Westbury, Wiltshire

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For the constituency, see Westbury (UK Parliament constituency).
Westbury
Westbury old town hall.JPG
The old town hall
Westbury is located in Wiltshire
Westbury
Westbury
 Westbury shown within Wiltshire
Population 16,989 (in 2011)
OS grid reference ST868511
Unitary authority Wiltshire
Ceremonial county Wiltshire
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town WESTBURY
Postcode district BA13
Dialling code 01373
Police Wiltshire
Fire Wiltshire
Ambulance South Western
EU Parliament South West England
List of places
UK
England
Wiltshire

Coordinates: 51°15′36″N 2°11′28″W / 51.260°N 2.191°W / 51.260; -2.191

Westbury is a town and civil parish in the west of the English county of Wiltshire, most famous for the Westbury White Horse.

Toponymy[edit]

The most likely origin of the West- in Westbury is simply that the town is near the western edge of the county of Wiltshire, the bounds of which have been much the same since the Anglo-Saxon period.[1]

The -bury part of the name is a form of borough, which has cognates in many languages, such as the German -burg and the Greek -pyrgos. It carries the idea of a hill or fortified town. In Wiltshire, -bury often indicates an Iron Age or Bronze Age fortified hill fort, and such a site is to be found immediately above the Westbury White Horse.

Location[edit]

Westbury is located in the far west of Wiltshire, close to the border with Somerset. It lies at the northwestern edge of Salisbury Plain, 18 miles (29 km) southeast of the city of Bath, approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the county town of Trowbridge [1] and 5 miles (8.0 km) north of the garrison town of Warminster. Other nearby towns and cities include Frome, Devizes, Salisbury and Bristol. Nearby villages include Bratton, Chapmanslade, Dilton Marsh, Hisomley, Edington, North Bradley, Rudge, Standerwick, Hawkeridge, Heywood, West Ashton and Upton Scudamore.

There are several suburbs including Frogmore, Bitham Park, The Meads and The Ham (all northside), Chalford, Leigh Park and Westbury Leigh (southside). Westbury Leigh is generally considered as a village separate to Westbury itself, though it has become contiguous with the town. Leigh Park is a district developed since the late-1990s that is contiguous with Westbury Leigh, and incorporates a large medical centre, a community hall and a Tesco Express store.

Features and history[edit]

All Saints' church
The Westbury White Horse viewed from the hillside.

In the past, Westbury was sometimes known as Westbury-under-the-Plain to distinguish it from other towns of the same name. Westbury is nestled under the northwestern bluffs of Salisbury Plain, and it is there that the town's most famous feature can be seen: the Westbury White Horse. It is sometimes claimed locally that the White Horse was first cut into the chalk face as long ago as the year 878, to commemorate the victory of King Alfred the Great over the Danes in the Battle of Eðandun (probably, but not certainly, at the nearby village of Edington).[2] However, scholars believe this to be an invention of the late 18th century, and no evidence has yet been found for the existence of the Westbury White Horse before the 1720s. The form of the current White Horse dates from 1778, when it was restored. In the 1950s it was decided that the horse would be more easily maintained if it were set in concrete and painted white. In recent years, there has been a multitude of calls to clean or paint the "old grey mare" and such a renovation began in May 2006.

The horse's original form may have been quite different from the horse seen today. One 18th-century engraving shows the horse facing to the right, but in its current form it faces to the left.

Westbury centres on its historic marketplace, with the churchyard of All Saints' Church (14th century) behind it. All Saints' has a heavy ring of bells, an Erasmus Bible and a 16th-century clock with no face constructed by a local blacksmith. The great west window of Westbury's All Saints parish church was donated by Abraham Laverton, who also built and donated in 1869 and 1873 Prospect Square and the Laverton Institute known today as the Laverton.

Until the 1940s, the Westbury Sheep Fair was an important annual event.

The town has been home to the Army Officer Selection Board and the Cadet Force Commissioning Board, located at Leighton House, since 1949.

In the early part of September 1877, there was found on Bremeridge Farm, in the parish of Dilton Marsh, Wilts, belonging to Charles Paul Phipps, esq. of Chalcot House, a hoard of 32 gold coins. They were found during repairs and improvements of the homestead, about a foot and a half below the surface, in the courtyard, piled, one above another, without any appearance of a purse or box.[3]

The Lafarge cement production plant lies directly north of the town, including the 122m (400ft) chimney, the tallest unsupported structure in southwestern England.

Government[edit]

The most significant local government functions (including schools, roads, social services, waste disposal and emergency planning, housing and leisure services, development control, refuse collection and street cleaning) are carried out by Wiltshire Council. Together with the neighbouring village of Dilton Marsh, Westbury is divided into three council divisions, each electing one member.[4]

Westbury is a civil parish with an elected town council of sixteen members. This has an almost wholly consultative and ceremonial role, and the chairman of the town council has the title of Mayor of Westbury.

The parliamentary constituency of Westbury dates back several centuries, but was abolished in 2010, the town now being part of the constituency of South West Wiltshire.

At one stage it was recognised as a rotten borough, at one point having an electorate as low as twenty four people,[5] which led to gifts from the owners of the parliamentary borough, including the magnificent town hall in Market Place donated by Sir Manasseh Massey Lopes.

Sport and leisure[edit]

Westbury has a Non-League football club Westbury United F.C. who play at the Meadow Lane ground in the Western League Division One (English football's tenth tier). The non-league Rugby Football Club (RFC), Westbury RFC, has both male and female teams who play at White Horse Country Park.

The Leighton sports field at Wellhead Lane was laid out as a cricket field by the mill-owning Lavertons. In 1890 W. G. Grace played in W. H. Laverton's XI against a team called the Australians.[6]

Education[edit]

Westbury's schools [7] Westbury currently has one secondary school, two primary schools, a junior school and an infants school. The secondary school, Matravers School,[8] is designated a specialist arts and technology college. It has a sixth form offering a range of subjects. It serves both the community of Westbury and several of the surrounding villages, including Chapmanslade, Bratton, Dilton Marsh and Edington. Westbury Leigh School is a primary school serving Westbury Leigh village and the Leigh Park district. Bitham Brook School is a primary school mainly serving the western part of the town. Westbury C of E Junior School serves the central part of the town and takes children from Year 3 to Year 6. It is fed by Westbury Infants School, which takes children from Reception to Year 2.

The closest further and higher education establishments are at Wiltshire College (Trowbridge campus), 4.5 miles to the north and the University of Bath, 18 miles to the northwest.

Transport[edit]

Road transport[edit]

A First Somerset and Avon bus on route 264 (Bath to Warminster) picks up a passenger at the railway station

The A350 road passes through the town and a controversial Westbury Bypass was once proposed which would have reduced traffic in parts of the town but would have had a negative effect on the landscape on the east of the town. The eastern bypass scheme was eventually rejected after an Independent Planning Inquiry recommended against it in 2009.[9]

Railway transport[edit]

The town is an important junction point on the railway network, as it lies at the point where the Reading to Taunton line, formng a link from London Paddington to Penzance, intersects the Wessex Main Line, linking Bristol and Bath Spa to Sailsbury and Southampton. Westbury railway station is on the west of the town.

Media[edit]

Westbury is served by a fortnightly free newspaper, the White Horse News, named after the famous and defining feature on the edge of the town. The newspaper is free and delivered to all homes in the town and the surrounding villages of Bratton, Dilton Marsh and Edington, amongst others.[10] Westbury is also served by the weekly the Warminster Journal and the Wiltshire Times, and a radio station, The Breeze FM.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Barfoot & Wilkes 1793, pp. 735.
  2. ^ Barfoot & Wilkes 1793, pp. 738.
  3. ^ Record of Gold Coin find, 1877: Wiltshire Council archives. Retrieved on 4 November 2009.
  4. ^ "Your Wiltshire Councillors by Division". Wiltshire County Council. 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  5. ^ Stephen Farrell. "Westbury". The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  6. ^ Simon Rae, W. G. Grace: a Life (2012), p. 4
  7. ^ Schools Directory http://www.alltheschools.com/wiltshire/westbury.htm
  8. ^ http://www.matravers.wilts.sch.uk/
  9. ^ Westbury Bypass Decision: DCLG letter, Campaign for Better Transport website (PDF file). Retrieved on 3 November 2009.
  10. ^ "About White Horse News". Wiltshire Publications Ltd. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  11. ^ Bartlett. "Papers of Vernon Bartlett". Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  12. ^ The Riverside Dictionary of Biography (American Heritage Dictionaries, 2004, ISBN 0618493379), p. 107

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]