West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesian: Nusa Tenggara Barat) is a province of Indonesia. It comprises the western portion of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the exception of Bali which is its own province. Mataram, on Lombok, is the capital and largest city of the province. The 2010 census recorded the population at 4,496,855. The two largest islands in the province are Lombok in the west and the larger Sumbawa island in the east.
In 1938, the Neo Municipality was formed, a self regulated area (Dutch: Zelf Bestuur Regelen). Based on the Lombok government constitution, East Indonesia Presidents' decision on 9 May 1949 No.5/Prv/49, Lombok did not contain a municipality but was an area conducted by Dutch Government. Formerly known as Sunda Kecil (Lesser Sunda), the West Nusa Tenggara Province was formed from part of the former State of East Indonesia in 1951. In 1957, the regional government was established.
The Indonesian Gvernment is currently considering the division of Nusu Tenggara Barat Province to create a separate Sumbawa Island province. There is no information as to whether the remaining part of the present province (i.e. the districts comprising Lombok Island) would then be renamed.
Lombok is mainly inhabited by the Sasak ethnic group, with a minority Balinese population, and Sumbawa is inhabited by Sumbawa and Bima ethnic groups. Each of these groups has a local language associated with it as well. The population of the province is 4,496,855 (at the 2010 census); 70.4% of the population lives on Lombok (at the 2010 census).