Western Australian shark cull

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Great white sharks are targeted by Western Australia's controversial shark culling policy.

The Western Australian shark cull is the common term[note 1] for a state government policy of capturing and killing large sharks by use of baited drum lines. The policy was implemented in 2014 to protect users of the marine environment from shark attack following the deaths of seven people on the Western Australian coastline in the years 2010 to 2013. National public demonstrations opposing the policy have attracted international attention to the issue.

Implementation[edit]

The use of 72 drum lines to bait and hook large sharks in Western Australian waters was implemented in January 2014. The state government, led by Premier Colin Barnett and then Fisheries Minister Troy Buswell,[3] developed the policy in response to a total of seven fatal attacks off WA in the years 2010 to 2013. The policy authorises and funds the deployment of drum lines near popular beaches: baited mid-water hooks designed to catch and kill great white sharks, bull sharks and tiger sharks. All sharks found hooked but still alive and measuring over 3 metres in length are to be killed and their bodies disposed of at sea.[4]

The principle behind the policy is to reduce the threat of shark attacks at popular coastal locations. It aims to achieve this by reducing the number of potentially life-threatening sharks by attracting them to baited hooks, rather than to human activity.

Two "marine monitored areas" have been established, stretching 1 km off shore from Quinns to Warnbro in the Perth metropolitan area, and Forest Beach to Cape Naturaliste and Prevelly in the state's south. Sharks larger than 3m found in these areas are to be hunted and killed by professional fishermen.[3]

Australia's Federal Environment Minister Greg Hunt granted the WA Government a temporary exemption from national environment laws protecting great white sharks, to allow the otherwise illegal acts of harming or killing the species.[4]

Ken Baston replaced Buswell as Fisheries minister on 11 December 2013[5] and is currently the minister responsible for the policy.

Cost[edit]

Leaked documents revealed that the fishermen are being paid $610,000 for 107 days of work setting and maintaining drum lines.[6] The government's suite of shark mitigation measures, which also include increased air patrols, have been estimated to cost $20 million.[7][8]

Support[edit]

The policy was supported by the ruling of the WA Supreme Court in which Justice James Edelman rejected an application from the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society for an immediate injunction to have the baited drumlines removed.[9]

The Environmental Protection Authority of Western Australia initially ruled out assessing the policy, stating in March 2014 that due to its limited timeframe and small scale the policy posed a negligible risk to the environment.[10] Paul Vogel, the chairman of the EPA, said that public opinion did not form the basis for an environmental impact assessment, and that "The risk assessment and the expert advice we got from competent, professional scientists in this area says there is a negligible risk to the target and non-target species of sharks from this proposal".[11] In April 2014, the Authority announced that it had set a Public Environmental Review level of assessment on shark policy, with a four-week public submission period.[12]

The policy also received the support of a group of surfers in Margaret River.[13]

Opposition[edit]

The policy has been heavily criticised by animal rights activists and their supporters, including those of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society,[14] Humane Society International,[4] Animals Australia,[15] Australian Marine Conservation Society,[4] Greenpeace Australia,[16] Animal Justice Party[17] and Surfrider Foundation.

Several marine scientists from the University of Western Australia have publicly expressed their concerns about the policy, including Jessica Meeuwig, director of the Centre for Marine Futures,[18] Shaun Collin, Professor and Research Fellow of the School of Animal Biology and the Oceans Institute,[19] and Ryan Kempster, shark biologist.[19]

The Australian Greens political party has also condemned the policy.[20][21]

Celebrities voicing their opposition to the cull include surfer Kelly Slater, golfer Greg Norman (aka The Shark), shark attack survivor and author Rodney Fox, swimmer and UNEP Patron of the Oceans Lewis Pugh, British comedian Ricky Gervais[22] and actor Stephen Fry. Entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson believes that the culling policy is likely to have an adverse effect on tourism.[23]

Opponents to the policy claim that baiting and culling sharks (particularly the great white shark, which is a federally protected species) to be inhumane, environmentally irresponsible, and ineffective at deterring shark attacks. Environmental concerns include the bycatch of other marine species, drowning of undersize sharks caught on the hooks and the impact on globally declining shark populations, particularly the great white shark, which is listed on the IUCN Red List as "vulnerable". The IUCN lists global threats to great white sharks to include targeted commercial and sports fisheries, protective beach meshing, and "media-fanned campaigns to kill Great White Sharks after a biting incident occurs".[24] Some people against the policy also believe drum lines have the potential to draw sharks towards popular beaches.

Protesters on Perth's Cottesloe Beach

Thousands of Australians protested on two national days of action, prior to and following the policy's implementation. The first was held on 4 January and the second on 1 February. Thousands gathered at events around Australia, with largest turnouts at Perth's Cottesloe Beach[25] and Manly, New South Wales. Smaller demonstrations occurred at locations along the New South Wales central coast as well as Adelaide, Melbourne, Hobart and Broome. Protests were also held in New Zealand and South Africa.[26]

WA Premier Colin Barnett has described opposition to the cull as "ludicrous and extreme".

Barnett has dismissed public opposition as "ludicrous and extreme",[27] and stated that the policy will remain in place for two years.[citation needed] The Leader of the Opposition Mark McGowan spoke against the shark cull policy at an anti-shark cull protest and on social media,[28][29] and Opposition Fisheries Spokesperson Dave Kelly has also publicly denounced the policy.[30]

Protester backlash[edit]

Queensland's shark control program manager Jeff Krause said "I'm surprised and disgusted at the extent that they (protesters in WA) are prepared to threaten and vandalise," referring to the threats that prompted at least one contractor to withdraw from the tender process in WA. "Everyone has got their opinion and they are entitled to it and I understand that people say it's the sharks' domain, but I also understand the senseless waste of human life and we have the capability to reduce that risk."[31]

Protesters have drawn criticism for going to extremes to show their displeasure with the policy, including threatening the lives of cabinet ministers and a fisherman's family. The premier's office was also targeted in an attack.[32]


History[edit]

Shark attack fatalities in Western Australia by decade (1850-2014)

1960s[edit]

In the 1960s, two fatal shark attacks were reported in Western Australia. Mr Groves was taken after falling overboard while boating off De Grey River. His body was never recovered, but shark attack was believed to be the cause of death. Robert Bartle was taken while spearfishing in Jurien Bay on 19 August 1967.[33]

1968-1994[edit]

No fatal shark attacks were recorded in Western Australia during this 27 year period.[33]

1995-1997[edit]

In the 1990s, two fatal shark attacks were recorded in Western Australia. The victims were David Alan Weir (1995) and Werner Schonhofer (1997).[33]

2000s[edit]

During the 2000s, four fatal shark attacks were recorded in Western Australia. The victims were Ken Crew (2000), Bradley Adrian Smith (2004), Geoffrey Brazier (2005) and Brian Guest (2008).[33]

2010[edit]

In August 2010, 31-year-old Nicholas Edwards was killed by a shark while surfing at Cowaramup Beach near Gracetown.[34] A witness said he saw a large group of seals swim by moments before the attack.[35]

2011[edit]

In September 2011, 21-year-old Kyle Burden was killed near Bunker Bay in WA's south-west. He was attacked by a shark while body boarding.[34]

On 10 October 2011, 64-year-old Bryn Martin was killed at Perth's Cottesloe Beach. He had been swimming to a buoy 500m offshore as part of a daily routine. It was assumed that he was taken by a shark after his torn bathers were recovered. Marks on the bathers were believed to be consistent with the teeth of a great white shark.[36]

In October 2011, 32-year-old US citizen George Thomas Wainwright was attacked by a shark while diving and spear-fishing in Little Armstrong Bay off Rottnest Island. The attack occurred 500m offshore, where no patrols were operating. Within an hour, Fisheries Minister Norman Moore announced plans to catch and destroy the shark.[34] Six drum lines were immediately deployed in the area and discussions of possible future shark culling measures commenced.[37]

2012[edit]

On 1 April 2012, 33-year-old Peter Kurmann was taken by a 4m shark likely to have been a great white. He was diving about 1.6 km off Stratham Beach in Geographe Bay, 230 km south of Perth.[38]

In July 2012, 24-year-old Ben Linden was attacked while surfing at "Dolphins" near Wedge Island, 135 km north of Perth. The bite marks in his surfboard indicated that the shark was likely to have been a great white.[39]

In August 2012, the results of a Bond University study comparing potential shark hazard mitigation measures for WA were published. The report recommended against the use of drum lines.[40]

2013[edit]

In October 2013, the government announced a plan to trial a shark-proof enclosure at Old Dunsborough Beach near Busselton.[41] A similar barrier was installed at Coogee Beach, south of Fremantle in December 2013.[42] The State Government provided $165,370 to the City of Busselton to run the trial and test the suitability of beach enclosures as a shark protection measure. The Old Dunsborough enclosure was installed in January 2014.[43]

The government followed the recommendations of the 2012 Bond University study, and avoided the use of conventional shark nets, which are known to trap and kill various marine life.

On 23 November 2013, 35-year-old Chris Boyd was attacked by a shark, believed to be a great white. He was surfing at the popular surf break Umbries off Gracetown. A "catch and kill" order was issued to permit the destruction of the shark.[44]

In December 2013, more than 100 shark scientists signed an open letter to the WA Government calling for non-lethal measures to be used to protect beach-goers, accompanied by increased investment in shark research and monitoring. The letter included the statement: "we do not support the proposed use of lethal shark population control measures such as drum lines or targeted fishing of sharks."[45]

2014[edit]

The first shark was killed under the newly implemented policy on 26 January 2014 near Dunsborough.[46] It was a tiger shark that took a baited drum line hook. It was discovered alive and was subsequently shot and killed.[47] Images of the incident were captured and a "social media storm" ensued. Adding to the controversy, the contractor responsible for the drum lines in the South West originally mis-identified the shark as a Bull Shark, then later the State Government claimed it to be a black tip reef shark.[48] Barnett's welfare was subsequently threatened and his office vandalised leading to him take increased personal security measures.[6] A "direct action" team of anonymous activists claimed to have removed bait from drum lines, while the government announced that any individual prosecuted for interfering with the lines or their operation could face up to a year in prison and a $25,000 fine. Groups could be fined $50,000.[49] As of 31 January, no-one has claimed responsibility for the removal of baits from lines, despite baits being found to have gone missing from hooks.

On 28 January, activists from Animal Rescue Team and West Australians for Shark Conservation claimed to have recorded video footage of the rescue and release of stingrays caught on the newly set drum lines. The activists challenged the government for downplaying or dismissing the issue of bycatch on drum lines. A fisherman manning the lines said that he believed the hooks were "too large for rays, dolphins or turtles to be caught on".[50] Drum lines deployed in other jurisdictions have been shown to catch dolphins, whales and sea turtles,[51] all of which are fully protected in Australian waters.

During the three weeks following the policy's implementation, 66 sharks were caught. Almost 75 per cent of the sharks caught on drum lines were under the target three metre size. Of the 49 undersized sharks, nine were found dead on the hooks and 40 were released alive. Fisheries officers patrolling beaches in Perth and a contractor in the South-West killed 17 sharks longer than three metres. Figures released on 18 February by Fisheries Minister Ken Baston showed 95 per cent of sharks caught were tiger sharks – a total of 63 animals. According to the State Government's SharkSmart website, tiger sharks "may only have been responsible for one shark bite in WA since 1980".[52] Two Mako sharks have also been found dead on the drum lines.[53]

On 20 February, the State Government denied allegations that a dolphin had been caught on a drum line. The animal was covered by a tarpaulin, a management response that activists had not seen previously. The Government stated that the animal was a tiger shark.[54]

In February, over 10,000 responses were received by the Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority in response to the catch-and-kill shark policy.[53]

For the summer-autumn 2014 season, drum lines remained in place until 30 April 2014.[55] During this period, a total of 172 sharks were caught. Fifty of those were Tiger sharks greater than 3 metres in length, which were then destroyed. None of the sharks caught were great whites. Eight other animals were also captured, including stingrays.[56]

Shark threat management in other jurisdictions[edit]

Queensland and New South Wales (Australia)[edit]

Graph of sharks caught in Queensland's shark control program (by type) July 1997- June 2014

The technique of setting drum lines is also used in Queensland and New South Wales, where they have been used in association with shark nets. Before 1962, there were 82 recorded attacks. Since the policy was implemented there has only been one recorded death, at Amity Point in January 2006. 21-year-old Sarah Kate Whiley was attacked by as many as three sharks in Rainbow Channel. The attack occurred in an unpatrolled area.[57] Queensland Fisheries Minister John McVeigh has described the longevity of the netting and drum line program as being "a good indicator that it had the support of most Queenslanders".[31]

The baited drum lines attract sharks from within a 3–5 km radius, preventing sharks from reaching swimming areas. They also capture less bycatch than shark nets.[58] Darren Kindleysides, director of the Australian Marine Conservation Society, has acknowledged that nets in Queensland have worked, "but at huge cost to whales, dolphins and turtles".[59]

South Australia[edit]

In South Australia, spotter planes and a small number of patrolled swimming beaches are the only methods used to mitigate against shark attack. On 6 February 2014, Port Lincoln tuna "baron" Hagen Stehr expressed his support for the Western Australian shark cull. He also stated that his business' spotter planes had observed increases in great white shark numbers off the west coast of Eyre Peninsula. One of the wealthiest men in South Australia, he acknowledged that his tuna farming operations attract some sharks. He told The Advertiser that he believed "selected culling of sharks is a must. It is crazy stuff to put them under protection so it becomes a major offence to kill them."[60] Critics of Stehr's stance note that a cull of sharks in SA would be beneficial to his business, as Tuna is a major source of food for sharks. Shark attack survivor turned conservationist Rodney Fox has spoken out against the cull, saying "When a shark attacks someone, we go 'the shark needs to be punished'. They don't live under our laws. It's a different world down there and it should be treated differently."[61]

There have been a total of 82 shark attacks in South Australia since 1836, including 20 fatalities.[62]

KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa)[edit]

In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa a combination of shark nets and drum lines are used to mitigate the risk of shark attack. The region's shark attack statistics primarily reflect the effectiveness of netting, as drum lines were only introduced recently, following their successful use for over 40 years in Queensland, Australia. The Board states "Both types of equipment function by reducing shark numbers in the vicinity of protected beaches, thereby lowering the probability of encounters between sharks and people at those beaches." At Durban, from 1943 until the installation of shark nets in 1952, there were seven fatal attacks. No fatalities at Durban and no incidents resulting in serious injury have occurred since nets were installed there. At other protected beaches in KwaZulu-Natal, from 1940 until most of those beaches were first netted in the 1960s, there were 16 fatal attacks and 11 resulting in serious injury. In the three decades since nets were installed, there have been no fatal attacks at those beaches and only four resulting in serious injury.[63] It is unclear whether more sharks caught on drum lines survive when compared to shark net captures in KwaZulu-Natal, but the lines have shown reduced non-target species bycatch. Drum lines set in the region are baited with 500 grams of meat per hook and are believed to only attract sharks from several hundred metres away.[64]

Seasonal and temporary bathing bans and "discretionary bathing" are additional strategies employed in the region. Bans often follow net displacement or damage due to storms or swell, or net removal due to whale stranding. Nets are also removed during the annual sardine run to limit the degree of bycatch during the event. Pressure from the tourism industry to reinstate nets during the sardine run has previously proven "disastrous", resulting in large numbers of shark and dolphin mortalities.[63]

Hawaii (USA)[edit]

In Hawaii, a systematic shark cull took place between 1959 and 1976. During this time, 4,668 sharks were shot at a cost of US $300,000. Although the Hawaiian resident and tourist human population increased dramatically, the number of shark attacks remained constant (in contrast to Florida, USA where the number of shark attacks has increased in line with human population increases) and the program was not considered to be a success.[65] In recent years, the number of shark attacks in Hawaii has increased.[66]

Recife (Brazil)[edit]

A sign warns of elevated shark attack risk at a beach in Recife, Brazil.

Drumlines have been used successfully in Recife, Brazil where shark attacks have been reduced by around 97%.[67] Sharks are initially caught on baited drum lines (similar to those in WA). Once captured, the sharks (if found alive) are humanely handled and tagged.[68] They are then relocated offshore and their movements are tracked. The project is known as the Shark Monitoring Program of Recife (SMPR). A report assessing the program's performance was published in 2013. It stated: "Overall, the SMPR seems to be less detrimental than shark meshing strategies while clearly contributing for enhancing bather safety; thus, it may provide an effective, ecologically balanced tool for assisting in shark attack mitigation."[69]

Alternative strategies[edit]

Beach patrols and spotter aircraft are commonly used alternatives to netting or deploying drum lines to protect popular swimming beaches. Opponents of the cull are calling for a variety of non-lethal alternatives to baited drum lines to be implemented as substitute safety measures.[70] These include more comprehensive shark tagging efforts and associated tracking and notification systems, capture and translocation of sharks to offshore waters, research into shark feeding and foraging behaviour,[71] public shark threat education programs and encouraging higher risk user groups (surfers, spear-fishers and divers) to use personal shark protection technology.

Personal shark protection[edit]

Examples of personal shark protection technology include wearing or attaching electronic shark deterrents such as Shark Shield to surfboards,[72] or wearing interruption patterned or camouflage wetsuits to reduce swimmers' visibility to sharks when in the water.[73]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The government did not use the term cull in its initial statement,[1] and has denied that it is a cull.[2]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ a b Clarke, Tim (11 December 2013). "Large sharks in beach 'kill zones' will be hunted". Perth Now. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d Arup, Tom (21 January 2014), "Greg Hunt grants WA exemption for shark cull plan", The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media), archived from the original on 22 January 2014 
  5. ^ "Barnett reshuffles WA cabinet". Yahoo 7 News. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2014. [dead link]
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  65. ^ http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/2202
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  71. ^ "Thousands protest over shark cull in Australia" Telegraph, UK (2014-02-01).
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External links[edit]