West Hmongic

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West Hmongic
Chuanqiandian Miao
Geographic
distribution:
China
Linguistic classification: Hmong–Mien
  • Hmongic
    • Core Hmongic
      • West Hmongic
Subdivisions:
Glottolog: west2803[1]

The West Hmongic languages, also known as Chuanqiandian Miao (川黔滇方言: SichuanGuizhouYunnan Miao) and Western Miao, is the major branch of the Hmongic languages of China and Southeast Asia.

The name Chuanqiandian is used both for West Hmongic as a whole, as for one of its branches, the Chuanqiandian cluster AKA Hmong.

Writing[edit]

The Miao languages were traditionally written with various adaptations of Chinese characters. Around 1905, Samuel Pollard introduced a Romanized script, the Pollard script, for the A-Hmao language, and this came to be used for Hmong Daw (Chuanqiandian) as well.[2] In the United States, the Romanized Popular Alphabet is often used for White and Green Hmong (also Chuanqiandian). In China, pinyin-based Latin alphabets have been devised for Chuanqiandian (variety of Dananshan 大南山, Yanzikou 燕子口镇, Bijie) and A-Hmao.[3] Wu and Yang (2010) report attempts at writing Mashan in 1985 and an improvement by them; they recommend that standards should be developed for each of the six other primary varieties of West Hmongic.

Autonyms[edit]

Autonyms include (Miaoyu Jianzhi 苗语简志 1985):

Classification[edit]

West Hmongic is the most diverse branch of the Hmong (Miao) language family. There are nine primary branches in Chinese sources,[4] though the unity of these are not accepted in all Western sources. Items marked "§" have been split into individual languages (and not kept together) by either Matisoff or Strecker; all of these are branches of Miao listed with subbranches in Chinese sources. The other three (A-Hmao, A-Hmyo, Gejia) are not so divided in either Chinese or Western sources.

The three divisions of the Chuanqiandian cluster are only as divergent as the divisions of the other branches marked "§", but are listed separately due to the internal complexity of Hmong.

The various varieties of Pingtang, new branches of Guiyang and Mashan, and Matisoff's Raojia and Pa Na are not listed in Ethnologue 16, and have no ISO codes. Matisoff (2006) gives very different names, and it's not clear how these correspond to the branches listed here.

Ratliff (2010)[edit]

Ratliff (2010)[5] includes three languages specifically:

The last contradicts Matisoff (2001), who had posited a Bunu branch of Hmongic with Bu-Nao in it, but recapitulates Strecker (1987). The other Western varieties were not addressed, though some were included in her reconstruction of Proto-Hmong–Mien.

Wang (1985)[edit]

Wang Fushi (1985)[6] groups the Western Miao languages into eight primary divisions. Datapoint locations of representative dialects are from Li Yunbing (2000:237), all of which are located in Guizhou province, China.

  • Chuanqiandian Miao
    • Lect 1: 1,100,000 speakers in the following counties. Representative dialect: Dananshan 大南山寨, Xiaoshao township 小哨苗族乡, Bijie city
      • Sichuan: Gulin, Xuyong, Xingyong, Gongxian, Junlian, Gaoxian, Changning, Muli, Yanbian, etc.
      • Guizhou: Jinsha, Chishui, Renhuai, Zunyi, Xifeng, Bijie, Nayong, Qianxi, Dafang, Zhijin, Puding, Pu'an, Xingyi, Anlong, Wangmo, Zhenning, Anshun Prefecture, Liupanshui Prefecture, etc.
      • Yunnan: Zhenxiong, Weixing, Yiliang, Shizong, Luoping, Wenshan Prefecture, Mengzi, Pingbian, Kaiyuan, Jinping, Gejiu, Mile, Luxi, Lunan (Shilin), Yuanyang, Baoshan, Changning, Lijiang, Huaping, Fengqin, Heqin, Weishan, Yongping, Yangbi, Nanjian, Xiangyun, Zhongdian, Binchuan, Huaning, Chengjiang, Yiliang, Zhenkang, Zhenyuan, Mengla, etc.
      • Guangxi: Longlin, Xilin, Napo, etc.
    • Lect 2: 70,000+ speakers in the counties of Nayong, Hezhang, and Shuicheng. Representative dialect: Xingfa township 兴发乡, Hezhang County
    • Lect 3. Representative dialect: Zhuchang township 猪场乡, Zhijin County
  • Northeast Yunnan Miao: 250,000 speakers in the counties of Yiliang of Zhaotong, Daguan, Zhaotong, Yongshan, Qiaojia, Wudin, Lufeng, Luquan, Chuxiong, Dayao, Yuanmou, Kunming, Anning, Fumin, Yiliang of Kunming, Yimen, Songming, Qujing, Dongchuan, Huize, Xundian, Xuanwei, Zhanyi, Malong, Weining, Hezhang, Zhijin, Puding, Wangmo, Shuicheng, etc. Representative dialect: Shimenkan 门坎寨, Zhongshui district 中水区, Weining County
  • Guiyang Miao
    • Northern: 80,000 speakers in Guiyang suburbs; Linka 林卡, Pingba; Chongxin 重新 and Shiping 石平 of Qianxi; Jinsha (in Musha 木沙, Bijia 笔架, Zongping 宗平, Dayuan 大员, Xinxi 新西, Anmin安民, and Taoyuan 桃园); parts of the counties of Kaiyang, Xifeng, Xiuwen, and Guiding. Representative dialect: Baituo 摆托寨, Qingyan township 青岩乡, Huaxi District 花溪区, Guiyang city
    • Southwestern: 65,000 speakers in Pingba (in Machang 马场, Malu 马路, Gayun 嘎云, Baiyun 白云, Huolong 活龙, and Changhe 昌河), Qingzhen (in Houliu 后六 and Lusheng 芦笙), Anshun (in Zhangjiatun 张家屯, Pingzhai 平寨, Jiuzhou 旧州, Baolong 鲍隆, and Liugong 刘宫), Changshun (in Guangshun 广顺), Guiyang suburbs. Representative dialect: Kaisa village 凯洒村, Machang township 马场乡, Pingba County
    • Southern: 25,000 speakers in Anshun and parts of Zhenning. Representative dialect: Wangjiashan 汪家山, Huayan township 华严乡, Anshun city
    • Northwestern: 7,000 speakers in Tieshi 铁石苗族彝族乡, Qianxi (in Molaoba 磨老坝 and Tiaonian 跳年); Tiekui 铁盔乡, Qianxi (in Xinchang 新场, Xinzhai 新寨, Bazi 坝子); others parts of Qianxi (in Baihua 百花, Malu 马路, Lanhua 兰花, Wuli 五里, Hongshui 洪水, Pingzhai 平寨, Guanzhai 关寨, Gantang 甘塘, Guiqing 桂箐, Wuzhen 五镇, Tangxin 塘新, Dasan 大三, and Liming 黎明); Pingba (in Datun 大屯, Leping 乐平 and Gaofeng 高峰); Weicheng 卫城 of Qingzhen; Ertang 二塘 of Liuzhi; Shechang 蛇场 of Longlin. Representative dialect: Tieshi township 铁石苗族彝族乡, Qianxi County
    • Central: 5,000 speakers in Jiepai 界牌, Chengguan 城关镇, Ziyun; Tuanpo 团坡, Songshan 松山镇, Ziyun; Baiyun 白云, Ziyun (in Malong 骂龙 and Maga 骂嘎); Baiyan 白岩 (in Tianba 田坝, Banbi 板比, Mokai 磨开, Mozhu 磨竺); Qinghai 青海乡 (Lanba 滥坝, Fengxianglin 枫香林, Suancaopo 酸草坡); Dazhai 大寨, Jianglang 江朗, Zhenning. Representative dialect (South-central Guiyang Miao): Hongyanzhai 红岩寨, Baiyun township 白云乡, Ziyun County
  • Huishui Miao
    • Northern: 64,000 speakers in Gaopo 高坡, Guiyang; Yangchang 羊场, Huishui; Tangbao 塘堡 and Pingfa 平伐, Guiding. Representative dialect: Jiading 甲定寨, Gaopo township 高坡苗族乡, Guiyang city
    • Western: 52,000 speakers in Yashui 雅水, Sandu 三都, Doudi 斗底, and Duansan 断杉 of Huishui; Baitang 摆塘 and Zhongguo 中果, Changshun. Representative dialect: Yarong Township 鸭绒乡, Huishui County
    • Central: 41,000 speakers in Huishui (in Chengguan 城关 and Baijin 摆金); parts of Changshun and Ziyun. Representative dialect: Baijin township 摆金乡, Huishui County
    • Eastern: 13,000 speakers in Xiguan 西关 of Pingtang; Gaobaibang 高摆榜 of Huishui, etc. Representative dialect: Xiguan township 西关乡, Pingtang County
  • Mashan Miao
    • Central: 60,000 speakers in Ziyun (in Zongdi 宗地, Dayi 打易, Gejing 格井, Kehun 克混, Meichang 妹场, and Baihua 百花), Luodian (Fengting 逢亭 and Bianyang 边阳, etc.). Representative dialect: Jiaotuo 绞坨寨, Zongdi township 宗地乡, Ziyun County
    • Northern: 30,000 speakers in Daihua 代化 of Changshun; Bianyang 边阳 of Luodian; Dongshang 董上 of Huishui, etc. Representative dialect: Baisuo township 摆梭乡, Changshun County
    • Western: 12,000 speakers in Houchang 猴场, Sidazhai 四大寨, etc. of Ziyun. Representative dialect: Sidazhai 四大寨, Houchang Ttwnship 猴场乡, Ziyun County
    • Southern: 9,000 speakers in Mashan 麻山, Lekuan 乐宽, etc. of Wangmo. Representative dialect: Youquan village 油全村, Lekuan township 乐宽乡, Wangmo County
    • Southwestern: 5,000 speakers in Dalang 打狼乡, Sanglang 桑朗乡, and Lewang 乐旺乡 of Wangmo. Representative dialect: Babangzhai 岜棒寨, Dalang township 打狼乡, Ziyun County
    • Southeastern: 6,000 speakers in Moyin 模引乡 and Fengting 逢亭镇 of Wangmo. Representative dialect: Babazhai 把坝寨, Moyin 模引乡, Wangmo County
  • Luobohe Miao: 43,000 speakers in the counties of Fuquan, Guiding, Longli, Kaiyang, Kaili (in Laojunzhai 老君寨, Daxiaopaomu 大小泡木, etc.). Representative dialect: Yejipo 野鸡坡寨, Ganba township 甘坝乡, Fuquan County
  • Chong'anjiang Miao: 44,000 speakers in the following counties. Representative dialect: Fengxiang 枫香寨, Chong'an township 重安乡, Huangping County
    • Huangping (in Fengtang 枫塘, Chongxin 重新, Chongren 崇人)
    • Kaili (in Longchang 龙场, Gouchang 狗场, Ganba 甘坝, Longshan 龙山, Longchang 隆昌, Bibo 碧波)
  • Pingtang Miao
    • Northern: 15,000 speakers in Pingtang County. Representative dialect: Shanglin village 上林村, Yuanjiatong township 原甲桐乡, Pingtang County
      • Kaluo 卡罗乡 (in Shanglin 上林, Shangjialang 上甲浪, Xiajialang 下甲浪, Lamiguan 拉米冠)
      • Yazhou 牙舟镇 (in Kongzhai 孔寨, Yanzhai 岩寨, Gusong 故松, Wangsong 王宋, Kala 卡腊, Gaozhai 高寨, Danpiao 单票, Chengyoupo 承友坡)
      • Gudong 谷洞乡 (Gudong 谷洞, Shuichong 水冲, Shangge 上格, Baikua 摆垮, Xiaoguang 小广, Daguang 大广, Jichang 鸡场, Kuangjiu 旷九, Kundan 坤丹, Bailiang 摆两, Wengpian 翁片, etc.)
    • Eastern: 5,000 speakers in Xinmin 新民乡, Wengqiao 翁桥乡, and Shangdao 上道乡 of Dushan County. Representative dialect: Caozhai 草寨, Xinmin township 新民乡, Dushan County
    • Southern: 7,000 speakers in the following counties. Representative dialect: Pingyan 平岩乡, Luodian County
      • Luodian (in Pingyan 平岩乡)
      • Pingtang (in Wengtun 翁屯, Kongqiong 孔穹, Mingtong 明通, Kongwangzhai 孔王寨, Baibiao 摆表)
      • Nandan (in Lala 拉拉, Zhongbao 钟堡, Youyuan 尤元, Yuege 约各, Jiuli 九里, Youshao 油召, etc.)
    • Western: 3,500 speakers in Youmai 油迈 of Wangmo (in Shangyoumai 上油迈, Xiayoumai 下油迈); parts of Luodian. Representative dialect: Youmai village 油迈村, Youmai township 油迈乡, Wangmo County

The above classification was later revised by Li Jinping & Li Tianyi (2012:285) to include 7 dialects instead of the 8 given in Wang (1985); Pingtang Miao is excluded.

  • Western Miao (representative dialect: Dananshan, Yanzikou, Bijie 贵州毕节燕子口镇大南山)
    • Chuanqiandian Miao (representative dialect: Damiaozhai, Jichang, Bijie 贵州毕节吉场大苗寨)
      • Lect 1
      • Lect 2
    • Guiyang Miao (representative dialect: Guankou, Machang, Pingba 贵州平坝马场关口)
      • Northern
      • Western
      • Southern
    • Huishui Miao (representative dialect: Jiading, Gaopo, Huaxi, Guiyang 贵州贵阳花溪高坡甲定)
      • Northern
      • Western
      • Central
      • Eastern
    • Mashan Miao (representative dialect: Dalong, Dayun, Ziyun 贵州紫云大云大龙)
      • Central
      • Northern
      • Western
      • Southern
    • Northeast Yunnan Miao (representative dialect: Shimenkan, Weining 贵州威宁石门砍)
    • Luobohe Miao (representative dialect: Yejipo, Xinqiao, Fuquan 贵州福泉新桥野鸡坡)
    • Chong'anjiang Miao (representative dialect: Fengxiang, Chongxing, Huangping 贵州黄平重兴枫香)

Li (2000)[edit]

Li Yunbing (2000) classified those varieties left unclassified in Wang, grouping four of them together as an eighth branch of West Hmongic, Pingtang. He identified Luodian Muyin and Wangmo (using Strecker's names) as varieties of Mashan.[7] Wang (1994) had already established Qianxi and Ziyun as varieties of Guiyang. This classification is repeated in Wu and Yang (2010):[8]

The varieties analyzed by Li Yunbing (2000) are:

  • Guiyang Miao
    • m̥uŋ44 (autonym), in Hongyan, Baiyun, Ziyun County 紫云县白云乡红岩寨; 4,000 speakers
    • tə33 m̥ju44 (autonym) in Tieshi, Qianxi County 黔西县铁石苗族彝族乡
  • Pingtang Miao
    • kei44 m̥ho24 (autonym) in Jiatong, Pingtang County 平塘县甲桐乡 (currently Kaluo 卡罗乡); 11,000 speakers
    • to22 m̥o35 (autonym) in Xinmin, Dushan County 独山县新民乡; 4,000+ speakers
    • tõ24 m̥ɒ24 (autonym; also called Red Miao 红苗) in Pingyan, Luodian County 罗甸县平岩乡; 6,000 speakers
    • m̥aŋ55 (autonym) in Youmai, Wangmo County 望谟县油迈乡; 3,000 speakers
  • Mashan Miao
    • toŋ35 m̥aŋ35 (autonym; Bouyei exonym ʑəu21 vɦi21) in Dalang, Ziyun County 紫云县打狼乡; 4,000 speakers
    • toŋ33 m̥aŋ33 (autonym) in Moyin, Luodian County 罗甸县模引乡; 4,000+ speakers

Li (2000) considers qɑ24 ʑuɤ24 (autonym; Raojia) of Heba, Majiang County 麻江县河坝乡 to be a separate dialect of Hmu (East Hmongic). It has 5,000 speakers in Majiang County, and 10,000 speakers total (including in the counties of Kaili, Duyun, Sandu, Rongjiang, Nandan, etc.)

Bu-Nao may not be included simply because speakers are ethnically Yao rather than Miao.[9]

Mortensen (2004)[edit]

David Mortensen (2004)[10] argues for the following classification of Western Hmongic based on shared tonal innovations, including tone sandhi. Pingtang, Luobohe, and Chong'anjiang are not addressed.

Western Hmongic
  • Guiyang-Huishui
  • Core Western Hmongic
    • Mashan
      • Jiaotuo 绞坨 (in Zongdi 宗地乡, Ziyun County), Shuijingping 水井坪
      • Xinzhai 新寨
    • Far Western Hmongic
      • A-Hmao (Diandongbei)
        • Western
        • Eastern
      • Hmong (Chuanqiandian)

Castro & Gu (2010): Wenshan[edit]

Castro & Gu (2010) divide the Hmong dialects of Wenshan Prefecture, Yunnan into four subdivisions, listed from east to west.[11]

  • Shuat (most divergent)
  • Dleub
  • Shib-Nzhuab
  • Soud-Bes-Buak

The dialects given above are named after the groups they are spoken by. Some townships where they are spoken in are given as well.

  • Hmongb Shuat (偏苗: Lopsided Miao)
    • Yangliujing, Guangnan county 广南县杨柳井乡
    • Muyang, Funing county 富宁县木央镇
  • Hmongb Dleub (白苗: White Miao)
    • Zhulin, Guangnan county 广南县珠琳镇
    • Badaoshao, Qiubei county 丘北县八道哨乡
    • Muyang, Funing county 富宁木央镇
    • Babu, Malipo county 麻栗坡县八布乡
  • Hmongb Shib (青苗: Green Miao)
    • Xingjie, Xichou county 西畴县兴街镇
    • Zhuilijie, Wenshan county 文山县追栗街镇
  • Hmongb Nzhuab (绿苗, 青苗: Green Miao)
    • Babu, Malipo county 麻栗坡县八布乡
    • Jiahanqing, Maguan county 马关县夹寒箐镇
  • Hmongb Soud (花苗: Flowery Miao)
    • Nijiao, Qiubei county 丘北县腻脚乡
    • Pingyuan, Yanshan county 砚山县平远镇
  • Hmongb Bes (花苗: Flowery Miao)
    • Jiahanqing, Maguan county 马关县夹寒箐镇
    • Bazhai, Maguan county 马关县八寨镇
  • Hmongb Buak (花苗: Flowery Miao)
    • Gulinqing, Maguan county 马关县古林箐乡
    • Gumu, Wenshan county 文山县古木镇

Castro, Flaming, & Luo (2012): Honghe[edit]

Castro, Flaming, & Luo (2012) found that there are 4 different West Hmongic languages in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan.[12]

  • Northern Hua Miao, comprising Bes, Soud, Ndrous, Buak, and Dlob
  • Southern Hua Miao, comprising Shib, Lens, Nzhuab, and Dlex Nchab
  • White Miao, comprising Dleub
  • Sinicised Miao, comprising Sat and Shuat

Castro, Flaming, & Luo (2012)[12] propose the following classification for the Western Miao dialects of southeastern Yunnan, which is based on Michael Johnson's 1998 classification of Western Miao dialects.[13]

Western Miao [Hmongic]
  • Sinicised Miao
    • Sat (汉苗)[14]
    • Shuat (偏苗、汉苗)
  • Farwestern Miao
    • White Miao
      • Dleub (白苗)
    • Northern Hua Miao
      • Standard Western Miao
      • Bes (花苗)
      • Soud (花苗)
      • Ndrous (花苗)
      • Black Miao
        • Dlob (黑苗)
        • Buak (黑苗)
    • Southern Hua Miao
      • Shib (青苗)
      • Lens (花苗、红头苗)[15]
      • Nzhuab (绿苗、花苗)
      • Dlex Nchab (清水苗)

Matisoff (2006)[edit]

Matisoff 2006 outlined the following. Not all languages are necessarily listed.[16]

Western Hmong

Matisoff (2001)[edit]

Matisoff 2001[citation needed] removed Bu-Nao from Strecker (1987), broke up several of the remaining groups, and does not mention the unclassified languages, unless they are covered by Raojia or Pa Na. Apart from those, this is basically the classification of Ethnologue 16.

Chuanqiangdian Miao

Wang (1983)[edit]

Wang (1983),[17] summarized in English in Strecker 1987[18] emphasized the diversity of Western Hmongic. The names below are from Strecker; Wang did not assign names, but identified the districts where the varieties were spoken.

Chuanqiandian (Sichuan–Guizhou–Yunnan)

These are not all established as unitary branches, however. In a follow-up to that paper in the same publication,[19] Strecker broke up Bu-Nao on the basis of newly accessible data, and noted that several of the languages listed in Wang [marked "?" above] were unclassified due to lack of data, and had not been demonstrated to be West Hmongic.

The other groups are then listed as unclassified within Hmongic, and not specifically West Hmongic. However, Wang (1994) identified two as varieties of Guiyang.

The eight unclassified languages are all spoken in a small area of south-central Guizhou, along with Guiyang, Huishui, Mashan, and Luobo River Miao. These were later addressed by Li Yunbing (2000).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "West Hmongic". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Tanya Storch Religions and missionaries around the Pacific, 1500-1900 2006 p293 "he invented the first script for any Miao language"
  3. ^ 苗文创制与苗语方言划分的历史回顾
  4. ^ though Bu-Nao is not listed, for ethnic rather than cladistic reasons
  5. ^ Ratliff, Martha. 2010. Hmong–Mien language history. Canberra, Australia: Pacific Linguistics.
  6. ^ 王辅世主编,《苗语简志》,民族出版社,1985年。
  7. ^ 李云兵,《苗语方言划分遗留问题研究》,中央民族大学出版社,2000年。
  8. ^ Wú Zhèngbiāo and Yáng Guāngyīng, 2010. 兼谈苗族英雄史诗《亚鲁王》的记译整理问题, 民族翻译.
  9. ^ Wang Fushi, cited in Strecker (1987b)
  10. ^ Mortensen, David (2004). “The Development of Tone Sandhi in Western Hmongic: A New Hypothesis”. Unpublished, UC Berkeley. http://www.pitt.edu/~drm31/development_whmongic_tone_sandhi.pdf
  11. ^ Castro, Andy & Gu Chawen. 2010. "Phonological innovation among Hmong dialects of Wenshan." Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society (JSEALS) 3.1:1-39.
  12. ^ a b Andy Castro, Royce Flaming, Luo Youliang. 2012. A Phonological and Lexical Comparison of Western Miao Dialects in Honghe. SIL International.
  13. ^ Johnson, Michael. 1998. Farwestern Hmongic. ms.
  14. ^ Strongly resembles Hmong Shuat of Guangnan and Funing counties
  15. ^ Phonemically identical to Hmong Nzhuab (Green Mong) of Thailand, and Hmong Shib of Wenshan and Xichou counties
  16. ^ Matisoff, 2006. "Genetic versus Contact Relationship". In Aikhenvald & Dixon, Areal diffusion and genetic inheritance
  17. ^ Wang Fushi (1983). "Miáoyǔ fāngyán huàfēn wèntí (On the Dialect Divisions of the Miao Language)". Mínzú Yǔwén 5:1–22.
  18. ^ Strecker, David. 1987. "The Hmong-Mien Languages." In Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 10 , no. 2: 1–11.
  19. ^ [1]
  • Li Jinping, Li Tianyi [李锦平, 李天翼]. 2012. A comparative study of Miao dialects [苗语方言比较研究]. Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong University Press.