition to the already announced torpedoing of a cruiser of the "GLASGOW" class north of the Shetland Islands reports the from patrol returning submarine commander, that the by enemy destroyers heavily protected cruiser was destroyed by an internal detonation, triggered immediately after the torpedo hit.[Note 1] The total tonnage sunk after the last war patrol of this submarine commander, Captain Hartmann, amounts to some 107,000 GRT.

Promotions[edit]

1 April 1924: Fähnrich zur See (Officer Cadet)[2]
4 April 1925: Oberfähnrich zur See (Senior Ensign)[2]
1 October 1925: Leutnant zur See (Second Lieutenant)[2]
1 July 1927: Oberleutnant zur See (First Lieutenant)[2]
1 October 1933: Kapitänleutnant (Captain Lieutenant)
1 July 1937: Korvettenkapitän (Corvette Captain)
1 April 1941: Fregattenkapitän (Frigatte Captain)
1 April 1943: Kapitän zur See (Captain at Sea)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hartmann had launched an attack on HMS Glasgow or HMS Sheffield on 13 April 1940 failing to sink either.[17]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Röll 2010, p. 11.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Busch & Röll 2003, p. 29.
  3. ^ Röll 2010, p. 150.
  4. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Kapitän zur See Werner Hartmann". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  5. ^ Busch & Röll 2003, p. 31.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Busch & Röll 2003, p. 30.
  7. ^ Röll 2010, p. 149.
  8. ^ a b Röll 2010, pp. 154–155.
  9. ^ Röll 2010, p. 152.
  10. ^ a b Thomas 1997, p. 251.
  11. ^ Williamson & Pavlovic 1995, p. 48.
  12. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 369.
  13. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 215.
  14. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 92.
  15. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, pp. 82–83.
  16. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 117.
  17. ^ Rohwer 2005, p. 19.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (2003). Der U-Boot-Krieg 1939–1945 — Die Ritterkreuzträger der U-Boot-Waffe von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [The U-Boat War 1939–1945 — The Knight's Cross Bearers of the U-Boat Force from September 1939 to May 1945] (in German). Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn Germany: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn. ISBN 978-3-8132-0515-2. 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Kurowski, Franz (1995). Knight's Cross Holders of the U-Boat Service. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88740-748-2. 
  • Range, Clemens (1974). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Kriegsmarine [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Navy]. Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87943-355-1. 
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea, 1939-1945: The Naval History of World War II. Annapolis, Md. : Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Röll, Hans-Joachim (2010). Kapitän zur See Werner Hartmann—Vom Lehrmeister Priens zum Ritterkreuz mit Eichenlaub [Captain at Sea Werner Hartmann—From Prien's Teacher to the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves] (in German). Würzburg Germany: Flechsig. ISBN 978-3-8035-0013-7. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6. 
  • Williamson, Gordon & Pavlovic, Darko (1995). U-Boat Crews 1914–45. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-85532-545-4.
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, 1. September 1939 bis 31. Dezember 1941 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 1, 1 September 1939 to 31 December 1941] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. 

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
none
Commander of 6th U-boat Flotilla
October, 1938 – December, 1939
Succeeded by
Korvettenkapitän Georg-Wilhelm Schulz
Preceded by
Korvettenkapitän Hans Ibbeken
Commander of 2nd U-boat Flotilla
January 1940 – May 1940
Succeeded by
Korvettenkapitän Heinz Fischer
Preceded by
Korvettenkapitän Ernst Sobe
Commander of 27th U-boat Flotilla
December 1941 – November 1942
Succeeded by
Korvettenkapitän Erich Topp