West Caldwell, New Jersey

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West Caldwell, New Jersey
Township
Township of West Caldwell
Map of West Caldwell Township in Essex County. Inset: Location of Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Map of West Caldwell Township in Essex County. Inset: Location of Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of West Caldwell, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of West Caldwell, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°50′50″N 74°17′40″W / 40.847227°N 74.294427°W / 40.847227; -74.294427Coordinates: 40°50′50″N 74°17′40″W / 40.847227°N 74.294427°W / 40.847227; -74.294427[1][2]
Country United States
State New Jersey
County Essex
Incorporated February 24, 1904
Government[5]
 • Type Borough
 • Mayor Joseph Tempesta, Jr. (term ends December 31, 2014)[3]
 • Administrator Adam Brewer[4]
 • Clerk Mary Donovan (acting)[4]
Area[2]
 • Total 5.070 sq mi (13.129 km2)
 • Land 5.055 sq mi (13.091 km2)
 • Water 0.015 sq mi (0.038 km2)  0.29%
Area rank 274th of 566 in state
8th of 22 in county[2]
Elevation[6] 177 ft (54 m)
Population (2010 Census)[7][8][9][10]
 • Total 10,759
 • Estimate (2012[11]) 10,838
 • Rank 227th of 566 in state
16th of 22 in county[12]
 • Density 2,128.5/sq mi (821.8/km2)
 • Density rank 282nd of 566 in state
18th of 22 in county[12]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 07006-07007[13][14]
Area code(s) 201 (cell) and 862/973[15]
FIPS code 3401378510[16][2][17]
GNIS feature ID 1729717[18][2]
Website www.westcaldwell.com

West Caldwell is a township located in the West Essex area in northwestern Essex County, New Jersey. It is located approximately 16 miles (26 km) west of Manhattan and 6 miles (9.7 km) northwest of Newark. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 10,759,[7][8][9] reflecting a decline of 474 (-4.2%) from the 11,233 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 811 (+7.8%) from the 10,422 counted in the 1990 Census.[19]

West Caldwell was originally incorporated as a borough by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 24, 1904, from portions of Caldwell Township (now known as Fairfield Township).[20] In 1981, West Caldwell became a township to take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies.[21]

New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked West Caldwell as its 60th best place to live in its 2010 rankings of the "Best Places To Live" in New Jersey.[22]

History[edit]

Caldwell, West Caldwell, and several neighboring communities were all originally one combined area known as the Horseneck Tract. In the early 18th century, a group of settlers left Newark and purchased a large tract of land northwest of their home city for the equivalent of a few hundred dollars from the Lenape Native Americans. This piece of land extended west and north to the Passaic River, south to the town center of what would become Livingston, and east to the First Watchung Mountain, and was called Horseneck by the natives because it resembled the neck and head of a horse.

What was then known as Horseneck contained most of the present day northern Essex County towns: West Caldwell, along with Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, North Caldwell, Roseland, and Verona are all located entirely in Horseneck, and parts of what are today Livingston, Montclair, and West Orange also were contained in the Horseneck tract. After the Revolutionary War, Horseneck changed its name to "Caldwell Township" in honor of a local war hero and pastor, James Caldwell, who used burning pages from his church's bibles to ignite the ammo in soldiers' cannons and helped to drive the British out of Horseneck.

By the late 1880s, Caldwell had become quite a developed and populated town, however the vast majority of the development, residents, and businesses were located in the center of the town along Bloomfield Avenue, its main connecting route with Newark and New York City. The outskirts of town remained farms and swampland in many places. This bothered the people living in the center of town and in 1892, Caldwell's center area decided to form its own municipality, naming itself Caldwell Borough and leaving the outskirts of town remaining as Caldwell Township.

Caldwell Borough contained what is today the towns of West Caldwell and Caldwell. Soon after, the area of Caldwell Township just to the east of Caldwell Borough between Caldwell Borough and Montclair (present-day Verona and Cedar Grove) decided to follow Caldwell's lead and incorporated itself as its own borough, Verona. Some of the already-developed eastern neighborhoods of Caldwell Township chose to become part of Montclair, as it was a rapidly developing suburb of Newark and Paterson. At around the same time, the area north of Caldwell Borough became its own town, North Caldwell. The ritzy, wooded area directly to the south of downtown Caldwell Borough became Essex Fells. Meanwhile, the farmland to the south of the western portion of Caldwell township attempted to become its own municipality known as South Caldwell. This failed, as much of developed sections of that area lied on its southernmost and easternmost borders, along the expanding Newark suburbs of Livingston and West Orange respectively. Those areas were engulfed by those two towns once they became incorporated municipalities of several small villages and developments. This left only the most rural farmland south of Caldwell Borough and Essex Fells to become its own township, Roseland. At this point, all that remained of the original Caldwell Township was a large piece of undeveloped land in the northwestern-most part of Essex County; eventually, in the early 1950s, Caldwell Township changed its name to Fairfield in order to avoid being confused with Caldwell Borough.

Immediately following the separation of the original Caldwell, the western part of Caldwell Borough generally remained less developed than downtown Caldwell Borough and contained several farms and a large area of undeveloped swampland known as Hatfield Swamp. However, two individual settlements, known as Franklin and Westville, soon formed in the western part of Caldwell Borough. As development increased and population grew in the western part of Caldwell, the town's more rural western population and more urban east often could not reconcile their differences. This led to the areas of Franklin and Westville consolidating into their own borough known as West Caldwell in 1904, leaving only the one square mile of original downtown Horseneck development as the borough of Caldwell. Caldwell Borough became Caldwell Township in the 1980s. To this day, the towns of Caldwell and West Caldwell remain by far the most urbanized, densely populated, and ethnically, racially, and income-diverse in the West Essex area. The town is home Grover Cleveland Park (also partially located in Caldwell and Essex Fells), a county park named in honor of the President of the United States who was born in the neighboring town of Caldwell.

Additionally, West Caldwell contains a number of smaller parks and land preserves, such as Memorial Park and Francisco Park. Hatfield Swamp, located in the western section of the town along its borders with the towns of Fairfield, Roseland, and East Hanover, is a protected preservation that usually very little building is allowed to be done on.

Though today the Caldwell area is considered to be a suburb of both Newark and New York, the area originally developed as its own individual, self-contained town and economy rather than as urban sprawl from a larger city. When it was formed, a few miles of woods separated downtown Caldwell from Newark or any of its developing suburbs. Bloomfield Avenue is located in the center of town, and is home to many of the locally owned stores of the town. West Caldwell has several stores and strip malls, and two public town pools, Cedar Street Pool and Westville Pool. The township has few violent crimes and only two murders in its history.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

West Caldwell is located at 40°50′50″N 74°17′40″W / 40.847227°N 74.294427°W / 40.847227; -74.294427 (40.847227,-74.294427). According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 5.070 square miles (13.129 km2), of which, 5.055 square miles (13.091 km2) of it is land and 0.015 square miles (0.038 km2) of it (0.29%) is water.[1][2]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 494
1920 1,085 119.6%
1930 2,911 168.3%
1940 3,458 18.8%
1950 4,666 34.9%
1960 8,314 78.2%
1970 11,913 43.3%
1980 11,407 −4.2%
1990 10,422 −8.6%
2000 11,233 7.8%
2010 10,759 −4.2%
Est. 2012 10,838 [11] 0.7%
Population sources: 1910-1920[23]
1910[24] 1910-1930[25]
1930-1990[26] 2000[27][28] 2010[7][8][9]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,759 people, 3,913 households, and 2,962 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,128.5 per square mile (821.8 /km2). There were 4,009 housing units at an average density of 793.1 per square mile (306.2 /km2). The racial makeup of the township was 92.91% (9,996) White, 1.26% (136) Black or African American, 0.05% (5) Native American, 3.91% (421) Asian, 0.02% (2) Pacific Islander, 0.73% (79) from other races, and 1.12% (120) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 4.86% (523) of the population.[7]

There were 3,913 households of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.4% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.3% were non-families. 21.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.16.[7]

In the township, 23.4% of the population were under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 21.0% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, and 19.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.9 years. For every 100 females there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.0 males.[7]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $102,584 (with a margin of error of +/- $7,317) and the median family income was $118,018 (+/- $6,949). Males had a median income of $81,449 (+/- $7,519) versus $51,936 (+/- $5,473) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $44,244 (+/- $3,116). About 3.5% of families and 3.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.5% of those under age 18 and 2.8% of those age 65 or over.[29]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[16] there were 11,233 people, 3,990 households, and 3,112 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,224.4 people per square mile (858.8/km2). There were 4,044 housing units at an average density of 800.8 per square mile (309.2/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 93.84% White, 0.89% African American, 0.04% Native American, 3.85% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, and 0.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.80% of the population.[27][28]

There were 3,990 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.1% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.0% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.17.[27][28]

In the township the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males.[27][28]

The median income for a household in the township was $83,396, and the median income for a family was $94,379. Males had a median income of $67,108 versus $45,365 for females. The per capita income for the township was $38,345. About 1.2% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.5% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over.[27][28]

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

West Caldwell is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The government consists of a Mayor and a Township Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Township Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election.[5][30]

As of 2014, the Mayor of West Caldwell is Republican Joseph Tempesta, Jr., whose term of office ends December 31, 2014. Members of the West Caldwell Township Council (with party affiliation, term-end years and committee assignment chairmanships listed in parentheses) are Council President Richard C. Otterbein (R, 2014; Public Works & Water), Joseph P. Cecere (R, 2016; Public Safety), Michael Docteroff (R, 2014; Community Planning, Development & Technology), Stanley W. Hladik (R, 2015; Parks & Recreation), Thomas M. O'Hern (R, 2015; Legal & Personnel) and Stephen P. Wolsky (R, 2016; Finance & Welfare).[31][32][33][34][35]

Michael Docteroff was sworn into office in December 2013 after being chosen by the Township Council from among a list of three candidates nominated by the West Caldwell Republican Committee to fill the vacant seat following the resignation of Dominick Aiello.[36]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

West Caldwell is located in the 11th Congressional District[37] and is part of New Jersey's 26th state legislative district.[8][38][39] Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, West Caldwell had been in the 27th state legislative district.[40]

New Jersey's Eleventh Congressional District is represented by Rodney Frelinghuysen (R, Harding Township).[41] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg)[42][43] and Bob Menendez (D, North Bergen).[44][45]

For the 2014-2015 Session, the 26th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Joseph Pennacchio (R, Montville) and in the General Assembly by BettyLou DeCroce (R, Parsippany-Troy Hills) and Jay Webber (R, Morris Plains) and [46][47] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[48] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[49]

Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders.[50] As of 2013, the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr.[51] The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end in 2014.[50][52][53] Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large; Newark)[54], Freeholder Vice President Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston)[55], Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark)[56], Gerald M. Owens (At large; South Orange, filling the vacant seat after the resignation of Donald Payne, Jr.)[57] Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 - Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark)[58], D. Bilal Beasley (District 2 - Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Irvington)[59], Carol Y. Clark (District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange)[60] and Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 - Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell),[61] and Brendan W. Gill (District 5 - Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Montclair).[62][63][64] Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2015),[65] Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (2015)[66] and Surrogate Thomas N. Stephen, II (2016).[67][52][68]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 7,852 registered voters in West Caldwell, of which 2,185 (27.8%) were registered as Democrats, 2,282 (29.1%) were registered as Republicans and 3,378 (43.0%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were no voters registered to other parties.[69]

In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain received 55.2% of the vote here (3,440 cast), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 42.5% (2,646 votes) and other candidates with 1.0% (60 votes), among the 6,232 ballots cast by the township's 7,747 registered voters, for a turnout of 80.4%.[70] In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 59.1% of the vote here (3,573 ballots cast), outpolling Democrat John Kerry with 39.7% (2,398 votes) and other candidates with 0.8% (62 votes), among the 6,046 ballots cast by the township's 7,478 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 80.9.[71]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 55.7% of the vote here (2,392 ballots cast), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 34.7% (1,489 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 8.4% (360 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (24 votes), among the 4,292 ballots cast by the township's 7,795 registered voters, yielding a 55.1% turnout.[72]

Education[edit]

The communities of Caldwell and West Caldwell share a public school district, the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, a relationship that dates back to 1872, though formal consolidation of the districts was established in 1904.[73] Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[74]) are four K-5 elementary schools, all named for American Presidents — Jefferson School[75] (291 students; located in West Caldwell), Lincoln School[76] (232; Caldwell), Washington School[77] (366; West Caldwell) and Wilson School[78] (263; West Caldwell) — Grover Cleveland Middle School[79] (621; Caldwell) for grades 6-8 and James Caldwell High School[80] (811; West Caldwell) for grades 9-12. Students are enrolled in an elementary school based on their home location, and students attend one middle school and one high school.

West Caldwell is home to West Caldwell Tech, which is part of the Essex County Vocational Technical Schools, offering vocational instruction to high school students from across the county.[81]

The West Essex Campus of Essex County College, which opened in 1978, is located in West Caldwell.[82]

Popular culture[edit]

Scenes from the HBO television series The Sopranos were filmed in West Caldwell, including the exterior shots of the Soprano house and the fifth-season episode "Rat Pack".[83]

Notable people[edit]

Samuel Alito's nomination and confirmation to the Supreme Court brought national attention to West Caldwell

Notable current and former residents of West Caldwell include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f County Subdivisions: New Jersey - 2010 Census Gazetteer Files, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 9, 2013.
  3. ^ 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 13, 2013.
  4. ^ a b Appointed Township Officials (2014), Township of West Caldwell. Accessed January 22, 2014.
  5. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 125.
  6. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of West Caldwell, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 14, 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for West Caldwell township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 12. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for West Caldwell township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  10. ^ 2010 Census Populations: Essex county, Asbury Park Press. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  11. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012 - 2012 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 7, 2013.
  12. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 6, 2012.
  13. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for West Caldwell, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  14. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed September 1, 2013.
  15. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for West Caldwell, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed September 1, 2013.
  16. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  17. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  18. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  19. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  20. ^ Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 130. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  21. ^ New Jersey State Commission on County and Municipal Government, Modern Forms of Municipal Government, 1992, Chapter VI: Municipal Names and Municipal Classification
  22. ^ Staff. "Best Places To Live 2010", New Jersey Monthly, February 9, 2010. Accessed October 27, 2010.
  23. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed September 1, 2013.
  24. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  25. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 716. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  26. ^ New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 2, 2009. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  27. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for West Caldwell township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  28. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for West Caldwell township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 6, 2012.
  29. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for West Caldwell township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  30. ^ Government, Township of West Caldwell. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  31. ^ Mayor & Council, Township of West Caldwell. Accessed January 22, 2014.
  32. ^ Municipal Officials in Essex County As of January 2012, p. 12, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  33. ^ Essex County 2013 General Election - Unofficial Results November 5, 2013, Essex County Clerk. Accessed January 22, 2014.
  34. ^ Essex County 2012 General Election - Unofficial Results November 6, 2012, Essex County Clerk. Accessed January 22, 2014.
  35. ^ Essex County Unofficial 2011 General Election Results November 8, 2011, Essex County Clerk. Accessed January 22, 2014.
  36. ^ Curley, Carolyne Volpe. "Michael Docteroff Sworn in by West Caldwell Mayor Joe Tempesta, Jr., at Tuesday’s Meeting", TheAlternativePress.com, December 19, 2013. Accessed January 22, 2014. "At Tuesday’s meeting of the West Caldwell governing body, Mayor Joe Tempesta, Jr., swore in Michael Docteroff as the newest member of the township’s council.... After the resignation of Councilman Dominick Aiello, it became necessary for the council to appoint an individual to fill Aiello's unexpired term which ends Dec. 31, 2014."
  37. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  38. ^ 2012 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 66, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  39. ^ Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  40. ^ 2011 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 66, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  41. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  42. ^ Cory A. Booker, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  43. ^ Nutt, Amy Ellis (October 31, 2013). "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in". NJ.com/Associated Press. Accessed October 31, 2013. "Former Newark Mayor Cory Booker was sworn in as a Democratic senator from New Jersey today, taking the oath of office, exchanging hugs with Vice President Joe Biden and acknowledging the applause of friends and family members seated in the visitor's gallery that rings the chamber.... Booker, 44, was elected to fill out the term of the late Sen. Frank Lautenberg, who died earlier this year."
  44. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013. "He currently lives in North Bergen and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
  45. ^ Senators of the 113th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  46. ^ Legislative Roster 2014-2015 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed February 18, 2014.
  47. ^ District 26 Legislators, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed February 18, 2014.
  48. ^ "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  49. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  50. ^ a b General Information, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013. "The Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, five of whom are elected from districts and four of whom are elected at-large. They are elected for three-year concurrent terms and may be re-elected to successive terms at the annual election in November."
  51. ^ Essex County Executive, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  52. ^ a b Essex County Elected Officials, Essex County Clerk, as of February 2012. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  53. ^ Definition of a Freeholder, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  54. ^ Blonnie R. Watson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  55. ^ Patricia Sebold, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  56. ^ Rufus I. Johnson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  57. ^ Lee, Eunice. "Labor leader from South Orange tapped as new Essex County freeholder", The Star-Ledger, December 19, 2012. Accessed January 9, 2013. "A longtime labor union leader from South Orange was sworn in this afternoon as the newest Essex County freeholder.Gerald Owens, 74, is a general organizer for the International Longshoremen's Association.... Owens is filling the seat vacated by former at-large freeholder Donald Payne Jr., who stepped down from the post last month after securing the 10th Congressional District seat left open by his late father."
  58. ^ Rolando Bobadilla, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  59. ^ D. Bilal Beasley, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  60. ^ Carol Y. Clark, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  61. ^ Leonard M. Luciano, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  62. ^ Brendan W. Gill, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  63. ^ The Board of Chosen Freeholders, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  64. ^ Breakdown of Freeholder Districts, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  65. ^ About Christopher J. Durkin, Essex County Clerk. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  66. ^ Armando B. Fontoura - Essex County Sheriff, Essex County Sheriff's Office. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  67. ^ Office of Surrogate, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  68. ^ County Directory, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  69. ^ Voter Registration Summary - Essex, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed November 6, 2012.
  70. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed November 6, 2012.
  71. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed November 6, 2012.
  72. ^ 2009 Governor: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed November 6, 2012.
  73. ^ A Brief History, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 6, 2012. "The Borough of Caldwell and the Township of West Caldwell have played a prominent role in the development of the Caldwell-West Caldwell school system and the quality of education it provides. Cooperation of the two communities began in 1872 when state laws governing school districts permitted the villages of Caldwell, Franklin and Westville to consolidate into a 'School Borough.' ... West Caldwell became a borough February 24, 1904. On March 30, 1904, a special school meeting was held to vote on the consolidation of Caldwell and West Caldwell into one school district. The vote was in favor of consolidation."
  74. ^ Data for the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed November 6, 2012.
  75. ^ Jefferson School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed July 22, 2013.
  76. ^ Lincoln School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed July 22, 2013.
  77. ^ Washington School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed July 22, 2013.
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