West Memphis Three
The West Memphis Three are three men who were tried and convicted as teenagers in 1994 of the 1993 murders of three boys in West Memphis, Arkansas. Damien Echols was sentenced to death, Jessie Misskelley, Jr. was sentenced to life imprisonment plus two 20-year sentences, and Jason Baldwin was sentenced to life imprisonment. During the trial, the prosecution asserted that the children were killed as part of a Satanic ritual. A number of documentaries have been based on the case, and celebrities and musicians have held fund raisers in the belief that they are innocent.
In July 2007, new forensic evidence was presented in the case and a status report jointly issued by the state and the defense team stated, "Although most of the genetic material recovered from the scene was attributable to the victims of the offenses, some of it cannot be attributed to either the victims or the defendants." On October 29, 2007, the defense filed a Second Amended Writ of Habeas Corpus, outlining the new evidence.
Following a successful decision in 2010 by the Arkansas Supreme Court regarding newly produced DNA evidence, the West Memphis Three reached a deal with prosecutors. On August 19, 2011, they entered Alford pleas, which allow them to assert their innocence while acknowledging that prosecutors have enough evidence to convict them. Judge David Laser accepted the pleas and sentenced the three to time served. They were released with ten-year suspended sentences, having served 18 years and 78 days in prison.
- 1 The crime
- 2 Victims
- 3 Suspects
- 4 Investigation
- 5 Trials
- 6 Aftermath
- 7 Appeals and new evidence
- 8 Family and law enforcement opinions
- 9 Documentaries, publications and studies
- 10 Defendants
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Three eight-year-old boys—Steve Branch, Michael Moore, and Christopher Byers—were reported missing on May 5, 1993. The first report to the police was made by Byers' adoptive father, John Mark Byers, around 7:00 pm. The boys were allegedly last seen together by three neighbors, who in affidavits told of seeing them playing together around 6:30 pm the evening they disappeared, and saw Terry Hobbs, stepfather of Stevie Branch, calling them to come home. Initial police searches made that night were limited. Friends and neighbors also conducted a search that night, which included a cursory visit to the location where the bodies were later found.
A more thorough police search for the children began around 8:00 am on the morning of May 6, led by the Crittenden County Search and Rescue personnel. Searchers canvassed all of West Memphis, but focused primarily on Robin Hood Hills, where the boys were reported last seen. Despite a human chain making a shoulder-to-shoulder search of Robin Hood Hills, searchers found no sign of the missing boys.
Around 1:45 pm, juvenile Parole Officer Steve Jones spotted a boy's black shoe floating in a muddy creek that led to a major drainage canal in Robin Hood Hills. A subsequent search of the ditch revealed the bodies of three boys. They were stripped naked and had been hogtied with their own shoelaces: their right ankles tied to their right wrists behind their backs, the same with their left arms and legs. Their clothing was found in the creek, some of it twisted around sticks that had been thrust into the muddy ditch bed. The clothing was mostly turned inside-out; two pairs of the boys' underwear were never recovered. Christopher Byers had lacerations to various parts of his body, and mutilation of his scrotum and penis.
Police initially suspected the boys had been raped; however, later expert testimony disputed this finding despite trace amounts of sperm DNA found on a pair of pants recovered from the scene. Prosecution experts claim Byers' wounds were the results of a knife attack and that he had been purposely castrated by the murderer; defense experts claim the injuries were more probably the result of post-mortem animal predation. Police believed the boys were assaulted and killed at the location where they were found; critics argued that the assault, at least, was unlikely to have occurred at the creek.
Byers was the only victim with drugs in his system; he was prescribed Ritalin (methylphenidate) in January 1993, as part of an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder treatment. The initial autopsy report describes the drug as Carbamazepine, and that dosage was found to be at sub-therapeutic level. John Mark Byers said that Christopher Byers may not have taken his prescription on May 5, 1993.
The three victims, Stevie Edward Branch, Christopher Byers and Michael Moore, were in the second grade at Weaver Elementary School. Each had achieved the rank of "Wolf" in the local Cub Scout pack, and they were best friends.
- Steve Edward Branch
Stevie Branch (November 26, 1984 – May 5, 1993) was the son of Steven and Pamela Branch, who divorced when he was an infant. His mother was awarded custody and later married Terry Hobbs. Branch was eight years old, 4 ft. 2 tall, weighed 65 lbs, and had blonde hair. He was last seen in blue jeans, white T-shirt on a black and red bicycle. He was an honor student. He lived with his mother, Pamela Hobbs, his stepfather, Terry Hobbs, and a four-year-old stepsister, Amanda. Steve Edward Branch is buried in Mount Zion Cemetery in Steele, Missouri.
- Christopher Mark Byers
Christopher Byers (June 23, 1984 – May 5, 1993) was born to Melissa DeFir and Ricky Murray. His parents divorced when he was four years old; shortly after, his mother married John Mark Byers who adopted the boy. Byers was eight years old, 4 ft. tall, weighed 52 lbs, and had light brown hair. He was last seen in blue jeans, dark shoes, and white long sleeve shirt. He lived with his mother, Sharon Melissa Byers, his stepfather, John Mark Byers, and his stepbrother, Shawn Ryan Clark, aged 13. According to his mother, he was a typical eight-year-old. "He still believed in the Easter Bunny and Santa Claus". Christopher Mark Byers is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery East in Memphis, Tennessee.
- James Michael Moore
Michael Moore (July 27, 1984 – May 5, 1993) was the son of Todd and Dana Moore. He was eight years old, 4 ft. 2 tall, weighed 55 lbs, and had brown hair. He was last seen in blue pants, blue Boy Scouts of America shirt, orange and blue Boy Scout hat on a light green bicycle. Moore enjoyed wearing his scout uniform even when he was not at meetings. He was considered the leader of the three. He lived with his parents and his nine-year-old sister, Dawn. James Michael Moore is buried in Crittenden Memorial Park Cemetery in Marion, Arkansas.
- West Memphis Three victims memorial
In 1994, a memorial was erected for the three murder victims. The memorial is located in the playground of Weaver Elementary School in West Memphis, the school at which all three children attended second grade at the time of the crime. In May 2013, for the 20th anniversary of the slayings, Weaver Elementary School principal Sheila Grissom raised funds for a refurbishment of the memorial.
Baldwin, Echols, and Misskelley
At the time of their arrests, Jessie Misskelley, Jr. was 17 years old, Jason Baldwin was 16 years old, and Damien Echols was 18 years old.
Baldwin and Echols had been arrested for vandalism and shoplifting, respectively, and Misskelley had a reputation for his temper and for engaging in fistfights with other teenagers at school. Misskelley and Echols had dropped out of high school; however, Baldwin earned high grades and demonstrated a talent for drawing and sketching, and was encouraged by one of his teachers to study graphic design in college. Echols and Baldwin were close friends, and bonded over their similar tastes in music and fiction, and over their shared distaste for the prevailing cultural climate of West Memphis, situated in the Bible Belt. Baldwin and Echols were acquainted with Misskelley from school, but were not close friends with him.
Echols' family was poor, with frequent visits from social workers, and he rarely attended school. He had run off with an early girlfriend. The pair later broke into a trailer during a rain storm and were arrested, though only Echols was charged with burglary. Police heard rumors that the young lovers had planned to have a child and sacrifice the infant; based on this story, they had Echols institutionalized for psychiatric evaluation. Echols denied allegations that he had chased a younger child with an ax, but did admit to attempting to remove a classmate's eyeball and while detained reportedly sucked blood from another boy's arm. He was diagnosed as depressed and suicidal, and was prescribed the antidepressant imipramine. Subsequent testing demonstrated poor mathematical skills, but also showed that Echols ranked above average in reading and verbal skills.
Echols spent several months in a mental institution in Arkansas, and afterward received "full disability" status from the Social Security Administration. During Echols' trial, Dr. George W. Woods testified (for the defense) that Echols suffered from:
... serious mental illness characterized by grandiose and persecutory delusions, auditory and visual hallucinations, disordered thought processes, substantial lack of insight, and chronic, incapacitating mood swings.
At his death penalty sentencing hearing, Echols' psychologist reported that months before the murders, Echols claimed that he obtained super powers by drinking human blood.
At the time of his arrest, Echols was working part-time with a roofing company and expecting a child with his new girlfriend, Domini Teer.
Chris Morgan and Brian Holland
Early in the investigation, the WMPD briefly regarded two West Memphis teenagers as suspects. Chris Morgan and Brian Holland, both with drug offense histories, had abruptly departed for Oceanside, California, four days after the bodies were discovered. Morgan was presumed to be at least casually familiar with all three murdered boys, having previously driven an ice cream truck route in their neighborhood.
Arrested in Oceanside on May 17, 1993, Morgan and Holland both took polygraph exams administered by California police. Examiners reported that both men's charts indicated deception when they denied involvement in the murders. During subsequent questioning, Morgan claimed a long history of drug and alcohol use, along with blackouts and memory lapses. He claimed that he "might have" killed the victims but quickly recanted this part of his statement.
California police sent blood and urine samples from Morgan and Holland to the WMPD, but there is no indication WMPD investigated Morgan or Holland as suspects following their arrest in California. The relevance of Morgan's recanted statement would later be debated in trial, but was eventually barred from admission as evidence.
The sighting of a black male as a possible alternate suspect was implied during the beginning of the Misskelley trial. According to local West Memphis police officers, on the evening of May 5, 1993, at 8:42 pm, workers in the Bojangles' restaurant about a mile from the crime scene in Robin Hood Hills reported seeing a black male who seemed "mentally disoriented" inside the ladies' room of the restaurant. The man was bleeding and had brushed against the walls of the restroom. Officer Regina Meeks responded to the call, taking the restaurant manager's report through the restaurant's drive-through window. By then, the man had left and police did not enter the restroom on that date.
The day after the victims' bodies were found, Bojangles' manager Marty King, thinking there was a possible connection to the bloody man found in the bathroom, reported the incident to police officers who then inspected the ladies room. King gave the officers a pair of sunglasses he thought the man left behind and the detectives took some blood samples from the walls. Police detective Bryn Ridge testified that he later lost those blood scrapings taken from the walls and tiles of the restroom. A hair identified as belonging to a black male was later recovered from a sheet which was used to wrap one of the victims.
Evidence and interviews
Police officers James Sudbury and Steve Jones felt that the crime had "cult" overtones, and that Damien Echols might be a suspect because he had an interest in occultism, and Jones felt him capable of murdering children. They interviewed Echols on May 7, two days after the bodies were discovered. During a polygraph examination, he denied any involvement. The polygraph examiner claimed that Echols' chart indicated deception. On May 9, during a formal interview by Detective Bryn Ridge, Echols mentioned that one of the victims had wounds to the genitals, and this was felt to be incriminating knowledge.
After a month had passed with little progress in the case, police continued to focus their investigation upon Echols, interrogating him more frequently than any other person; however, they claimed he was not regarded as a direct suspect but a source of information.
On June 3 police interrogated Jessie Misskelley Jr., whose IQ was reported to be 72 (making him borderline intellectual functioning), was questioned alone; his parents were not present during the interrogation. Misskelley's father gave permission for Misskelley to go with police, but did not explicitly give permission for his minor son to be questioned or interrogated. Misskelley was questioned for roughly twelve hours; only two segments, totaling 46 minutes, were recorded. Misskelley quickly recanted his confession, citing intimidation, coercion, fatigue, and veiled threats from police.
Misskelley was a minor when he was questioned, and though informed of his Miranda rights, he later claimed he did not fully understand them. The Arkansas Supreme Court determined that Misskelley's confession was voluntary and that he did, in fact, understand the Miranda warning and its consequences. Misskelley specifically said he was "scared of the police" during his first confession. Portions of Misskelley's statements to the police were leaked to the press and reported on the front page of the Memphis Commercial Appeal before any of the trials began.
Shortly after Misskelley's original confession, police arrested Echols and his close friend Baldwin. Eight months after his original confession, on February 17, 1994, Misskelley made another statement to police with his lawyer Dan Stidham in the room continually advising Misskelley not to say anything. Misskelley ignored this advice continually and went on to detail how the boys were abused and murdered. Stidham, who was later elected to a municipal judgeship, has written a detailed critique of what he asserts are major police errors and misconceptions during their investigation.
Vicki Hutcheson, a new resident of West Memphis, would play an important role in the investigation, though she would later recant her testimony, stating her statements were fabricated due in part to coercion from police.
On May 6, 1993 (the day the murder victims were found), Hutcheson took a polygraph exam by Detective Don Bray at the Marion Police Department to determine if she had stolen money from her West Memphis employer. Hutcheson's young son, Aaron, was also present, and proved such a distraction that Bray was unable to administer the polygraph. Aaron, a playmate of the murdered boys, mentioned to Bray that the boys had been killed at "the playhouse". When the bodies proved to have been discovered near where Aaron indicated, Bray asked Aaron for further details, and Aaron claimed that he had witnessed the murders committed by Satanists who spoke Spanish. Aaron's further statements were wildly inconsistent, and he was unable to identify Baldwin, Echols or Misskelley from photo line-ups, and there was no "playhouse" at the location Aaron indicated. A police officer leaked portions of Aaron's statements to the press contributing to the growing belief that the murders were part of a Satanic rite.
On or about June 1, 1993, Hutcheson agreed to police suggestions to place hidden microphones in her home during an encounter with Echols. Misskelley agreed to introduce Hutcheson to Echols. During their conversation, Hutcheson reported that Echols made no incriminating statements. Police said the recording was "inaudible", but Hutcheson claimed the recording was audible. On June 2, 1993, Hutcheson told police that about two weeks after the murders were committed, she, Echols and Misskelley attended a Wiccan meeting in Turrell, Arkansas. Hutcheson claimed that, at the Wiccan meeting, a drunken Echols openly bragged about killing the three boys. Misskelley was first questioned on June 3, 1993, a day after Hutcheson's purported confession. Hutcheson was unable to recall the Wiccan meeting location, and did not name any other participants of the purported meeting. Hutcheson was never charged with theft. She claimed she implicated Echols and Misskelley to avoid facing criminal charges and to obtain a reward for the discovery of the murderers.
Misskelley was tried separately, and Echols and Baldwin were tried together in 1994. Under the "Bruton rule", Misskelley's confession could not be admitted against his co-defendants and thus he was tried separately. They all pleaded not guilty.
- Misskelley's trial
During Misskelley's trial, Dr. Richard Ofshe, an expert on false confessions and police coercion and Professor of Sociology at UC Berkeley, testified that the brief recording of Misskelley's interrogation was a "classic example" of police coercion. Critics have also stated that Misskelley's "confessions" were in many respects inconsistent with themselves and the particulars of the crime scene and murder victims, including (for example) an "admission" that Misskelley "watched Damien rape one of the boys." Police had initially suspected that the victims had been raped because their anuses were dilated. However there was no forensic evidence indicating that the murdered boys had been raped and dilated anuses are a normal post-mortem condition.
On February 5, 1994, Misskelley was convicted by a jury of one count of first-degree murder and two counts of second-degree murder. The court sentenced him to life plus 40 years in prison. His conviction was appealed and affirmed by the Arkansas Supreme Court.
- Echols and Baldwin's trial
Three weeks later Echols and Baldwin went on trial where the prosecution accused the three of committing a Satanic murder. The prosecution called Dale W. Griffis, a graduate of Columbia Pacific University, as an expert in the occult to testify the murders were a Satanic ritual. On March 19, 1994 Echols and Baldwin were found guilty on three counts of murder. The court sentenced Echols to death and Baldwin to life in prison.
At trial, the defense team argued that news articles from the time could have been the source for Echols' knowledge about the genital mutilation, but the prosecution claimed that Echols' knowledge, which Echols said was limited to what was "on TV", was nonetheless too close to the facts, since there was no public knowledge of drowning or that one victim had been mutilated more than the others. Echols testified that Ridge's description of the conversation (which was not recorded) regarding those particular details was inaccurate (and indeed that some other claims by Ridge were "lies"). The author Leveritt argues that Echols' information may have come from police leaks, such as Detective Gitchell's comments to Mark Byers, that then circulated amongst the local public. The defense team objected during cross-examination of Echols when the prosecution attempted to question him about his past violent behaviors, but were overruled.
There has been widespread criticism of how the police handled the crime scene. Misskelley's former attorney Dan Stidham cites multiple substantial police errors at the crime scene, characterizing it as "literally trampled, especially the creek bed." The bodies, he said, had been removed from the water before the coroner arrived to examine the scene and determine the state of rigor mortis, allowing the bodies to decay on the creek bank, and to be exposed to sunlight and insects. The police did not telephone the coroner until almost two hours after the discovery of the floating shoe, resulting in a late appearance by the coroner. Officials failed to drain the creek in a timely manner and secure possible evidence in the water (the creek was sandbagged after the bodies were pulled from the water). Stidham calls the coroner's investigation "extremely substandard." There was a small amount of blood found at the scene that was never tested. According to HBO's documentaries Paradise Lost: The Child Murders at Robin Hood Hills (1996) and Paradise Lost 2: Revelations (2000), no blood was found at the crime scene, indicating that the location where the bodies were found was not necessarily the location in which the murders actually happened. After the initial investigation, the police failed to control disclosure of information and speculation about the crime scene.
According to Mara Leveritt, investigative journalist and author of Devil's Knot, "Police records were a mess. To call them disorderly would be putting it mildly." Leveritt speculated that the small local police force was overwhelmed by the crime, which was unlike any they had ever investigated. Police refused an unsolicited offer of aid and consultation from the violent crimes experts of the Arkansas State Police, and critics suggested this was due to the WMPD being investigated by the Arkansas State Police for suspected theft from the Crittenden County drug task force. Leveritt further noted that some of the physical evidence was stored in paper sacks obtained from a supermarket (with the supermarket's name printed on the bags) rather than in containers of known and controlled origin.
When police speculated about the assailant, the juvenile probation officer assisting at the scene of the murders speculated that Echols was "capable" of committing the murders, stating "it looks like Damien Echols finally killed someone."
Brent Turvey, a Forensic Scientist and Criminal Profiler, stated in the film Paradise Lost 2 that human bite marks could have been left on at least one of the victims. However, these potential bite marks were first noticed in photographs years after the trials and were not inspected by a board-certified medical examiner until four years after the murders. The defense's expert testified that the mark in question was not an adult bite mark, while experts put on by the State concluded that there was no bite mark at all. The State's experts had examined the actual bodies for any marks and others conducted expert photo analysis of injuries. Upon further examination, it was concluded that if the marks were bite marks, they did not match the teeth of any of the three convicted.
Appeals and new evidence
In May 1994, the three appealed their convictions. The convictions were upheld on direct appeal. In 2007, Echols petitioned for a retrial based on a statute permitting post-conviction testing of DNA evidence due to technological advances made since 1994 which might provide exoneration for the wrongfully convicted. However, the original trial judge, Judge David Burnett, disallowed presentation of this information in his court. This ruling was in turn thrown out by the Arkansas Supreme Court.
- The knife of John Mark Byers (1993)
John Mark Byers, the adoptive father of victim Christopher Byers, gave a knife to cameraman Doug Cooper, who was working with documentary makers Joe Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky while they were filming the first Paradise Lost feature. The knife was a folding hunting knife, manufactured by Kershaw. According to the statements given by Berlinger and Sinofsky, Cooper informed them of his receipt of the knife on December 19, 1993. After the documentary crew returned to New York, Berlinger and Sinofsky reported to have discovered what appeared to be blood on the knife. HBO executives ordered them to return the knife to the West Memphis Police Department. The knife was not received at the West Memphis Police Department until January 8, 1994.
Byers initially claimed the knife had never been used. Blood was found on the knife and Byers then stated that he had used it only once, to cut deer meat. When told the blood matched both his and Chris' blood type, Byers said he had no idea how that blood might have gotten on the knife. During interrogation, West Memphis police suggested to Byers that he might have left the knife out accidentally, and Byers agreed with this. Byers later stated that he may have cut his thumb. Further testing on the knife produced inconclusive results, due in part to the rather small amount of blood, and because both John Mark Byers and Chris Byers had the same HLA-DQα genotype.
John Mark Byers agreed to, and subsequently passed, a polygraph test during the filming of Paradise Lost 2: Revelations in regard to the murders, but the documentary indicated that Byers was under the influence of several psychoactive prescription medications that could have affected the test results.
- Possible teeth imprints
Following their convictions, Echols, Misskelley and Baldwin submitted imprints of their teeth that were compared to alleged bite-marks on Stevie Branch's forehead not mentioned in the original autopsy or trial. No matches were found. Byers had his teeth removed in 1997—after the first trial. He has offered apparently contradictory reasons for their removal: in one instance claiming that seizure medication he was taking caused periodontal disease, and in yet another claiming other kinds of dental problems which had troubled him for years.
After an expert examined autopsy photos and noted what he thought might be the imprint of a belt buckle on Byers' corpse, the elder Byers revealed to the police that he had spanked his stepson shortly before the boy disappeared.
- Vicki Hutcheson recants
In October 2003, Vicki Hutcheson, who played a part in the arrests of Misskelley, Echols and Baldwin, but did not testify at the trial, gave an interview to the Arkansas Times in which she stated that every word she had given to the police was a fabrication. She further asserted that the police had insinuated if she did not cooperate with them they would take away her child. She noted that when she visited the police station they had photographs of Echols, Baldwin, and Misskelley on the wall and were using them as dart targets. She also claims that an audio tape the police claimed was "unintelligible" (and eventually lost) was perfectly clear and contained no incriminating statements.
- DNA testing and new physical evidence (2007)
In 2007, DNA collected from the crime scene was tested. None was found to match DNA from Echols, Baldwin, nor Misskelley. In addition, a hair "not inconsistent with" Terry Hobbs, stepfather to Stevie Branch, was found tied into the knots used to bind one of the victims. The prosecutors, while conceding that no DNA evidence ties the accused to the crime scene, said that, "The State stands behind its convictions of Echols and his codefendants."
- Foreman and jury misconduct (2008)
In July 2008, it was revealed that Kent Arnold, the jury foreman on the Echols/Baldwin trial, discussed the case with an attorney prior to the beginning of deliberations and advocated for the guilt of the West Memphis Three as a result of the inadmissible Jessie Misskelley statements. Legal experts have agreed that this issue has the strong potential to result in the reversal of the convictions of Jason Baldwin and Damien Echols.
In September 2008, Attorney (now Judge) Daniel Stidham, who represented Jessie Misskelley in 1994, testified at a postconviction relief hearing. Stidham testified under oath that, during the trial, Judge David Burnett erred by making an improper communication with the jury during its deliberations. Stidham overheard Judge Burnett discuss taking a lunch break with the jury foreman and the foreman reply the jury was almost finished. He testified Judge Burnett responded, "You'll need food for when you come back for sentencing", and that the foreman asked in return what would happen if the defendant was acquitted. Stidham said the Judge closed the door without answering. He testified that his own failure to put this incident on the court record and his failure to meet the minimum requirements in state law to represent a defendant in a capital murder case was evidence of ineffective assistance of counsel and that Misskelley's conviction should therefore be vacated.
- Request for Retrial (2007–2010)
On October 29, 2007 papers were filed in federal court by Damien Echols' defense lawyers seeking a retrial or his immediate release from prison. The filing cited DNA evidence linking Terry Hobbs (stepfather of one of the victims) to the crime scene, and new statements from Hobbs' now ex-wife. Also presented in the filing was new expert testimony that the alleged knife marks on the victims were the result of animal predation after the bodies had been dumped. This included the injuries to Byers' genitals.
On September 10, 2008 Circuit Court Judge David Burnett denied the request for a retrial, citing the DNA tests as inconclusive. That ruling was appealed to the Arkansas Supreme Court, which heard oral arguments in the case on September 30, 2010.
Arkansas Supreme Court ruling
On November 4, 2010 the Arkansas Supreme Court ordered a lower judge to consider whether newly analyzed DNA evidence might exonerate the three. The justices also said a lower court must examine claims of misconduct by the jurors who sentenced Damien Echols to death and Jessie Misskelley and Jason Baldwin to life in prison.
In early December 2010, Circuit Court Judge David Laser was selected to replace David Burnett, who was elected to the Arkansas State Senate, to preside in the evidentiary hearings following the successful appeal.
Plea deal and release
After weeks of negotiations on August 19, 2011, Echols, Baldwin and Misskelley were released from prison as part of an Alford plea deal, a legal mechanism in which "no contest" pleas are entered but innocence is nevertheless maintained. An Alford plea concedes that prosecutors have sufficient evidence to secure a conviction but reserves the right to assert innocence. Stephen Braga, a prominent attorney with Ropes & Gray who took up Echols’s defense on a pro bono basis beginning in 2009, negotiated the plea agreement with prosecutors. Under the deal, Judge David Laser vacated the previous convictions, including the capital murder convictions for Echols and Baldwin, and ordered a new trial. Each man then entered an Alford plea to lesser charges of first and second degree murder while verbally stating their innocence. Judge Laser then sentenced them to time served, a total of 18 years and 78 days, and they were given a Suspended Imposition of Sentence for 10 years. If they re-offend they can be sent back to prison for 21 years.
The Alford plea deal meant that the hearing ordered by the Arkansas Supreme Court in November 2010, scheduled for December 2011 before Judge Laser, became unnecessary. Factors cited by prosecutor Scott Ellington for agreeing to the plea deal included the fact that two of the victims' families have joined forces with the defense, the mother of a witness who testified about Echols's confession has questioned her daughter's truthfulness, and the State Crime Lab employee who collected fiber evidence at the Echols and Baldwin homes after their arrests has died. As part of the plea deal, they can not pursue civil action against the state for wrongful imprisonment.
Many of their supporters as well as opponents who still believe them guilty resented the unusual plea deal. Supporters are pushing the Arkansas Governor Mike Beebe to pardon Echols, Baldwin and Misskelley based on their innocence. Beebe plans to deny the request absent evidence showing someone else committed the murders. Prosecutor Scott Ellington said the Arkansas state crime laboratory would run searches on any DNA evidence produced in private laboratory tests in the defense's investigation. This would include running the results through the FBI's Combined DNA Index System database. Ellington said that although he still considered the men guilty, the three would likely be acquitted if a new trial were held given the powerful legal counsel representing them now, the loss of evidence over time, and the change of heart among some of the witnesses.
Family and law enforcement opinions
The families of the three victims are divided in their opinions as to the guilt or innocence of the West Memphis Three. In 2000, the biological father of Christopher Byers, Rick Murray, described his doubts about the guilty verdicts on the West Memphis Three website. In 2007, Pamela Hobbs, the mother of victim Stevie Branch, joined those who have publicly questioned the verdicts, calling for a reopening of the verdicts and further investigation of the evidence. In late 2007, John Mark Byers also announced that he now believes that Echols, Misskelley, and Baldwin are innocent. "I had made the comment if it were ever proven the three were innocent, I'd be the first to lead the charge for their freedom," said Byers. "Every opportunity that I have to voice that the West Memphis Three are innocent and the evidence and proof prove they're innocent." Byers has been speaking to the media on behalf of the convicted and has expressed his desire for justice for the families of both the victims and the three accused.
In 2010, district Judge Brian S. Miller ordered Terry Hobbs, the stepfather of victim Stevie Branch, to pay $17,590 to Dixie Chicks singer Natalie Maines for legal costs stemming from a defamation lawsuit he filed against the band. Miller dismissed a suit Hobbs filed over Maines's remarks at a 2007 Little Rock rally implying he was involved in killing his stepson. The judge said Hobbs had voluntarily injected himself into a public controversy over whether three teenagers convicted of killing the three 8-year-old boys had been wrongfully condemned.
John E. Douglas, a former longtime FBI agent who has interviewed the country's most prolific serial killers during his years with the FBI and works as a profiler to help police in their searches for violent criminals, said the slayings of the three West Memphis boys weren't the work of three unsophisticated teenage killers, but that of a single person who set out to degrade and punish the victims. Douglas was formerly FBI Unit Chief of the Investigative Support Unit of the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime for 25 years. Douglas stated in his report for Echols' legal team that there was no evidence for Satanic ritual involvement in the killings, and he agreed that post mortem animal predation explained the alleged knife injuries. Douglas believed that the perpetrator had a violent history and was familiar with the victims and with local geography. He stated that the victims had died from a combination of blunt force trauma and drowning, in a crime driven by personal cause.
Documentaries, publications and studies
Three films, Paradise Lost: The Child Murders at Robin Hood Hills, Paradise Lost 2: Revelations, and Paradise Lost 3: Purgatory, directed by Joe Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky have documented this case and were strongly critical of the verdict. The movie marked the first time Metallica allowed their music to be used in a movie, which drew attention to the case.
There have been a number of books, including Blood of Innocents by Guy Reel, The Last Pentacle of the Sun: Writings in Support of the West Memphis Three, edited by Brett Alexander Savory & M. W. Anderson, featuring dark fiction and non-fiction by well-known speculative fiction writers, and Devil's Knot by Mara Leveritt, which also argue that the suspects were wrongly convicted. In 2005, Damien Echols completed his memoir, Almost Home, Vol 1, offering his perspective of the case. A biography of John Mark Byers by Greg Day was published in May 2012.
In 2002, Henry Rollins worked with other vocalists from various well-known rock, hip hop, punk and metal groups and members of Black Flag and the Rollins Band on the compilation album Rise Above: 24 Black Flag Songs to Benefit the West Memphis Three. All money raised from sales of the album are donated to the legal funds of the West Memphis Three. Metalcore band Zao's 2002 album Parade of Chaos included a track inspired by the case named "Free The Three". On April 28, 2011, the band Disturbed released a song entitled "3" as a download on their website. The song is about the West Memphis Three, with 100% of the proceeds going to their benefit foundation for their release.
A website by Martin David Hill, containing approximately 160,000 words and intending to be a "thorough investigation", collates and discusses many details surrounding the murders and investigation, including some anecdotal information.
Investigative journalist Aphrodite Jones undertook an exploration of the case on her Discovery Network show True Crime With Aphrodite Jones following the DNA discoveries. The episode premiered May 5, 2011, with extensive background information included on the show's page at the Investigation Discovery site. In August 2011, White Light Productions announced that the West Memphis Three will be featured on their new program, Wrongfully Convicted.
In January 2010, the CBS television news journal 48 Hours aired "The Memphis 3", an in depth coverage of the history of the case including interviews with Echols and supporters. On September 17, 2011, 48 Hours re-aired the episode with the update of their release and interviews from Echols and his wife, and Baldwin. Piers Morgan Tonight aired an episode on September 29, 2011, about them discussing their plans for the future and continued investigations on the case.
West of Memphis, directed and written by Amy J. Berg, and produced by Peter Jackson, as well as Echols himself, premiered at the 2012 Sundance Film Festival. Actor Johnny Depp, a longtime supporter of the West Memphis Three and personal friend of Damien Echols, was on hand to support the film in its premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival in 2012.
Jessie Misskelley Jr. (born July 10, 1975) was arrested in connection to the murders on May 5, 1993. After a reported 12 hours of interrogation by police, Misskelley, who has an IQ of 72, confessed to the murders, and implicated Baldwin and Echols. However, the confession was at odds with facts known by police, such as the time of the murders. Under the "Bruton rule", his confession could not be admitted against his co-defendants and thus he was tried separately. Misskelley was convicted by a jury of one count of first-degree murder and two counts of second-degree murder. The court sentenced him to life plus 40 years in prison. His conviction was appealed and affirmed by the Arkansas Supreme Court.
On August 19, 2011, Misskelley, along with Baldwin and Echols, entered an Alford plea. Judge David Laser then sentenced them to 18 years and 78 days, the amount of time they had served, and also levied a suspended sentence of 10 years. All three were released from prison that same day. Since his release, he has become engaged to his high school girlfriend and enrolled in a community college to become an auto mechanic.
Charles Jason Baldwin
Charles Jason Baldwin (born April 11, 1977) along with Misskelley and Echols, entered an Alford plea on August 19, 2011. Baldwin pled guilty to three counts of first degree murder while still asserting his actual innocence. The judge then sentenced the three men to 18 years and 78 days, the amount of time they had served, and also levied a suspended sentence of 10 years. Baldwin was initially resistant to this deal, insisting as a matter of principle that he would not plead guilty to something he did not do. But, he said, his refusing the deal would have meant Echols stayed on death row. "This was not justice," he said of the deal. "However, they’re trying to kill Damien." Since his release, he has moved to Seattle to live with friends and is in a relationship with a woman who befriended him while he was in prison. He has stated that he plans on enrolling in college to become a lawyer helping wrongfully convicted persons prove their innocence. Baldwin stated in a 2011 interview with Piers Morgan that he worked for a construction company and he was learning how to drive.
Damien Wayne Echols
Damien Wayne Echols (born Michael Wayne Hutchison, December 11, 1974) was on death row, locked-down 23 hours per day at the Varner Unit Supermax. On August 19, 2011, Echols, along with the two others collectively known as the West Memphis Three, were released from prison after their attorneys and the judge handling the upcoming retrial agreed to a deal. Under the terms of the Alford guilty plea, Echols and his co-defendants accepted the sufficiency of evidence supporting the three counts of first degree murder while maintaining their innocence. DNA evidence failed to connect Echols or his co-defendants to the crime.
Echols, ADC# 000931, entered the system on March 19, 1994. Until August 2011, he was incarcerated in the Arkansas Department of Correction (ADC) Varner Unit Supermax. In 1999, he married while he was in prison.
The mental stability of Damien Echols during the years immediately prior to the murders and also during his trial was the focus of his appellate legal team in their appeal attempts. In his efforts to win a new trial, Echols, 27 at the time of the appeal, claimed he was incompetent to stand trial because of a history of mental illness. The record on appeal spells out a long history of Echols's mental health problems, including a May 5, 1992, Arkansas Department of Youth Services referral for possible mental illness, a year to the day before the murders. Hospital records for his treatment in Little Rock 11 months before the killings show a history of self-mutilation, and assertions to hospital staff that he gained power by drinking blood, that he had inside him the spirit of a woman who had killed her husband and that he was having hallucinations. He also told mental health workers that he was "going to influence the world." The appellate legal team argued that Echols didn't waive his assertion that he wasn't mentally competent before his 1994 trial because he wasn't competent to waive it. To assist in the appeals process, Echols’ appellate legal team retained a Berkeley-based forensic psychiatrist, Dr. George Woods, to make their case.
Echols' lawyers claimed that his condition worsened during the trial, when he developed a "psychotic euphoria that caused him to believe he would evolve into a superior entity," and eventually be transported to a different world. His psychosis dominated his perceptions of everything going on in court, Woods wrote. Echols' mental state, while in prison awaiting trial, was also called into question by his appellate team.
- Retrial request
While in prison Damien wrote letters to Gloria Shettles, an investigator for his defense team. Echols sought to overturn his conviction based on trial error including juror misconduct, as well as with the results of a DNA Status Report filed on July 17, 2007, which concluded "none of the genetic material recovered at the scene of the crimes was attributable to Mr. Echols, Echols' co-defendant, Jason Baldwin, or defendant Jessie Misskelley .... Although most of the genetic material recovered from the scene was attributable to the victims of the offenses, some of it cannot be attributed to either the victims or the defendants." Advanced DNA and other scientific evidence – combined with additional evidence from several different witnesses and experts – released in October 2007 had thrown the original ruling into question. A hearing on his petition for a writ of habeas corpus was held in the Federal District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas.
On August 19, 2011, Echols, along with Baldwin and Misskelley, entered an Alford plea. The judge then sentenced them to 18 years and 78 days, the amount of time they had served, and also levied a suspended sentence of 10 years. Echols' sentence was reduced to three counts of first degree murder. Lawyers representing the West Memphis Three reached the plea deal that allowed the men to walk free. They were transferred to the hearing with their possessions. The plea deal did not technically result in a full exoneration; some of the convictions would stand, though the men would not admit guilt. The counsel representing the men said they would continue to pursue full exoneration.
Echols co-wrote the lyrics to the song "Army Reserve", on Pearl Jam's self-titled album. Punk musician Michale Graves, formerly of The Misfits, has written music to coincide with Echols' poetry. Echols and Graves released an album titled Illusions, in October 2007. His poetry has appeared in the Porcupine Literary Arts magazine (Volume 8, Issue 2), and he has written non-fiction for the Arkansas Literary Forum. Since his release, he has published a non-fiction book about both his childhood and incarceration, Life After Death (Blue Rider Press, 2012), which includes material from Echols' previous memoir entitled, Almost Home: My Life Story Vol. 1, self-published while still in prison. Echols has relocated to Salem, Massachusetts with his wife and has no intentions of returning to Arkansas. In an interview with Piers Morgan, he stated that he would like to have a career in writing and visual arts.
- Norfolk Four
- moral panic
- Witch-hunt (metaphorical usage)
- False confession: coerced
- Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three
- "Youth Is Convicted In Slaying of 3 Boys In an Arkansas City". The New York Times. February 5, 1994. "The prosecution said the slayings might have been part of a satanic ritual."
- "Arguments conclude in 'West Memphis Three' appeals". Arkansas Online. The Associated Press. October 2, 2009. "Prosecutors claimed the killers sexually mutilated the boy in a satanic ritual."
- Lundin, Leigh (November 14, 2010). "Not-so-cold Old Cases". Capital Punishment. Orlando: Criminal Brief.
- "Second Amended Writ of Habeas Corpus". David P Davis Esq, Attorney at Law. Retrieved October 31, 2007.
- Parker, Suzi (July 27, 2011). "Fresh DNA evidence boosts defense in 1993 Arkansas slayings". Thompson Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (August 19, 2011). "Plea reached in West Memphis murders". ArkansasOnline. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- Leveritt, Mara (2003). Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three. Simon and Schuster. p. 5. ISBN 0-7434-1760-7.
- Blackstone, Ashley (September 30, 2010). "Damien Echols asks for new trial in West Memphis 3 murder case". Today's THV – Gannett (Arkansas Television Company). Retrieved January 25, 2012.; Affidavits
- Leveritt, Mara (2003). Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three. Atria. ISBN 0-7434-1760-7.[page needed]
- Michael Newton (2009). The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes. Infobase Publishing. p. 391. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- Frank J. Peretti, William Q. Sturner (May 1993). "Christopher Byers Autopsy". Arkansas State Crime Laboratory. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Frank J. Peretti, William Q. Sturner (May 1993). "Steve Branch Autopsy". Arkansas State Crime Laboratory. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Frank J. Peretti, William Q. Sturner (May 1993). "Michael Moore Autopsy". Arkansas State Crime Laboratory. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Turvey, Brent E. (1999). Criminal profiling:an introduction to behavioral evidence analysis. Academic. p. 377. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "West Memphis Three : Memphis Photo Galleries : The Commercial Appeal: Local Memphis, Tennessee News Delivered Throughout the Day.". commercialappeal.com. 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "West Memphis Murders – The Robin Hood Hills child murders. West Memphis, Arkansas". findagrave.com. 2005. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- Beifuss, John (May 9, 1993). "Pain tells how much life 3 slain boys had » The Commercial Appeal". commercialappeal.com. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "Help sought for memorial to victims in West Memphis 3 case". Arkansas Times. 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- "3 Teen-Agers Accused in the Killings of 3 Boys". New York Times. June 6, 1993. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- Mark Caro, In Search Of Evil Chicago Tribune October 2, 1996
- Leveritt, 2003, p. 27-28
- Leveritt, Mara (2003). Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three. Simon and Schuster. pp. 6, 174. ISBN 0-7434-1760-7.
- "collective – paradise lost, revelations dvd". BBC. July 10, 2005. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- "cr94-848". Courts.state.ar.us. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- Transcript, MissKelley, Jr. Confession
- "Steel, Fiona. "The West Memphis 3." Court TV. 17 Mar. 2006". Crimelibrary.com. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- "Teens Plead Innocent In Boys' Deaths". Times Daily. August 4, 1993. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- Steel, Fiona. "The West Memphis Three". Turner Broadcasting System.
- "The Law Office of David Perry Davis, Esq., Pennington, New Jersey. Page on statements by Jessie Misskelley, Jr.". Dpdlaw.com. June 3, 1993. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- “Arkansas Teen Found Guilty On Three Counts Of Murder,” Gainesville Sun, February 5, 1994
- "Youth Is Convicted In Slaying of 3 Boys In an Arkansas City". The New York Times. February 5, 1994.
- "Witnesses call boys deaths work of group with trappings of the occult". The Commercial Appeal. March 9, 1994. Retrieved 2011-02-23.
- "Teens Found Guilty In Boys' Slayings". Free Lance-Star. March 19, 1994. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- Leveritt, Mara (2003). Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three. Simon and Schuster. p. 245. ISBN 0-7434-1760-7.
- Leveritt, Mara (2003). Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three. Simon and Schuster. p. 25. ISBN 0-7434-1760-7.
- Leveritt, Mara (2003). Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three. Simon and Schuster. pp. 399, 404. ISBN 0-7434-1760-7.
- "Revelations: Paradise Lost 2. HBO. 28 July 2000 Broadcast. March 17, 2006". Retrieved February 19, 2007.
- "Appeal puts 3 Ark. boys' murders back in spotlight". Seattle Post Intelligencer. May 5, 1993.
- "Echols v. State (Dudley, J.) CR94-928". Courts.state.ar.us. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- Henry Weinstein, Lawyers file DNA motion in Cub Scout murder case, Los Angeles Times October 30, 2007
- Leveritt, Mara (2003). Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three. Simon and Schuster. pp. 334–5. ISBN 0-7434-1760-7.
- Leveritt, Mara (2003). Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three. Simon and Schuster. p. 310. ISBN 0-7434-1760-7.
- Hackler, Tim (October 7, 2004). "Complete Fabrication". Arkansas Times. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- Mara Leveritt and Max Brantley New evidence in West Memphis murders, Arkansas Times July 19, 2007
- "WMC-TV: News, Weather, Traffic, Radar, and Sports for Memphis, TN; WMCTV.com | DNA evidence may connect family member to West Memphis 3 crime scene". Web.archive.org. December 10, 2007. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- "KAIT: Mother of West Memphis 3 Victim Speaks About New DNA Evidence". Kait8.com. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- Beth Warren, "Jury foreman in West Memphis Three trial of Damien Echols accused of misconduct," Memphis Commercial Appeal, October 13, 2010
- The Associated Press (September 30, 2008). "Former lawyer supports effort for a new trial". Arkansas Online (Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, Inc). Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Arkansas Blog: West Memphis 3 Press Conference
- Zeman, Jill (September 10, 2008). "Judge rejects request for new trial for 3 men convicted of 1993 slayings of 3 Arkansas boys". Nesting.com. Associated Press. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Bleed, Jill Zeman (November 4, 2010). "New hearing ordered for 3 in Ark. scout deaths". Associated Press. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- "New judge appointed for West Memphis appeals". Arkansas Online (Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, Inc.). The Associated Press. December 1, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Randazzo, Sara. "The Ropes & Gray Partner Who Helped Free the West Memphis Three". American Lawyer Daily. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
- Robertson, Campbell (August 19, 2011). "Deal Frees ‘West Memphis Three’ in Arkansas". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
- Max Brantley, Prosecutor's statement on West Memphis 3 plea deal Arkansas Times August 19, 2011
- Libby, Karen (August 26, 2011). "West Memphis Three Attorneys Discuss Alford Plea Details". Maxwell S. Kennerly. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Leveritt, Mara (August 19, 2011). "FLASH: West Memphis 3 freed in plea bargain". Arkansas Blog. Arkansas Times. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Bauder, David (October 10, 2011). "West Memphis 3, locked up 18 years, together in NY". Houston Chronicle (Hearst Newspapers). Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Demillo, Andrew (August 27, 2011). "Arkansas crime lab to study 'West Memphis 3' case DNA". The Commercial Appeal (Scripps Newspaper Group—Online). Associated Press. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Rick, Murray (May 2000). "Rick Murray speaks out". Free the West Memphis Three. Archived from the original on July 3, 2007.
- Leveritt, Mara; Brantley, Max (July 19, 2007). "New evidence in West Memphis murders". Arkansas Times. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Avila, Jim (November 1, 2007). "Father of Victim to Convicted Killer: "I'm Here for You"". ABC News (ABC News Internet Ventures). Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Alex Coleman, "Victim's father wants West Memphis 3 set free", WREG, February 26, 2010
- Dixie Chicks' Natalie Maines Wins "West Memphis Three" Defamation Suit CNN, April 19, 2010
- Warren, Beth (November 7, 2010). "Professional profiler convinced of innocence of West Memphis Three". The Commercial Appeal (Memphis, TN: Scripps Newspaper Group—Online). Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- "Metallica May Give Music To "Paradise Lost" Sequel". MTV. May 28, 1998. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Echols, Damien (June 3, 2005). Almost Home: My Life Story Vol 1. iUniverse, Inc.
- Greg Day, "Untying The Knot: John Mark Byers and the West Memphis child murders". Retrieved August 21, 2011
- "Disturbed Release Benefit Single for West Memphis Three". Starpulse.com. April 30, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Martin David Hill. "Murders in West Memphis". Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- "WEST MEMPHIS THREE 'WRONGFULLY CONVICTED EPISODE TRAILER WHITE LIGHT PRODUCTIONS' – CNN iReport". CNN.
- Rosenfield, Kat (September 9, 2012). "Johnny Depp Reveals Anguish Over West Memphis Three Injustice". MTV. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Labrecque, Jeff (February 10, 2014). "West Memphis Three drama 'Devil's Knot' with Reese Witherspoon sets release". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- "West Memphis 3 cases to receive hearing, possible new trial". cnn. November 4, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- "ADC Inmate Search – Inmate Details". Arkansas Department of Correction. Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. "Information Current as of 08/09/2011"
- Rothbart, Davy (January 12, 2012). "Q&A: Paradise Lost directors Joe Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky". Grantland. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- "Decades without daylight: 'West Memphis Three' describe life in prison". CNN Wire Staff. September 29, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- Perrusquia, Marc (February 27, 1994). "Damien Echols may be troubled but he's not killer, some say". The Commercial Appeal (Memphis). Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- "Echols , Damien." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
- Feyerick, Deborah and Stephanie Chen. "Echols of West Memphis 3 talks about appeal, death row." CNN. September 29, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- Leveritt, Mara (2011). "The Damien I Know – The Architect and the Inmate | Arkansas news, politics, opinion, restaurants, music, movies and art". arktimes.com. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- The Commercial Appeal
- George Woods Affidavit
- CNN Larry King Live-Damien Echols Death Row Interview
- "DNA TESTING CONCLUDES". wm3.org. Archived from the original on August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-22.
- American Chronicle | Echols' Attorneys File New Motion Claiming Wrongful Conviction In 'West Memphis Three' Case
- "Ex-Misfits Singer Rocks With West Memphis 3's Echols | Billboard.com". Billboard. 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- Arkansas Literary Forum
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to West Memphis Three.|
- The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry (The Butler Center for Arkansas Studies)
- West Memphis Three at the Court TV Crime Library
- West Memphis 3 at DMOZ
- Archive of West Memphis Three reports from Memphis Commercial Appeal
- Chen, Stephanie. "Echols of West Memphis 3 talks about appeal, death row." CNN. September 29, 2010.
- Investigation Collection Archive