West Hollywood, California
|West Hollywood, California|
|City of West Hollywood|
|Nickname(s): "WeHo", "Weho"|
|Motto: "The Creative City"|
|Los Angeles County, California|
|Incorporated||November 29, 1984|
|• Mayor||Jeffrey Prang|
|• Mayor Pro Tempore||Abbe Land|
|• City Manager||Paul Arevalo|
|• Council Members||John D’Amico
John J. Duran
|• Total||1.887 sq mi (4.888 km2)|
|• Land||1.887 sq mi (4.888 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2) 0%|
|Elevation||282 ft (86 m)|
|• Density||18,000/sq mi (7,000/km2)|
|U.S. Census Bureau American FactFinder|
|Time zone||PST (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|ZIP codes||90038, 90046, 90048, 90069|
|GNIS feature ID||1652810|
West Hollywood (colloquially referred to as WeHo) is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The city was incorporated on November 29, 1984. It is notably famous for its unique vibrant commercial corridors, dining, and eccentric nightlife focused on the Sunset Strip. As of the 2011 census, its population is 34,650.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Adjacent neighborhoods
- 3 History
- 4 Recent history
- 5 Landmarks and distinctive places
- 6 Economy
- 7 Events
- 8 Celebrities
- 9 Controversies
- 10 Politics and government
- 11 Education
- 12 Demographics
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
West Hollywood is bordered on the north by the Hollywood Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, on the east by the Hollywood district of Los Angeles, on the south by the Fairfax district of Los Angeles, and on the west by the city of Beverly Hills.
The irregular border of the city is featured in the city logo, and was largely formed from the unincorporated Los Angeles County area that had not become part of the surrounding cities.
West Hollywood benefits from a very dense, compact urban form with small lots, mixed land use, and a walkable street grid. According to Walkscore, a website that ranks cities based on walkability, West Hollywood is the most walkable city in California with a Walkscore of 89. Commercial corridors include the nightlife and dining focused on the Sunset Strip, along Santa Monica Boulevard, and the Avenues of Art & Design along Robertson, Melrose, and Beverly Boulevard.
Residential neighborhoods in West Hollywood include the Norma Triangle, West Hollywood North, West Hollywood West, West Hollywood East, and West Hollywood Heights, all of which are only a few blocks long or wide. Major intersecting streets typically provide amenities within walking distance of adjacent neighborhoods.
According to a 2002 demographic analysis, 41% of the city's population is made up of gay or bisexual men.
|Beverly Hills||Laurel Canyon||Hollywood Hills||
|Beverly Hills||West Hollywood||Hollywood|
|Beverly Hills||Melrose||Hancock Park|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2011)|
Most historical writings about West Hollywood began in the late 1700s with European colonization when the Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho arrived offshore and claimed the already inhabited region for Spain. Around 5,000 of the indigenous inhabitants from the Tongva Indian tribe canoed out to greet Juan Cabrillo. The Tongva tribe was a nation of hunter-gatherers known for their reverence of dance and courage. By 1771, these native people had been severely ravaged by diseases brought in by the Europeans from across wide oceans. The Spanish mission system changed the tribal name to "Gabrielinos", in reference to the Mission de San Gabriel. Early in 1770 Gaspar de Portola's Mexican expeditionary force stopped just south of the Santa Monica Mountains near what would become West Hollywood to draw pitch (la brea) from tar pits to waterproof their belongings and to say mass. The Gabrielinos are believed to have burned the pitch for fuel.
By 1780, what became the "Sunset Strip" was the major connecting road for El Pueblo de Los Angeles, and all ranches westward to the Pacific Ocean. This land passed through the hands of various owners during the next one hundred years, and it was called names such as "La Brea" and "Plummer" that are listed in historical records. Most of this area was part of the Rancho La Brea, and eventually it came to be owned by the Henry Hancock family.
During the final decade years of the nineteenth century, the first large land development in what would later become West Hollywood—the town of "Sherman"—was established by Moses Sherman and his partners of the Los Angeles and Pacific Railway, an interurban railroad line which later became part of the Pacific Electric Railway system. Sherman became the location of the railroad's main shops, railroad yards, and "car barns". Many working-class employees of the railroad settled in this town. It was during this time that the city began to earn its reputation as a loosely regulated, liquor-friendly (during Prohibition) place for eccentric people wary of government interference. Despite several annexation attempts, the town elected not to become part of the City of Los Angeles. In a controversial decision, in 1925 Sherman adopted "West Hollywood", "...a moniker pioneered earlier in the decade by the West Hollywood Realty Board" as its informal name. though it remained under the governance of Los Angeles County.
For many years, the area that is now the city of West Hollywood was an unincorporated area in the midst of Los Angeles. Because gambling was illegal in the city of Los Angeles, but still legal in Los Angeles County, the 1920s saw the proliferation of many casinos, night clubs, etc., along Sunset Boulevard (which starts in downtown Los Angeles and runs westward). These businesses were immune from the sometimes heavy-handed law-enforcement of the L.A. Police Department.
Some people connected with movie-making were attracted to this less-restricted area of the County, and a number of architecturally distinctive apartment buildings and apartment hotels were built.
Eventually, the area and its extravagant nightclubs fell out of favor. However, the Sunset Strip and its restaurants, saloons, and nightclubs continued to be an attraction for out-of-town tourists. During the late 1960s, the Sunset Strip was transformed again during the hippie movement which brought a thriving music publishing industry coupled with "hippie" culture. Some young people from all over the country flocked to West Hollywood.
The most recent migration to West Hollywood came about after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, when thousands of Russian Jews immigrated to the city. A majority of the 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Jews settled in two major immigration waves, 1978–79 and 1988–92. Other than New York, West Hollywood's Russian-speaking community is the most concentrated single Russian-speaking region in United States.
In 1984, residents in West Hollywood organized to maintain rent control. When Los Angeles County began planning to discontinue rent controls, West Hollywood was a densely populated area of renters, many of whom would not be able to afford to keep up with the generally rapid raises in rent in the Los Angeles area. A tight coalition of seniors, Jews, gays and renters were greatly assisted by the Community for Economic Survival (CES) and they swiftly voted to incorporate as the "City of West Hollywood". West Hollywood then immediately adopted one of the strongest rent control laws in the nation.
|This article or section may be slanted towards recent events. (October 2011)|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2010)|
West Hollywood also has inclusionary zoning laws governing development. The city established the Affordable Housing Trust Fund in 1986 requiring developers to either provide affordable housing in new projects or pay a fee in-lieu to the city which it directs towards other affordable housing projects.
With a socially minded population, West Hollywood adopted one of the nation's first mandatory green building ordinances on October 1, 2007. The ordinance ensures that new buildings will be healthier for residents and use energy and resources more efficiently.
Traffic congestion, public transport and parking are critical issues in the city due to its location between access to areas such as Greater Hollywood and the San Fernando Valley to the east and the area of the Los Angeles West Side, with the Hollywood Hills creating a natural impediment to the north. Santa Monica Boulevard and Sunset Boulevard are critical east-west arteries in the metropolitan area, and Laurel Canyon Boulevard is a popular shortcut through the hills. Nearly 600 employees and 260 buses in the District 7 fleet of the LACMTA are based in a large facility on prime real estate near San Vicente Boulevard and Santa Monica Boulevard. The development of a "pink line" subway through the city, providing a connection between the Metro Red Line and a proposed Metro Purple Line along Wilshire Boulevard is currently under study.
Residents of West Hollywood vote overwhelmingly for the Democratic Party. They also regularly pass ordinances geared toward reducing perceived discrimination and protecting the public health and dignity of all living things. West Hollywood is nationally known as a front-runner in social justice legislation.
In 1985, West Hollywood was the first city to create a same-gender domestic partnership registration for its residents, as well as to offer same-gender domestic partner benefits for city employees. West Hollywood's comprehensive Domestic Partnership Ordinance allows those couples that are prohibited from marrying (same-sex) and those who can marry but choose not to (heterosexual), to register their union with the city. These unions are treated on an equal basis with legal marriages with respect to city-level benefits and services. In California as a whole, same-sex couples may enter domestic partnerships which offer them all of the state rights of marriage.
In 1993 the West Hollywood City Council voted for West Hollywood to become the first official pro-choice city in America.
Legislation prohibiting discrimination in the workplace on the basis of sexual orientation is widely recognized as the toughest in the nation. The city is also one of 92 jurisdictions in the country where it is illegal to discriminate on the basis of gender identity or expression.
City legislation also bans the sale of handguns, prohibits smoking in public places, and restricts the city from doing business directly or indirectly (via vendors) with any country known to violate human rights. Also, the city is one of 19 in California that has banned the use of gas-powered leaf blowers.
The city designed a law that pets are to be called "companions," and their owners "guardians" and was the first city in the country to outlaw the de-clawing of cats.
In 2011, West Hollywood became the first city in the United States to ban the sale of clothing with real animal fur, the ban is due to come into effect September 21, 2013. 60% of businesses oppose the ban.
Landmarks and distinctive places
Alta Loma Road is home to the Sunset Marquis Hotel with its famous 45-person Whisky Bar and a recording studio that has been home to many hits. Alta Loma Road was one of the main locations for the film Perfect. Actor Sal Mineo lived on this street in the 1970s; he was murdered in his carport just around the corner from Alta Loma Road on Holloway Drive.
The western stretch of Melrose Avenue, between Fairfax Avenue and Doheny Drive, is notable for its trendy clothing boutiques, interior design shops, restaurants and antique stores. The west end of Melrose Avenue, near the Pacific Design Center, is especially known for its exclusive furniture.
The area around Fountain Avenue, Harper Avenue and Havenhurst Drive contains a high concentration of landmark 1920s Spanish Revival and Art Deco apartment buildings by such noted architects as Leland Bryant. This historic district has been home to many celebrities and at one time the Sunset Tower at 8358 Sunset Boulevard was home to Frank Sinatra, Errol Flynn, the Gabor sisters, John Wayne and Howard Hughes.
Notable business and attractions in West Hollywood include:
- The Sunset Strip
- Hotels such as Chateau Marmont, Andaz West Hollywood, Chamberlain West Hollywood Hotel, Mondrian and the Standard
- The Pacific Design Center
- Architecture such as The Schindler House by the architect Rudolf Schindler
- Buildings such as 9200 Sunset by architect Charles Luckman
- Music venues such as House of Blues, Whisky a Go Go, The Troubadour, The Roxy Theatre and Viper Room
- Westlake Recording Studios, where Michael Jackson recorded the albums "Thriller" and "Bad" in 1982 and 1987 respectively
- Celebrity hangouts such as Soho House, Formosa Cafe, Whisky Bar, Rainbow Bar and Grill, Palm Restaurant: West Hollywood (not to be confused with the chain by the same name,) Dan Tana’s, The Abbey Food & Bar and Villa Nightclub
- Film, television and music production including Samuel Goldwyn Studios, Smashbox Studios and TMZ on TV
- Several parks including historic Plummer Park
- Comedy Store
- Sierra Towers, tallest residential building in the greater Los Angeles area
- Saint Victor Catholic Church
- West Hollywood Gateway Project, the city's largest shopping center that is home to Los Angeles' largest public art piece using projection technology.
According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|4||The London West Hollywood||230|
|5||House of Blues||230|
|6||Dailey & Associates||209|
|7||City of West Hollywood||205|
|9||Gordon Ramsay at the London||340|
|10||Hyatt West Hollywood Hotel||170|
|11||Best Western Sunset Plaza||125|
|12||La Parc Suite Hotel||105|
|16||Saddle Ranch Chop House||100|
The West Hollywood Halloween Carnival is an event that takes place annually on October 31. The largest Halloween street party in the United States (spanning over 1 mile (1.6 km) of Santa Monica Boulevard from La Cienega Boulevard on the East to Doheny and the Beverly Hills border on the West), the 2007 Carnival was reported to have more than 350,000 people in attendance, with some traveling from other countries specifically for the event.
Christopher Street West is an LGBT pride parade and festival that was first held in June 1970 in Hollywood to commemorate the first anniversary of the Stonewall Riots in New York. After incorporation, the event moved to West Hollywood and is typically held the second weekend in June.
One City One Pride is an LGBT Arts Festival held during the month of June in West Hollywood.
The West Hollywood Book Fair has been held in the fall since 2001. Past participants have included Andrew McCarthy, Deepak Chopra, and Rocco DiSpirito.
The Oscars is a major event in the city with a majority of the large Academy Award party venues being located in the city. Many streets are closed and traffic swells on this day each year.
The City of West Hollywood sponsors an animal walk and pet appreciation days throughout the year, which have in the past featured pet psychics and dog activities. During Halloween the week prior to October 31, animals can participate in a costume contest in West Hollywood Park. West Hollywood is in close proximity to Runyon Canyon Park's hiking trail and dog park in Hollywood.
The issue of Paparazzi chasing celebrities is raised regularly and the city participates in meetings with other nearby municipalities such as Beverly Hills and Los Angeles to discuss the problem and possible actions to better control the activity. The epicenter of the Thirty Mile Zone lies just blocks to the south of the city, and is the basis for the name of TMZ on TV, a paparazzi footage-based program produced in West Hollywood at Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards.
In 1982, John Belushi died of a drug overdose at the elegant Chateau Marmont hotel. On the night of his death, he was visited separately by friends Robin Williams (at the height of his own drug exploits) and Robert De Niro, each of whom left the premises, leaving Belushi in the company of assorted others, including Cathy Smith. This is just one of many notable sordid events at the location. A 1930s movie executive reportedly said, 'If you must get into trouble, do it at the Chateau Marmont'.
In 1961, comedian Lenny Bruce was arrested on obscenity charges at The Troubadour in then-unincorporated West Hollywood. The arresting officer was a young deputy named Sherman Block, who would later become County Sheriff.
In 1989, actor Christian Slater was arrested in West Hollywood for leading the police on a drunken car chase that ended when Slater crashed his car into a telephone pole.
Actor River Phoenix died at age 23 of a drug overdose at approximately 1:00 AM on Halloween night in 1993 at the Viper Room, a club that was opened that year and was partly owned by actor Johnny Depp until 2004.
On November 17, 2006, during a performance at the Laugh Factory, a cell phone video captured Michael Richards shouting "Shut up" to a heckler in the audience, followed by repeated shouts of "He's a nigger!" to the rest of the audience (using the word six times altogether), and also making a reference to lynching.
Sometime in the 1940s a sign appeared over the bar at Barney's Beanery that said "FAGOTS – STAY OUT". It was so offensive to locals that Life magazine did an article on opposition to the sign in 1964, which included a photograph of the owner steadfastly holding on to it. The owner died in 1968, and efforts continued to have the sign removed. The Gay Liberation Front organized a zap of the restaurant on February 7, 1970 to push for its removal. The sign came down that day. The sign was put up and taken down several times over the next 14 years, but the practice ended in December 1984, days after the city voted itself into existence. The then-mayor, Valerie Terrigno, the entire city council and gay-rights activists marched into Barney's and relieved the wall of the offending sign. It was held by Morris Kight for many years and now rests in the ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives.
A resident drew national attention during the 2008 Presidential campaign by including a Sarah Palin mannequin hung in effigy in a Halloween display. The home's decorations also featured a doll of John McCain surrounded by decorative flames in the chimney. Some residents complained about the display as a hate crime, but the Los Angeles County Sheriff concluded the display did not violate any laws.
In March 2006, agents from Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the U.S. Secret Service seized 250 fake denomination notes, each bearing a denomination of $1,000,000,000 (one billion USD) from a West Hollywood apartment.
In 2006, the City Council passed a medicinal marijuana resolution, by a vote of 4–0, making it the first city in Southern California to adopt a lowest law enforcement priority law for cannabis offenses. The resolution stated "it is not the policy of the City or its law enforcement agency to target possession of small amounts of cannabis and the consumption of non-medical cannabis in private by adults".
Politics and government
West Hollywood was the first city in the country to have a city council with a majority of gay members. Council member John Heilman is the city's longest-serving council member (having served continuously since 1984).
On February 19, 2001, West Hollywood became the second city in the United States (after Boulder, Colorado) to change the term pet "owner" to pet "guardian" in their municipal codes. West Hollywood was the first city in the USA to enact a law banning cat declawing.
With West Hollywood being one of the most prominent gay-friendly cities in the United States, it was no surprise that Proposition 8 had the highest rejection in West Hollywood than all of the cities in Los Angeles county. A whopping 86% of the city voted against the amendment, which restricted marriage to heterosexual couples. 14% voted in favor of the amendment.
In the state legislature West Hollywood is located in the 23rd Senate District, represented by Democrat Fran Pavley, and in the 42nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Mike Feuer. Federally, West Hollywood is located in California's 30th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D +20 and is represented by Democrat Henry Waxman.
Public health & safety
Fire protection in West Hollywood is provided by the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The LACFD operates Station #7, the battalion headquarters, and Station #8 at 864 North San Vicente Boulevard, both in West Hollywood, as a part of Battalion 1.
West Hollywood, with a gay male population of about 41%, has been disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic which has ravaged its gay male population since the early 1980s. This town funds or subsidizes an array of services for those living with HIV or AIDS. The AIDS Healthcare Foundation parks a Mobile HIV/STD testing van outside of the city's busiest nightclubs on Friday and Saturday nights, and again on Sunday afternoons. This outreach attempts to intervene with those young people most at-risk for HIV infection. Project Angel Food receives city funding to deliver hundreds of fresh lunches and dinners daily which are prepared under the supervision of a registered dietitian who tailors the meals to meet individual client's nutritional needs. AIDS Project Los Angeles (APLA) is a national leader for AIDS policy and advocacy issues and provides assistance to clients navigating the maze of available public benefits. APLA also provides free dental, psychotherapy and pharmaceutical services. Aid for AIDS provides direct financial support by assisting clients with rent, utility and pharmacy expenses. The city also subsidizes agencies that help clients train for a return to the workforce. The city permits all residents living with HIV/AIDS to have up to two pets in his or her home regardless of a landlord's specifications in the property's lease.
West Hollywood subsidizes programs for its growing population of children through a partnership with the USDA and local schools. "Healthy Start West Hollywood" is a program of the city's Social Services division that introduces pre-Kindergarten through High School age kids to the benefits of good nutrition through such activities as collective vegetable gardens and yoga.
The special needs of senior citizens are addressed through a variety of programs. West Hollywood either funds or subsidizes agencies that offer adult day care, a roommate matching service, and nutritious meals. The West Hollywood Senior Center provides recreational programs, excursions, and socializing as well as counseling and case management.
West Hollywood also seeks to address the health needs of residents who do not have adequate insurance by subsidizing the LA Free Clinic and The Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Center. Residents can access free medical, dental, legal and mental health services between these two sites.
The West Hollywood's Public Safety Division publishes guides on sexual assault prevention, nightclub safety, and how to access rape services.
Primary and secondary schools
West Hollywood is part of the Los Angeles Unified School District. The area is within Board District 4. As of 2008 Marlene Canter represents the district. Canter announced that she will not seek re-election after her term expires in June 2009.
Elementary schools that serve sections of West Hollywood include:
- West Hollywood Elementary School K-6
- Rosewood Avenue Elementary School K-6
- Laurel Elementary School K-7
- Melrose Elementary School K-5
- Gardner Street Elementary School K-6
(Some areas jointly zoned to Rosewood and West Hollywood)
Most of West Hollywood is zoned to Bancroft Middle School. Some portions in the south are zoned to John Burroughs Middle School. Students living in the Los Angeles area known as Beverly Hills Post Office, usually attend West Hollywood Elementary but then go to Emerson Middle School.
There are also private and alternative schools such as Dvorsky College Preparatory on Crescent Heights, which was founded to serve the Russian speaking community.
Pacific Hills School, a private school, is in West Hollywood.
Until early September 2011, the library was based at 715 North San Vicente Boulevard in a building designed by architect Edward H. Fickett. On September 6, 2011, the City of West Hollywood demolished that building, which aroused controversy among some community members, including the architect's wife.
The current library building officially opened to the public on October 1, 2011. The building, which was designed by architects Steve Johnson and James Favaro, received a favorable review in the Los Angeles Times that ended by calling the it "...a tremendously encouraging achievement". Exterior surfaces of the library building and adjacent parking structure are decorated with murals by Shepard Fairey, Kenny Scharf and Marquis Lewis (aka Retna), and the interior incorporates design work by Fairey and David Wiseman.
The 2010 United States Census reported that West Hollywood had a population of 34,399. The population density was 18,225.6 people per square mile (7,036.9/km²). The racial makeup of West Hollywood was 28,979 (84.2%) White (77.9% Non-Hispanic White), 1,115 (3.2%) African American, 103 (0.3%) Native American, 1,874 (5.4%) Asian, 34 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 1,049 (3.0%) from other races, and 1,245 (3.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,613 persons (10.5%).
The Census reported that 34,290 people (99.7% of the population) lived in households, 109 (0.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.
There were 22,511 households, out of which 1,141 (5.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,060 (13.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 852 (3.8%) had a female householder with no husband present, 431 (1.9%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,094 (4.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 1,321 (5.9%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 13,434 households (59.7%) were made up of individuals and 2,606 (11.6%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.52. There were 4,343 families (19.3% of all households); the average family size was 2.42.
The population was spread out with 1,578 people (4.6%) under the age of 18, 2,407 people (7.0%) aged 18 to 24, 16,228 people (47.2%) aged 25 to 44, 9,061 people (26.3%) aged 45 to 64, and 5,125 people (14.9%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.4 years. For every 100 females there were 128.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 129.9 males.
There were 24,588 housing units at an average density of 13,027.4 per square mile (5,029.9/km²), of which 4,976 (22.1%) were owner-occupied, and 17,535 (77.9%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.6%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.9%. 7,874 people (22.9% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 26,416 people (76.8%) lived in rental housing units.
As of the census of 2000, there were 35,716 people, 23,120 households, and 5,202 families residing in the city. The population density was 18,992.7 inhabitants per square mile (7,335.1/km²). There were 24,110 housing units at an average density of 12,821.0 per square mile (4,951.6/km²), making West Hollywood one of the most densely populated cities in the US. The racial makeup of the city was 86.4% White, 6.4% African American, 3.8% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.9% from other races, and 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.8% of the population.
There were 23,120 households out of which 5.8% had children under the age of eighteen, 16.4% were married couples living together, 4.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 77.5% were non-families. 60.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.0% included someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.53, and the average family size was 2.50.
In the city the population was spread out with 5.7% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 48.6% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 123.4 males. For every 100 females aged eighteen and older, there were 125.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $38,914, and the median income for a family was $41,463. Males had a median income of $45,598 versus $35,750 for females. The per capita income for the city was $38,302. About 7.3% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.0% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over.
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- "City of West Hollywood Demographic Profile 2002 – PDF". Retrieved 2011-05-28.
- "Public Safety Education Campaign". City of West Hollywood. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "Mixing it up in the WeHo melting pot – Los Angeles Times". Latimes.com. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
- Board District 4 Map. Los Angeles Unified School District. Retrieved on November 24, 2008.
- "Board Members." Los Angeles Unified School District. Retrieved on November 24, 2008.
- "Two LAUSD board members retire, Friedlander wins Shoah scholarship prize." The Jewish Journal. November 12, 2008.
- "West Hollywood Elementary School". Westhollywoodelementary.org. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
- "Rosewood Avenue Elementary School". Lausd.k12.ca.us. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
- "Laurel Elementary School". GreatSchools. 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
- "Melrose Elementary School". WestHollywoodPatch. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
- "LAUSD: Gardner Street Elementary School". Lausd.k12.ca.us. 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
- "West Hollywood Library." County of Los Angeles Public Library. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
- Stukin, Stacie. (26 September 2011). "WEHO NO". The Architect's Newspaper. Accessed 02 December 2011.
- (29 September 2011). "WeHo’s Fickett library demolished". WeHo News. Accessed 02 December 2011.
- Branson-Potts, Hailey. (01 October 2011). "West Hollywood Library's new edition". Los Angeles Times. Accessed 02 December 2011.
- Hawthorne, Christopher. (28 September 2011). "Architecture Review: West Hollywood Library among top works". Los Angeles Times. Accessed 02 December 2011.
- Ng, David. (27 July 2011). "Entertainment: Shepard Fairey, street artists brighten West Hollywood library". Los Angeles Times. Accessed May 15, 2012.
- "Census of Population and Housing". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
- Census figures from 1960 to 1980 were enumerated prior to incorporation as West Hollywood CDP.
- All data are derived from the United States Census Bureau reports from the 2010 United States Census, and are accessible on-line here. The data on unmarried partnerships and same-sex married couples are from the Census report DEC_10_SF1_PCT15. All other housing and population data are from Census report DEC_10_DP_DPDP1. Both reports are viewable online or downloadable in a zip file containing a comma-delimited data file. The area data, from which densities are calculated, are available on-line here. Percentage totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. The Census Bureau defines families as a household containing one or more people related to the householder by birth, opposite-sex marriage, or adoption. People living in group quarters are tabulated by the Census Bureau as neither owners nor renters. For further details, see the text files accompanying the data files containing the Census reports mentioned above.
- http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/0684410.html. Missing or empty
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Gierach, Ryan (2003). Images of America: West Hollywood. San Francisco: Arcadia. ISBN 0-7385-2850-1.
- Kenney, Moira (2001). Mapping Gay L.A.: The Intersection of Place and Politics. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-884-3.
- Teal, Donn (1971, reissued 1995). The Gay Militants: How Gay Liberation Began in America, 1969–1971. New York, St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-11279-3 (1995 edition).
- Torrence, Bruce (1982). Hollywood: The first Hundred Years. New York: New York Zoetrope. p. 12. ISBN 0-918432-44-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to West Hollywood, California.|
- West Hollywood Official Website
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- West Hollywood Marketing & Visitors Bureau
- Official site for gay travel in West Hollywood
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- The Sunset Strip Official Website
- West Hollywood Daily News Website
- West Hollywood News Website
- The Sunset Strip Music Festival
- LA Pride
- West Hollywood Halloween Costume Carnaval
- Official West Hollywood Filming Site
- West Hollywood Employers' Corporate Equality Index
- Los Angeles County Sheriff's Dept. – West Hollywood Station
- La Cienega Design Quarter