Werther

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For other uses, see Werther (disambiguation).

Werther is an opera (drame lyrique) in four acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Édouard Blau, Paul Milliet and Georges Hartmann (who used the pseudonym Henri Grémont), loosely based on the German epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werther by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe which was based both on fact and on Goethe's own early life. Earlier examples of operas using the story were made by Kreutzer (1792) and Pucitta (1802).[1]

Performance history[edit]

Grasset poster for 1893 French premiere of Werther

Massenet started composing Werther in 1885, completing it in 1887 and submitting it to the director of the Paris Opéra-Comique Leon Carvalho that year who declined to accept it on the grounds that it was too serious a scenario.[1] With the disruption of the fire at the Opéra-Comique and Massenet's work on other operatic projects (especially Esclarmonde), it was put to one side, until the Vienna Opera, pleased with the success of Manon, asked the composer for a new work. Werther received its premiere on 16 February 1892 in a German version translated by Max Kalbeck at the Imperial Theatre Hofoper in Vienna.[1]

The French-language premiere followed in Geneva on 27 December 1892.[2] The first performance in France was given by the Opéra-Comique at the Théâtre Lyrique on the Place du Châtelet in Paris on 16 January 1893, with Marie Delna as Charlotte and Guillaume Ibos in the title role, conducted by Jules Danbé, but was not immediately successful.[1]

Werther entered the repertoire at the Opéra-Comique in 1903 in a production supervised by Albert Carré,[1] and over the next half-century the opera was performed over 1,100 times there, Léon Beyle becoming a distinguished interpreter of Werther.[3]

The United States premiere with the Metropolitan Opera took place in Chicago on 29 March 1894 and then in the company's main house in New York City three weeks later.[4] The UK premiere was a one-off performance at Covent Garden, London, on 11 June 1894[2] with Emma Eames as Charlotte, Sigrid Arnoldson as Sophie, and Jean de Reszke in the title role.

Werther is still regularly performed around the world and has been recorded many times. Although written for a tenor, Massenet adjusted the role of Werther for a baritone, when Mattia Battistini sang it in Saint Petersburg in 1902. It is very occasionally performed in this version.

Roles[edit]

Ernest Van Dyck as Werther
Role Voice type Premiere Cast, 16 February 1892[5]
(Conductor: Wilhelm Jahn)
Charlotte, aged 20 mezzo-soprano Marie Renard
Sophie, her sister, aged 15 soprano Ellen Forster-Brandt
Werther, a young poet, aged 23 tenor Ernest van Dyck
Albert, betrothed to Charlotte; aged 25 baritone Franz Neidl
Le Bailli, Charlotte's father; aged 50 bass Karl Mayerhofer
Schmidt, a friend of the Bailli tenor Anton Schlittenhelm
Johann, a friend of the Bailli baritone Benedikt Felix
Brühlmann, a young man tenor August Stoll
Käthchen, Brühlmann's fiancée of seven years mezzo-soprano Emma Karlona
Children of the Bailli – Fritz, Max, Hans, Karl, Gretel, Clara children's voices
Inhabitants of Wetzlar, guests, servants; off-stage women’s and children’s voices

Instrumentation[edit]

2 flutes (2nd doubling piccolo) 2 Oboes (doubling English horns) 2 Clarinets in B-flat and A Alto Saxophone 2 Bassoons 4 Horns in F 2 Trumpets (doubling Cornets) 3 Trombones Tuba Harp Timpani Percussion (1) (Bass Drum, Triangle) Harp Strings

Synopsis[edit]

Time: July to December 1780.
Place: Wetzlar.
Claire Croiza as Charlotte in 1907

Act 1[edit]

The widowed Bailiff teaches his younger children a Christmas carol in July. Charlotte dresses for a ball. Since her intended, Albert, is away, she is escorted by Werther whom they find gloomy. Werther arrives and watches as Charlotte prepares her young siblings' supper, just as her mother had before she died. Werther greets Charlotte and they leave for the ball. Albert returns unexpectedly after a six month trip. He is unsure of Charlotte's intentions and disappointed not to find her here, but is reassured and consoled by Sophie. He leaves after promising to return in the morning. Werther and Charlotte return very late, and he is already enamoured of her. His declaration of love is interrupted by the announcement of Albert's return. Charlotte recalls how she promised her dying mother she would marry Albert. Werther despairs.

Act 2[edit]

It is three months later, and Charlotte and Albert are now married. They walk happily to church, pursued by the gloomy Werther. Sophie tries to cheer him up. When Charlotte exits the church, he speaks to her of their first meeting. Charlotte begs Werther not to try to see her again until Christmas Day. Werther contemplates suicide. He encounters Charlotte's younger sister Sophie but the tearful girl does not understand his distressing behavior. Albert now realizes that Werther loves Charlotte.

Act 3[edit]

Sung by Charlotte in Act III. Sung by Jeanette Ekornaasvaag.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Charlotte is at home alone on Christmas Eve. She spends time rereading Werther's letters to herself, wondering how the young poet is and how she had the strength to send him away. Suddenly Werther appears, and while he reads her poetry, he realizes that she returns his love. They embrace for a moment, but she quickly bids him farewell. He leaves with thoughts of suicide. Albert returns home to find his distraught wife. Werther has sent a message to Albert requesting to borrow his pistols, explaining he is going on an extended trip. A servant is sent to deliver the pistols. Charlotte has a terrible premonition and hurries to find Werther. (An orchestral intermezzo leads without a break into the final Act.)

Act 4[edit]

At Werther's apartment, Charlotte has arrived too late. Werther is dying. She consoles him by declaring her love. He asks for forgiveness. After he dies, Charlotte faints. Outside children are heard singing a Christmas carol.

Noted arias[edit]

Recordings[edit]

A well-regarded recording of the complete opera was made in January 1931 by French Columbia with a French cast and the orchestra and chorus of the Opéra-Comique under the direction of Élie Cohen. Henry Fogel of Fanfare magazine, writing in 1992, counted 14 complete recordings and considered it the finest of the lot.[6] His colleague, James Camner, reviewing the Opera d'Oro reissue in 2003, called it "one of the treasures of recorded opera. ... Unfortunately, the transfer is over filtered. The high frequencies are lost, giving the performance an unwarranted flatness. Happily, Naxos offers the same recording expertly transferred by Ward Marston, and acquiring it is a must."[7] Alan Blyth, while giving a very positive review of the reissue of the recording with Albert Lance as Werther and Rita Gorr as Charlotte in 2004, nevertheless pointed out that "neither quite has the ideal subtlety of the best Massenet singers, such as Vallin and Thill on the classic, pre-war set, now on Naxos".[8]

In addition, many of the greatest French and Italian singers of the past century or more have recorded individual arias from Massenet's masterwork.

Year Cast
(Charlotte,
Sophie,
Werther,
Albert)
Conductor,
Opera House and Orchestra
Label[9]
1931 Ninon Vallin,
Germaine Féraldy,
Georges Thill,
Marcel Roque
Élie Cohen
Orchestra and Chorus of the Opéra-Comique
Originally French Columbia
Audio CD: Naxos 8.110061-62,
Opera d'Oro OPD 1366
1953 Pia Tassinari,
Vittoria Neviani,
Ferruccio Tagliavini,
Marcello Cortis
Francesco Molinari-Pradelli
Coro di Voci Bianchi, Orchestra Sinfonica di Torino
Audio CD: Warner-Fonit
Cat: 8573 87494-2
1953 Suzanne Juyol,
Agnes Léger,
Charles Richard,
Roger Bourdin
Georges Sébastian
Orchestra and Chorus of the Opéra-Comique
Originally Nixa/Urania

Audio CD: Andromeda
Cat: ANDRCD 5073

1964 Rita Gorr,
Mady Mesplé,
Albert Lance,
Gabriel Bacquier
Jésus Etcheverry
Orchestra and Chorus of the Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française
CD: Accord
Cat: 472 917-2
1968-69 Victoria de los Ángeles,
Mady Mesplé,
Nicolai Gedda,
Roger Soyer
Georges Prêtre
Orchestre de Paris
Audio CD: EMI
Cat: 562 6272
1979 Tatiana Troyanos,
Christine Barbaux,
Alfredo Kraus,
Matteo Manuguerra
Michel Plasson
London Philharmonic Orchestra
Audio CD: EMI
Cat: 7 49610-2
1979 Elena Obraztsova,
Arleen Augér,
Plácido Domingo,
Franz Grundheber
Riccardo Chailly
Cologne Radio Symphony Orchestra
Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 477 5652-1
1980 Frederica von Stade,
Isobel Buchanan,
José Carreras,
Thomas Allen
Sir Colin Davis
Orchestra of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden
Audio CD: Philips
Cat: 475 496-2
1985 Brigitte Fassbaender,
Magdéna Hajossyová (vocals),
Peter Dvorský,
Hans Helm (vocals)
Libor Pešek
Prague Radio Symphony Orchestra,
Chorus of the Bambini di Praga
(Television film directed by Petr Weigl)
CD (soundtrack): Supraphon
Cat: 11 1547-2 632
LD: Amadeo PHLK 7503
DVD: Image Entertainment[10]
1998 Vesselina Kasarova,
Dawn Kotoski,
Ramón Vargas,
Christopher Schaldenbrand
Vladimir Jurowski
Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin
Audio CD: RCA Victor
Cat: 74321 58224-2
1998 Angela Gheorghiu,
Patricia Petibon,
Roberto Alagna,
Thomas Hampson
Antonio Pappano
London Symphony Orchestra
Audio CD: EMI
Cat: EMI 81849
2005 Elīna Garanča,
Ileana Tonca,
Marcelo Álvarez,
Adrian Eröd
Philippe Jordan
Vienna State Opera
(Video of a performance in March)
DVD: TDK
Cat: DVWW-OPWER
2004 Susan Graham,
Sandrine Piau,
Thomas Hampson (baritone),
Stéphane Degout
Michel Plasson
Orchestre National du Capitole de Toulouse
(Video of a concert performance on 29 April)
DVD: Virgin Classics
Cat: 359257-9
2010 Sophie Koch,
Anne-Catherine Gillet,
Jonas Kaufmann,
Ludovic Tézier
Michel Plasson
Opéra National de Paris
DVD: Decca
Cat: B0014794-09[11][12]
2012 Sophie Koch,
Eri Nakamura,
Rolando Villazón,
Audun Iversen
Antonio Pappano
Orchestra of the Royal Opera House
Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 0289 477 9340 3[13]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e Milnes R. Werther. In: The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Macmillan, London and New York, 1997.
  2. ^ a b Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5th ed., 1954
  3. ^ Wolff, Stéphane. Un demi-siècle d'Opéra-Comique (1900–1950). André Bonne, Paris, 1953.
  4. ^ MetOpera database
  5. ^ Werther page at the French Art Lyrique webpage accessed 5 September 2014.
  6. ^ Fogel, Henry (September/October 1992). Review of the recording with Georges Thill as Werther (EMI CHS 7 63195 2). Fanfare, 16 (1). Accessed November 16, 2010. Subscription required.
  7. ^ Camner, James (July/August 2003). Review of the recording with Georges Thill as Werther (OPERA D’ORO OD 1366). Fanfare, 26 (6). Accessed November 16, 2010. Subscription required.
  8. ^ Blyth, Alan (March 2004). "Werther's Return". Gramophone, p. 83. Accessed November 16, 2010.
  9. ^ Recordings of Werther on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk
  10. ^ Details of this recording of Werther on amazon.com
  11. ^ Details of this recording of Werther on amazon.com
  12. ^ Performance, both conductor and singers, are reviewed quite favorably by Matthew Gurewitsch in Opera News (February 2011, p. 66). He has strong reservations about the production and the video direction, however.
  13. ^ Details of this recording of Werther on DeutscheGrammophon.com
Sources

External links[edit]