West African Gas Pipeline

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West African Gas Pipeline
Location
Country Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana
General direction east–west
From Itoki terminal, Lagos, Nigeria
To Takoradi, Ghana
General information
Type natural gas
Owner West African Gas Pipeline Company Limited
Partners Chevron, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Royal Dutch Shell, Volta River Authority, Société Togolaise de Gaz, Société Beninoise de Gaz
Operator Chevron
Contractors Willbros
Commissioned 2006
Technical information
Length 678 km (421 mi)
Maximum discharge 5 billion cubic meter per year
Diameter 20 in (508 mm)

The West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) is a natural gas pipeline to supply gas from Nigeria's Escravos region of Niger Delta area to Benin, Togo and Ghana. It is the first regional natural gas transmission system in sub-Saharan Africa.

History[edit]

The project began in 1982, when the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) proposed the development of a natural gas pipeline throughout West Africa. In 1991 a feasibility report conducted by the World Bank on supplying Nigerian gas on West African markets deemed that a project was commercially viable.[1]

In September 1995, the governments of four African countries signed a Heads of Agreement. The feasibility study was carried out in 1999. On 11 August 1999, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed by participating countries in Cotonou, Benin. In February 2000, an Inter-Governmental Agreement was signed.[1][2] The WAGP implementation agreement was signed in 2003. Groundbreaking ceremonies for the project were held at Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana, on 3 December 2004.[3] Construction began in 2005.[4]

The offshore pipeline was completed in December 2006 and was scheduled to start operating on 23 December 2007 but was delayed after leaks were detected in supply pipelines in Nigeria.[4][5] The second delivery deadline was scheduled on 13 February 2008, but regular deliveries were delayed again, when one of the contractors of Willbros was shot and killed in Nigeria by armed robbers.[5][6]

Gas deliveries were expected by the end of 2009 after commissioning regulating and metering stations in Takoradi and Tema, Ghana, Lagos Beach, Nigeria, Cotonou, Benin, and Lomé, Togo in May 2008.[7] However, deliveries were postponed again due to an irregular amount of moisture found inside the onshore gas pipeline.[8][9]

Route[edit]

The pipeline consists three sections with a total length of 678 kilometres (421 mi).[5][10] The 569 kilometres (354 mi) long offshore section starts at starts the Itoki terminal in southeastern Nigeria and runs through the waters of Benin, Togo and Ghana parallel to the coastline, approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) to 20 kilometres (12 mi) offshore in water depths of between 30 metres (98 ft) and 75 metres (246 ft). The Nigerian onshore section of the pipeline connects the offshore section compressor station at Lagos Beach with the Chevron-owned Escravos–Lagos pipeline system, operational since 1989.[11] It is possible that later the WAGP will be extended to Côte d'Ivoire and in longer term even to Senegal.[12]

Technical description[edit]

The diameter of the onshore section is 30 inches (760 mm). The diameter of the offshore pipeline is 20 inches (510 mm) and the capacity is 5 billion cubic meter (bcm) of natural gas per year.[10][13] The pipeline was constructed by Willbros, with Bredero Shaw Ltd applying a concrete coating to the pipeline at its facility in Tema, Ghana. The pre-commissioning services were provided by BJ Process and Pipeline Services.[10] The total pipeline costs around US$974 million, for which the World Bank provided a guarantee of $50 million for Ghana, while the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency provided a $75 million political risk guarantee for WAGPo as a whole.[4][14]

Project company[edit]

The pipeline is owned by West African Gas Pipeline Company Limited (WAGPCo), a consortium of Chevron (36.7%), Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (25%), Royal Dutch Shell (18%), Volta River Authority of Ghana (16.3%), Société Togolaise de Gaz (SoToGaz - 2%) and Société Beninoise de Gaz S.A. (SoBeGaz - 2%).[6] The managing director of the company is Walter Perez.[15] It is operated by Chevron Corporation.

Consumers[edit]

In Ghana, provided gas will be used by the Takoradi Power Station at Aboadze near Takoradi, operated by Volta River Authority and the Takoradi International Company's (TICO).[6]

Controversy[edit]

Environmental group Friends of the Earth has criticized the project, after local communities in Nigeria complained it would damage land, destroy livelihoods and pollute fishing areas.[4]

Damage by Pirates[edit]

On August 27th 2012, the West African Gas Pipeline was damaged when pirates who had tried to board an oil tanker in an attempt to get away from the pursuing Togolese Navy, severely damaged the pipeline with their anchor. For nearly a year, the supply of gas to Ghana, Togo and Benin ceased, causing major power supply problems to the affected countries.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Awhotu, Ese (2009-12-01). "Gains, Constraints of the $1.8 Billion West Africa Gas Pipeline Project". Leadership (AllAfrica Global Media). Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  2. ^ "Ghana Awaits Completion of Gas Pipeline Project". Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections. 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  3. ^ "Willbros Opens Another Scandal of Improper Payments to Nigeria". Thisday (Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections). 2005-05-23. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  4. ^ a b c d "West Africa Gas 'To Flow by Christmas'". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). 2007-11-26. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  5. ^ a b c "West Africa Gas Delayed". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  6. ^ a b c "Ghana Receives First Nigeria Gas Via WAGP". African Business (Downstream Today). 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  7. ^ Muhammad, Hamisu (2008-11-05). "Ghana Gas Pipeline Ready In December". Daily Trust. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  8. ^ "Gas for WAGP Due in 2009, Not 2010". Ghana News Agency. 2009-03-21. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  9. ^ Adams, Alfred (2009-11-19). "WAGP: High Moisture Content Prevented 2008 Deliveries To Ghana". The Ghanaian Chronicle (Downstream Today). Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  10. ^ a b c Nwanunobi, Teddy (2008-03-27). "Willbros Completes 421-Mile Gas Pipeline System". Leadership (AllAfrica Global Media). (subscription required). Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  11. ^ "Escravos Lagos Pipeline Integrity Project". Penspen. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  12. ^ "Ivory Coast looks to play WAGP role". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). 2009-12-18. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  13. ^ Teddy Nwanunobi (2008-04-28). "West African Gas Pipeline Will Supply 475m Cubic Ft of Gas Daily". Leadership (AllAfrica Global Media). Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  14. ^ Nonor, Daniel (2009-03-18). "Gas From WAGP Due In March 2010". The Ghanaian Chronicle (Downstream Today). Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  15. ^ Daily Independent Nigeria (2014-01-15). "Perez takes over at WAGPCo". Daily Independent Nigeria. Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  16. ^ http://www.gasol.co.uk/media/16771/gasol_has_a_powerful_ally.pdf

External links[edit]