West Side Story (film)
|West Side Story|
Theatrical release poster by Joe Caroff
|Directed by||Robert Wise
|Produced by||Robert Wise|
|Screenplay by||Ernest Lehman|
|Based on||West Side Story by
Romeo and Juliet by
William Shakespeare (uncredited)
|Music by||Leonard Bernstein
|Cinematography||Daniel L. Fapp|
|Editing by||Thomas Stanford|
|Studio||The Mirisch Corporation|
|Distributed by||United Artists|
|Running time||152 minutes|
|Language||English, some Spanish|
West Side Story is a 1961 American musical film directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins. The film is an adaptation of the 1957 Broadway musical of the same name, which in turn was inspired by William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet. It stars Natalie Wood, Richard Beymer, Russ Tamblyn, Rita Moreno and George Chakiris and was photographed by Daniel L. Fapp, A.S.C., in Super Panavision 70.
The film was released on October 18, 1961, through United Artists. It received praise from critics and the public, and became the second highest grossing film of the year in the United States. The film was nominated for 11 Academy Awards and won 10, including Best Picture, as well as a special award for Robbins. West Side Story won more Academy Awards than any other musical film.
The film did not replicate the two-act format of the Broadway version. It played without interruption.
||This section's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (February 2014)|
The film opens with a sequence of aerial views of Manhattan, beginning at the southern tip and moving north, descending to ground level in the West Side's Lincoln Square neighborhood. It is late summer 1957 and there is a mounting tension set to music ("Prologue") between a white American gang, the Jets, led by Riff Lorton, and a rival gang of Puerto Rican immigrants, the Sharks, led by Bernardo Nuñez. The two gangs harass each other, culminating in a free-for-all through the streets. Eventually, the Sharks catch the youngest member of the Jets, Baby John, who has written the words on the wall: "SHARKS STINK", and they chase him back to the playground. As they begin to beat him, all the other gang members rush in and start brawling. Lieutenant Schrank and Officer Krupke arrive and break up the mass fight. Schrank insists that he will not tolerate any more fighting on his beat. He orders the Sharks off the playground and tells the Jets "to make nice with them Puerto Ricans" or there will be a price to pay. Once the policemen leave, the Jets discuss challenging the Sharks to a rumble to decide who controls the neighborhood streets. They decide to deliver the challenge to the Sharks on neutral territory during a dance at the gym.
Riff decides that his best friend Tony Wyzek, a co-founder of the Jets who has left the gang to work at a local candy store, would be the best member to present the challenge to the Sharks ("Jet Song"). Riff visits Tony at the store and asks him to come to the dance, but Tony is not interested in fighting anymore. He tells Riff that he senses something very important is about to happen to him. Riff cajoles Tony into agreeing to come to at the dance where perhaps he will discover the important thing he feels coming ("Something's Coming").
Meanwhile Maria Nunez, Bernardo's sheltered younger sister, who has been in New York for about a month, tell her best friend Anita, Bernardo's girlfriend, how excited she is about the dance. She is not very excited about Chino, another Shark she is expected to marry. Maria has a dispute about wearing her dress, believing that it's too large for her, which is refused by Anita, who threatens to rip it to shreds, and tells Maria to not attend the dance, until Maria looks in the mirror, and realizes how beautiful her dress is. Bernardo and Chino arrive to take them to the dance, but Bernardo is very protective of his sister. At the dance, which is held at the school gym, the Jets, Sharks, and girls are enjoying themselves ("Dance at the Gym"), but there is tension in the air. The host of the dance, social worker Glad Hand, tries to ease the tension by getting the gangs to dance together, but they and their girlfriends remain apart. Tony arrives during a mambo, and he and Maria see each other, become infatuated, enter a trance-like state, and begin to dance, oblivious to the rivalry between their ethnic groups. When they kiss, Bernardo angrily interrupts them. He tells Tony to stay away from his sister and orders Chino to take her home. Riff proposes a "war council" with Bernardo. They agree to meet at Doc's drug store after the dance. However, it would happen at a later time, because the Sharks reason that they will not leave their ladies behind with the Jets. Tony leaves in a happy daze, singing of his new-found love ("Maria").
Maria is sent home, and Anita argues with Bernardo that he is being overprotective of Maria, and that they are in America, not Puerto Rico. Up on the rooftop of their apartment complex, Anita and other Puerto Rican girls argue with Bernardo that Maria can dance with whomever she pleases. They debate the comparative advantages of Puerto Rico and the U.S. The girls emphasize freedom and their dreams and the boys underscore prejudice and poverty. ("America"). When they disperse, Bernardo and his gang go to the war council.
Tony discreetly visits Maria on the fire escape at her apartment. Maria is concerned because of their ethnic differences and fears her parents will share Bernardo's opinion. They affirm their love for each other. ("Tonight"). They arrange to meet the next day at the bridal shop where Maria works. Meanwhile, the Jets gather outside Doc's store to wait for the Sharks. Baby John looks at Captain Marvel Comic Strips, that does not appeal to his friend A-rab, who sarcastically tells Baby John to marry him, Anybodys continues to plead to be in the gang but is again rebuffed by Riff and mocked by Riff's girlfriend, Graziella, and her friend Velma. Officer Krupke, who was at the dance and suspects the are planning trouble, visits the Jets and warns them not to cause trouble on his beat. After he leaves, they lampoon him and the various theories of treating juvenile delinquency ("Gee, Officer Krupke!"). Doc is about to close the store, but the Jets convince him to stay open. He tries without success to talk the Jets out of fighting. The Sharks arrive, and all of the Jet's girls, including Anybody's , are forced out by Riff. Anybody's silently in anger, pushes a few of the Sharks aside, who don't resist her shoves, and exits the drugstore. Before the war council begins, both the Jets and the Sharks trade accusations and about to begin a fight, however, they restrain themselves, and agree to the challenge. Both groups sit down and agree to have the Rumble tomorrow evening under the highway. However, when it comes to naming what weapons to be used at the Rumble, Tony arrives and calls them all chickens for wanting to use weapons, instead of slugging it out. He demands a one-on-one fist fight instead of an all-out rumble. The gang leaders agree and choose Bernardo to represent the Sharks and Ice to represent the Jets. Bernardo is disappointed, since was hoping to face Tony. All are soon alerted of Lieutenant Schrank's arrival, so the gangs quickly intermix and pretend to be friends. Schrank goes along with the pretense, but knows better. Schrank orders the Puerto Ricans out and they exit whistling "My Country, 'Tis of Thee". He then tells the Jets he is on their side and will help them fight the Sharks if they will tell him where the rumble is taking place. When they do not reply, he angers several of them with insulting comments, including A-Rab and Tony, even provoking Action to start to attack him until he is restrained by the other Jets. The Jets disperse and Schrank angrily leaves, leaving Tony and Doc alone to clean up the store. Tony surprises Doc by confessing his love for Maria. Doc, fearful and distressed, closes the store and Tony leaves.
||This section's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (February 2014)|
The next day at the bridal shop, Maria tells to her co-workers about how excited she is ("I Feel Pretty"). Madam Lucia the owner of the Bridal shop, angrily intervenes, reprimanding the girls for not concentrating on their work, and almost threatens to fire each and everyone of them, before she exits. When the others leave, as Anita plans to prepare for a date with Bernardo, Anita accidentally tells Maria about the planned rumble. Maria questions its purpose, and Anita, uncertain, says it all about emotion. Anita tells Maria to come home with her, but Maria insists on closing the store by herself. Tony's arrival to see Maria shocks Anita. Tony tells Anita of their love, and Anita mocks Maria. Anita nevertheless shows some tolerance but worries about the consequences if Bernardo learns of their relationship. Anita warns Maria to return home within 15 minutes, and leaves. Maria pleads with Tony to prevent the rumble, even if it is only a fist fight, and Tony promises to do so. Tony and Maria, using clothes in the bridal shop, fantasize about their wedding ceremony ("One Hand, One Heart").
A musical montage ("Quintet") represents the emotions of the characters as they await the evening's events, the gangs anticipating the rumble, and the two couples, Tony and Maria, Anita and Bernardo, their planned rendezvous. The Jets and Sharks arrive for the rumble at a fenced dead-end under a highway. Riff wants to shake hands before the fight, however, Bernardo refuses, stating that their hatred does not demand any handshake and demands that the Rumble begins. As the fair fight between Bernardo and Ice begins, Tony arrives and tries to stop it. Bernardo and the Sharks mock him. Bernardo makes it clear it would rather fight Tony, but Tony refuses to fight back, shouting: "DON'T PUSH ME!!!". Unable to stand by and watch his best friend be humiliated, Riff lashes out and punches Bernardo ("The Rumble"). Bernardo and Riff each draw a knife and they fight. Tony tries to intervene, but Riff has two other Jets, Ice , and Tiger, hold him back. When Riff gains the advantage and is about to stab Bernardo, Tony manages to stop him. Riff breaks away and runs back into the fight where he is fatally stabbed by Bernardo. Riff collapses while handing the knife to Tony and Bernardo stands looking, shocked at what he has done. Tony kills Bernardo with Riff's knife and a melee ensues. Several Sharks pound on Tony. Police sirens blare and the gang members flee, leaving behind the bodies of Riff and Bernardo. Tony gazes at Bernardo's body, realizes what he has done, screams Maria's name, and bursts into tears. Anybodys snaps him back to reality and he dashes off, narrowly escaping the searchlights of the police. Anybody's steals the knife.
Unaware of these events, Maria waits for Tony on the rooftop of her apartment building. Chino arrives with news of the rumble and Maria fears for Tony's safety. Chino tells her that Tony killed her brother. Maria refuses to believe him until others confirm it. Horrified, she retreats to her room and prays it is not true. Tony arrives and Maria upbraids him, but Tony explains what transpired and asks for her forgiveness before he turns himself in to the police. Maria confirms her love for him and asks Tony to stay with her forever ("Somewhere").
A-Rab, who is running from being sighted by the police cars, finds Baby John on a low rooftop, frightened and in tears over the slayings of the two gang leaders. A-Rab snaps him out of his misery, and has him join the rest of the Jets in an area outside a garage.
The Jets, with Ice now in command and joined by the Jet girls, have reassembled outside a garage. There is a group of mixed emotions including sadness, fear, and anger. While some of the Jets praise Tony for going through for the Jets, Graziella weeps on hearing the loss of Riff, and is comforted by Velma. Action demands revenge for Riff's death, but Baby John and A-Rab are opposed. Tempers flare, and a man from an upstairs apartment throws a piece of glass down to the ground, screaming that the Jets go home, causing Action to attempt to throw a rock at the window, until Ice subdues Action, and gathers all of them into the garage and tells them to forget revenge for the moment and focus on how to act when the police question them. ("Cool"). They quietly file out of the garage and begin to make their way back to Doc's Candy Store. While walking a few feet from the garage, Anybodys, after infiltrating the Sharks' turf, arrives and warns them that Chino is now after Tony with a gun. Ice sends the Jets to search the neighborhood and warn Tony. Ice asks Anybodys to join the search, finally treating her like a member of the gang. However, little do the Jets know that Chino is hiding nearby in the shadows behind a couple of building, waiting for Tony for the kill.
In Maria's bedroom, she and Tony have just finished making love. As they hear Anita arriving home, they make whispered arrangements to meet at Doc's, where Tony will pick up getaway money so they can elope together. Anita hears them through the door and sees Tony escape through the bedroom window., down the fire escape, and meets up with Anybody's, who leads Tony back to Docs store. Anita chides Maria for the relationship ("A Boy Like That"), but Maria's response softens her. ("I Have a Love") Despite her grief over Bernardo's death, Anita agrees to help Maria and Tony run away and marry. Anita quickly tells Maria that Chino is searching for Tony with a gun.
Schrank arrives and questions Maria about the events leading up to the rumble. Maria lies to cover for Tony, saying she only danced with another Puerto Rican boy. To deceive the policeman, Maria sends Anita to Doc's drugstore on a pretended errand, so she call tell Tony that Maria is detained from meeting him. When Anita reaches the drugstore and asks for Tony, the Jets refuse to believe that Anita is here to help, and taunt, tease,, harass, and mock rape, with Baby John, about to be put on top of her, her until Doc stops them. Infuriated by the attack, Anita declares that Bernardo was right about how bad they were, and gives the Jets a different message for Tony: that Maria is dead, shot by Chino. After she storms out, Doc reprimands the Jets and throws them out of the store. Then he heads to the basement to give Tony his getaway money. Doc is so infuriated that Tony is thinking only of himself and his future with Maria that he smacks Tony across the face. He angrily reminds him of what he, as well as the Jets have done and somberly delivers Anita's message to him. In shock and despair, Tony runs from the drug store to find Chino, shouting "Come and get me, too!", not knowing that Chino is actually secretly waiting for him. Anybodys sees Tony and tries to stop him, but Tony ignores her.
In the playground next to Doc's store, Tony spots Maria and they begin to run toward each other with joy. Chino appears and shoots Tony. As the Jets and other Sharks and their girls, from both gangs, except for Anita, arrive on the scene, Maria and Tony, who is now fatally wounded, reaffirm their love ("Somewhere"). Tony dies in her arms. The two gangs watch and prepare to fight again, but Maria stops them. She takes the gun from Chino and threatens first him and then everyone with it with it, blaming both gangs for the deaths of Tony, Bernardo, and Riff. She threatens to kill as many of them as she can, while still leaving one bullet for herself. Unable to act on these words, she drops the gun when the flashing lights from a police car appear, so as not to be accused of the murder, and sinks to the ground sobbing. Schrank, Krupke, and Doc arrive and Schrank starts to intervene. Maria protects Tony's body from him, and Schrank just stands back. Everyone stands and watches as Maria softly gives Tony a final goodbye kiss. Three of the Jets start to lift his body and two Sharks help them carry him off. Baby John gives Maria a funeral shawl. Maria and several Jets and Sharks walk behind them in a funeral procession, while the other Jets and Sharks go their separate ways. Schrank, Krupke, Chino and Doc linger on the playground a moment. Then Doc walks off and the other two arrest Chino for killing Tony and lead him away.
Veteran director Robert Wise was chosen as the director and producer because of his experience with urban New York dramas such as Odds Against Tomorrow (1959). Since he had no experience directing a musical, Wise agreed that Jerome Robbins, who had directed the stage version of West Side Story, would direct the musical and dance sequences. After about one-third of the movie had been shot, the Mirisch Company, concerned that the production was running over-budget, dismissed Robbins. According to Saul Chaplin, Robbins nearly suffered a nervous breakdown during the time he worked on the film. The remaining dance numbers were directed with the help of Robbins' assistants. Recognizing Robbins' considerable creative contribution to the film, Wise agreed that Robbins should be given co-directing credit, even though Wise directed the greater part of the film. The ending title sequence was created by Saul Bass, who is also credited as "visual consultant" on the film.
- Natalie Wood as Maria Nuñez, Bernardo's younger sister, Chino's fiancée, in love with Tony Wyzek
- Marni Nixon as Maria's singing voice
- Richard Beymer as Tony Wyzek, inactive co-founder of the Jets with best friend Riff, works at Doc's drug store, in love with Maria Nuñez
- Jimmy Bryant as Tony's singing voice
- Russ Tamblyn as Riff Lorton, leader of the Jets, best friend of Tony
- Rita Moreno as Anita del Carmen, Bernardo's girl, Maria's closest confidante
- George Chakiris as Bernardo Nuñez, leader of the Sharks, older brother of Maria
- Simon Oakland as Lieutenant Schrank, neighborhood police lieutenant
- Ned Glass as Doc, drugstore owner, Tony's boss. He tries to talk sense to Tony and the Jets, but they rarely listen.
- William Bramley as Officer Krupke, neighborhood cop, Schrank's right-hand man
- John Astin as Glad Hand, social worker
- Penny Santon as Madam Lucia, owner of neighborhood bridal shop
||This section possibly contains original research. (April 2011)|
Because the producers wanted actors who looked believable as teenagers, they did not consider 30-year-old Larry Kert, the first Tony on Broadway, or 29-year-old Carol Lawrence, the first Maria, but some had experience in staged versions of West Side Story. Tony Mordente, who played A-Rab on stage, was cast as Action in the film, and George Chakiris, Riff in the London stage production, played Bernardo in the film. Tucker Smith, who joined the Broadway production several months into its run, played Ice, a role created for the film. David Winters, the first stage Baby John, played A-Rab, Eliot Feld, an ensemble member and understudy for Baby John on Broadway, played Baby John. Jay Norman, Juano on stage, appeared as Pepe. Reprising their stage roles in the film were Carole D'Andrea as Velma, Tommy Abott as Gee-Tar, and William Bramley as Officer Krupke.
Elvis Presley was approached for Tony, but his manager, Colonel Tom Parker, strongly believed the role to be wrong for Elvis and made him decline in favor of other movie musicals. According to legend, the Colonel didn't want Elvis associated with gang warfare and knife crime, although three years earlier, Elvis' character Danny Fisher stabbed and killed the small-time gangster 'Shark' played by Vic Morrow in the movie King Creole. When the movie became a hit and earned 10 Oscars, Elvis regretted having given up the part. Others who auditioned for the part included Warren Beatty, Tab Hunter, Anthony Perkins, Russ Tamblyn, Burt Reynolds, Troy Donahue, Bobby Darin, Richard Chamberlain, Dennis Hopper, and Gary Lockwood.
Bobby Darin made a strong impression on the producers at his audition and was, at one point, in talks for the role. However, he turned it down due to his concert and recording commitments. Tab Hunter, then 30, and Burt Reynolds, nearly 26, were also considered, due to their Broadway and singing credits, but they were dismissed because of their age. Richard Chamberlain was also thought too old at age 26. The producers settled on their "final five": Warren Beatty, Anthony Perkins, Russ Tamblyn, Troy Donahue, and Richard Beymer. Although he was 28 before filming began, Perkins' boyish looks and Broadway resume seemed to make him a contender for the role, and he was trying to avoid getting typecast after the success of Psycho. Robert Wise originally chose Beatty for the role, figuring that youth was more important than experience. Ultimately, Beymer, the most unlikely of the candidates, won the part of Tony. Tamblyn, after several callbacks, impressed the producers and was given the role of Riff.
Natalie Wood was filming Splendor in the Grass with Warren Beatty and was romantically involved with him off-screen. The producers were considering her for the role of Maria. When Beatty went to screen test for the role of Tony, Wood read opposite him as Maria as a favor because she had been practicing with him. The producers fell in love with the idea of Wood as Maria but did not cast Beatty.
Jill St. John, Audrey Hepburn, Diane Baker, Valerie Harper, Elizabeth Ashley, and Suzanne Pleshette were among the many actresses who lobbied for the role of Maria in the film adaptation. However, Hepburn later withdrew because she became pregnant.
Awards and honors
The film has been deemed "culturally significant" by the United States Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 1997. Its ten Academy Awards make it is the musical film with the most Academy wins, including Best Picture. Three other films also won 11 Oscars, but none was a musical.
- Academy Award for Best Picture – Robert Wise, producer
- Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor – George Chakiris
- Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress – Rita Moreno
- Academy Award for Best Art Direction (Set Decoration, Color) – Victor A. Gangelin and Boris Leven
- Academy Award for Best Cinematography (Color) – Daniel L. Fapp
- Academy Award for Best Costume Design (Color) – Irene Sharaff
- Academy Award for Best Director – Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins
- Academy Award for Best Film Editing – Thomas Stanford
- Academy Award for Best Original Score – Saul Chaplin, Johnny Green, Irwin Kostal, and Sid Ramin
- Academy Award for Best Sound – Fred Hynes (Todd-AO SSD), and Gordon E. Sawyer (Samuel Goldwyn SSD)
- Academy Award for Brilliant Achievements in the Art of Choreography on Film – Jerome Robbins
American Film Institute lists:
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – #41
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – #3
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs:
- AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals – #2
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – #51
Score and soundtrack
Leonard Bernstein was displeased with the orchestrations for the movie, which was the work of Sid Ramin and Irwin Kostal, who had orchestrated the original Broadway production. That show had been orchestrated for roughly 30 musicians; for the movie, United Artists allowed them triple that, including six saxophone parts, eight trumpets, five pianos and five xylophones. Bernstein found it "overbearing and lacking in texture and subtlety."
Jerome Robbins, who did not like the arrangement of the songs in the Broadway version, had the song "Gee, Officer Krupkee" being sung before the Rumble in place of the song "Cool" which is sung instead, after the Rumble. Also, the song "I Feel Pretty" is sung before the Rumble instead. In addition, the song "America" was sung in-between the two love songs "Maria" and Tonight", instead of having the two love songs being sung consecutive. The "Somewhere" Ballet was omitted, because it slowed down the pace of the film , and was sung instead by Tony and Maria. The repast of the song lyrics were-omitted as well, especially in the songs "One Hand, One Heart" and "A Boy Like That". Also the lyrics were changed in order to avoid the censors, especially in the songs "Gee, Officer Krupkee", America" and the Tonight Quintet".
Even the words: "Sperm to Worm" had to be replaced with "Womb to Tomb" in order to avoid the censors.
As provided in her contract, Wood prerecord her songs and allowed the production team to decide whether to use her voice or not. She found the songs challenging, but was allowed to film her scenes lip-synching to her own vocals and led to believe that these versions would be used, although music supervisors Saul Chaplin and Johnny Green had already decided to use Marni Nixon's voice. Wood's singing voice is only hears during the reprise of the song "Somewhere" when Tony dies. Though Nixon had recorded the songs in the same orchestra sessions as Wood, she had to rerecord them to synch with Wood's filmed performances. Even the one song for which Wood had lip-synched to Nixon's voice, "One Hand, One Heart", had to be recorded again because Wood's lip-synching was unsatisfactory. When Marni Nixon learned she had not signed a contract for participating in the recording, demanded a percentage of the LP record, but was told that all percentages had been allocated. Bernstein gave her 0.25% of his album royalties. This set a precedent for all future "ghost singers".
Beymer's vocals were performed Jimmy Bryant. Tucker Smith, in addition to acting and singing the role of Ice, dubbed the singing voice of Riff in "Jet Song", instead of Russ Tamblyn. Russ' own voice was used in "Gee, Officer Krupke" and the "Quintet". Rita Moreno was dubbed by Betty Wand in the song "A Boy Like That" because the song was in too low a register for her, but Moreno sang her own vocals in "America". Marni Nixon sang some of Moreno's parts in the "Quintet", when illness prevented Moreno from doing so. Wand was also ill on the day of final recording, so Nixon recorded Anita's vocal line as well.
For the 50th anniversary of the film's 1961 release, a score closer to the Broadway version was created by Garth Edwin Sunderland of the Leonard Bernstein Office, to be performed live at screenings of the movie with the score removed, but the original vocals maintained. The score's New York City premiere was presented at Lincoln Center's Avery Fisher Hall, built atop the original film locations, which were razed in a late 1950s urban renewal project.
The Stan Kenton Orchestra recorded Kenton's West Side Story, an entire album of Johnny Richards' jazz orchestrations based on the Bernstein scores in 1961. It was previewed at Capitol Records by the producers of the motion picture during the editing and mix down who lamented that, had they known of its existence, it would have been used as the musical foundation of the new film. The Kenton version won the 1962 Grammy Award for Best Jazz Recording by a Large Group. A still picture from the movie is the front cover of the Kenton LP.
- "West Side Story (AA)". British Board of Film Classification. January 12, 1962. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- Secret Voices of Hollywood. BBC4. 3 Jan 2014
- "David Winters Tribute Site". Davidwinters.net. 2003-04-01. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- Internet Movie Database
- Tino Balio, United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry, Uni of Wisconsin Press, 1987, p. 177
- Berson, Misha (2011). Something's Coming, Something Good: West Side Story and the American Imagination. Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. p. 155.
- Grant, Barry Keith (2012). The Hollywood Film Musical. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 100.
- "West Side Story (1961) – Awards". The New York Times. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
- "The 34th Academy Awards (1962) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-08-22.
- West Side Story 50th Anniversary
- West Side Story at Rotten Tomatoes
- Wakin, Daniel (September 6, 2011), "Classic Score by Bernstein is Remade", The New York Times, retrieved September 7, 2011
- Berson, Misha (2011). Something's Coming, Something Good: West Side Story and the American Imagination. Applause.
- Nixon, Marni (2006). I Could Have Sung All Night: My Story. Billboard Books. pp. 132ff.
- "Path of Discovery: West Side Story at 50", Justin M. Craig, September 27, 2011, leonardbernstein.com
- Sarah Waxman, "The History of the Upper West Side", ny.com
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- Official website
- West Side Story at the American Film Institute Catalog
- West Side Story at the Internet Movie Database
- West Side Story at the TCM Movie Database
- West Side Story at Rotten Tomatoes
- Official West Side Story site for all incarnations
|Academy Award winner for
Best Supporting Actor and Best Supporting Actress
The Last Picture Show