Western Australian state election, 2008

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Western Australian state election, 2008
Western Australia
2005 ←
6 September 2008 (2008-09-06) → 2013

All 59 seats in the Western Australian Legislative Assembly
and all 36 seats in the Western Australian Legislative Council.
  First party Second party Third party
  Colin Barnett (formal) crop.jpg Alan Carpenter (cropped).jpg
Leader Colin Barnett Alan Carpenter Brendon Grylls
Party Liberal Labor National
Leader since 6 August 2008 (2008-08-06) 25 January 2006 (2006-01-25) 21 June 2005 (2005-06-21)
Leader's seat Cottesloe Willagee Central Wheatbelt
Last election 18 seats 32 seats 5 seats
Seats won 24 seats 28 seats 4 seats
Seat change Increase6 Decrease4 Decrease1
Percentage 38.39% 35.84% 4.87%
Swing Increase2.76 Decrease6.05 Increase1.18

Premier before election

Alan Carpenter
Labor

Resulting Premier

Colin Barnett
Liberal

A general election was held in the state of Western Australia on Saturday 6 September 2008 to elect 59 members to the Legislative Assembly and 36 members to the Legislative Council. The incumbent centre-left Australian Labor Party government, in power since the 2001 election and led since 25 January 2006 by Premier Alan Carpenter, was defeated by the centre-right Liberal Party opposition, led by Opposition Leader Colin Barnett since 6 August 2008.

The election resulted in a hung parliament with no party gaining a majority. Labor was two seats short of a majority in the expanded legislature. Ultimately, the Liberals were able to form a coalition government with the WA Nationals, supported by three independents. While both parties agreed to National demands that at least 25 percent of mining proceeds go to regional projects, the Nationals ultimately went with the Liberals. According to Nationals leader Brendon Grylls, a Labor-National coalition would have required the support of Green support to get mining legislation passed in the Legislative Council. The coalition agreement gave National Party ministers "the right to exempt [themselves] from Cabinet and vote against an issue on the floor of the Parliament if it's against the wishes of the people [they] represent,"[1] an explicit rejection of the pattern of former non-Labor coalition agreements under which the Nationals had been seen as virtual co-owners of Liberal policies.

The election was the first to be held since a major electoral redistribution was implemented in 2007. This redistribution involved significant changes to the geographic distribution of parliamentary seats and regions in Western Australia, and brought the state into line with the rest of Australia in adopting one vote one value for the lower house.

The election was called earlier than expected by Alan Carpenter, who requested the Governor to dissolve parliament on 7 August 2008.[2]

Results[edit]

Legislative Assembly[edit]

Western Australian state election, 6 September 2008[3][4]
Legislative Assembly
<< 20052013 >>

Enrolled Voters 1,330,399
Votes Cast 1,150,497 Turnout 86.48% –3.36%
Informal Votes 61,200 Informal 5.32% +0.08%
Summary of votes by party
Party Primary Votes % Swing Seats Change
  Liberal 418,208 38.39 +2.76 24 + 6
  Labor 390,339 35.84 –6.05 28 – 4
  Greens WA 129,827 11.92 +4.35 0 ± 0
  WA Nationals 53,086 4.87 +1.18 4 – 1
  Christian Democrats 28,079 2.58 –0.36 0 ± 0
  Family First 21,204 1.95 –0.08 0 ± 0
  CEC 1,161 0.11 +0.02 0 ± 0
  Independent 47,353 4.35 +0.19 3 + 1
Total 1,089,257     59  
Two-Party Preferred
  Liberal/National 564,490 51.85% +4.13%
  Labor 524,149 48.15% –4.13%

Legislative Council[edit]

Western Australian state election, 6 September 2008
Legislative Council

Enrolled Voters 1,330,399
Votes Cast 1,151,482 Turnout 86.55% –3.45%
Informal Votes 32,643 Informal 2.83% –0.35%
Summary of votes by party
Party Primary Votes % Swing Seats Change
  Liberal 443,064 39.60 +2.48 16 + 1
  Labor 404,389 36.14 –7.21 11 – 5
  Greens WA 123,942 11.08 +3.56 4 + 2
  WA Nationals 59,505 5.32 +3.13 5 + 4
  Family First 28,149 2.52 +0.51 0 ± 0
  Christian Democrats 25,962 2.32 +0.04 0 ± 0
  One Nation 7,012 0.63 –0.96 0 ± 0
  Daylight Saving Party 6,806 0.61 +0.61 0 ± 0
  CEC 2,975 0.27 +0.21 0 ± 0
  New Country Party 555 0.05 –0.26 0 ± 0
  Independent 16,480 1.47 -2.11 0 ± 0
Total 1,118,839     36  

Summary of results[edit]

Popular vote
Liberal
  
38.39%
Labor
  
35.84%
Greens
  
11.92%
National
  
4.87%
Others
  
8.98%
% of the seats won
Liberal/National
  
47.46%
Labor
  
47.46%
Others
  
5.08%

Seats changing hands[edit]

Seat Pre-2008 Swing Post-2008
Party Member Margin Margin Member Party
Albany   Liberal notional 2.3 2.5 0.2 Peter Watson Labor  
Bunbury   Labor notional 0.9 12.6 11.7 John Castrilli Liberal  
Darling Range   Labor notional 0.8 6.3 5.6 Tony Simpson Liberal  
Jandakot   Labor notional – new seat 3.6 5.5 1.8 Joe Francis Liberal  
Kalgoorlie   Liberal Matt Birney 9.6* 53.6 3.6** John Bowler Independent  
Kingsley   Labor Judy Hughes 0.1 4.6 4.5 Andrea Mitchell Liberal  
Moore   Liberal Gary Snook 2.8 5.9 3.1 Grant Woodhams National  
Morley   Labor notional – new seat 9.9 10.8 0.9 Ian Britza Liberal  
Mount Lawley   Labor notional – new seat 5.9 8.1 2.2 Michael Sutherland Liberal  
Ocean Reef   Labor notional – new seat 1.6 6.0 4.4 Albert Jacob Liberal  
Riverton   Labor Tony McRae 2.1 2.2 0.2 Mike Nahan Liberal  
Southern River   Labor Paul Andrews 5.1 6.8 1.6 Peter Abetz Liberal  
Swan Hills   Labor Jaye Radisich 3.6 7.1 3.5 Frank Alban Liberal  
Wanneroo   Labor Dianne Guise 6.1 6.9 0.7 Paul Miles Liberal  
  • Members in italics did not contest their seat at this election.
  • * Kalgoorlie's first margin figure is Liberal vs. Labor
  • ** Kalgoorlie's second margin figure is Independent vs. National

Background[edit]

Electoral changes[edit]

The 2008 election takes place with entirely new boundaries determined in a redistribution finalised on 29 October 2007 by the Western Australian Electoral Commission. Prior to the redistribution, the Electoral Act 1907, which governs elections in the state, specified that the metropolitan region which includes Perth and its suburbs, was to be divided into 34 Assembly districts or 60% of the seats, while the rest of the state was to be divided into 23 or 40% of the seats. However, at the 2006 census, taken on 8 August 2006, 73.76% of Western Australians lived in the metropolitan region.[5] This meant that each member of the Legislative Assembly, as at 30 September 2007, was representing either 28,519 metropolitan voters or 14,551 country voters.[6]

One vote one value had long been sought by the Australian Labor Party, that party claiming to be disadvantaged by the familiar reality that country constituencies have tended to elect non-Labor members. The Burke Labor government (1983–1988), with the conditional support of the National Party, managed to achieve limited reform—through the Acts Amendment (Electoral Reform) Act 1987—in increasing the metropolitan quota from 29 to 34, redesigning the Legislative Council (or Upper House) into a Senate-style body with six uneven multi-member seats filled by a system of STV proportional representation, and creating a permanent, funded Electoral Commission as a body fully independent from Parliament and the executive.[7] Between Burke's retirement from politics in 1988 and Labor's election loss five years later, the government faced a hostile upper house, considerable distractions by way of the WA Inc royal commission and, after 1991, was a minority government unable to achieve further electoral reform.

Following Labor's win at the 2001 election, the new premier Geoff Gallop and attorney-general Jim McGinty were committed to implementing 'one vote, one value'. By this time, all other states and territories had eliminated electoral malapportionment.[8] Unlike their predecessors, they could count on the support of half of the upper-house members for passage of the electoral legislation but, as the proposed legislation involved constitutional change, an absolute majority of the members was necessary. The Government went to the High Court in 2003 to determine whether the Legislative Council president's casting vote could be used to obtain the majority, but the High Court answered that it could not.[9] Change occurred, however, when the Liberal Party, which staunchly opposed the reform, failed to preselect one of their North Metropolitan MLCs, Alan Cadby, in a bid to get Peter Collier into the Legislative Council at the 2005 election.[10][11] Cadby resigned from the Liberal Party and completed his term as an Independent, consenting to Labor's electoral legislation with some amendments. On 20 May 2005, just before newly elected upper-house members were to take their places, the Electoral Amendment and Repeal Act 2005 (No.1 of 2005) passed.[12]

The passage of the Electoral Reform (Electoral Funding) Act 2006 into law on 26 October 2006 means that, for the first time, candidates, parties and Legislative Council groups will be able to receive public funding based on their performance in terms of votes at the election as well as a refund of their nomination deposit if they receive over 4% of the primary vote, as is the case in several other states and in federal elections. The rate for the 2008 election has been set at $1.56888 per vote.[13] The legislation, which was Attorney-General Jim McGinty's second attempt to introduce the measure, was explicitly based on the 1992 reforms of Queensland's Electoral Act and was intended to improve accountability and increase candidates' immunity, or perceived immunity, from outside influences.[14] Prior to the 2008 election, candidates could receive a refund of their nomination deposit only if they achieved 10% of the total primary vote. Earlier similar legislation had failed in November 2003, despite an in-principle agreement with then opposition leader Colin Barnett, owing to Liberal backbench opposition and a campaign against the proposal by the West Australian newspaper, which termed the measure as a 'poll tax'.[15][16]

The electoral system[edit]

The Western Australian Legislative Assembly has a total of 59 seats, up from 57 in the last parliament. The last increase in seats, from 55 to 57, occurred before the 1983 election. Since the enactment of the Electoral Act 1907, each seat is filled by a single member selected using instant-runoff preferential voting. In order for a valid vote to be cast, voters must number all candidates on the ballot paper in the order of their preference as with Australian House of Representatives elections. At the election, 42 of the seats are located in the metropolitan area, 12 in the Agricultural and South West regions, and 5 in the Mining and Pastoral region in the north and east of the state. Seats in the Mining and Pastoral region are permitted to be under quota on account of their significant geographical size, but all other seats have a quota of 21,350 voters with a maximum variance of 10%.

The Western Australian Legislative Council, sometimes referred to as the 'upper house', consists of 36 members, with 6 elected from each of 6 multi-member regions (also known as constituencies).[17] The system used for voting is known as Single transferable vote, which is a variant of the proportional representation system. The ballot paper (voting form), traditionally printed on pink coloured paper, is divided into two sections. The voter casts a vote in either one of two ways – by writing the numeral "1" on the left hand side corresponding to the party of choice, or by numbering all candidates on the right hand side of the form according to his/her preference. If the voter chooses the first method, the vote is then counted according to the publicly known preference listing for the party chosen by the voter.[18] The same voting system is used for electing members to the Australian Senate.

Members of the Legislative Council, unlike those in the Legislative Assembly, hold their seats for a fixed term of four years. They take their seats in the house on 22 May following the date of their election. The Legislative Council is not dissolved prior to the end of each four year term, even if a general election is held several months prior to the end of the term.[19] For this reason, members elected to the Legislative Council in the 2008 election did not take their seats until May 2009.

Counting the votes[edit]

More than 100,000 electors (7.5% of the electorate) cast their votes prior to election day, either by post or in person.[20] Checking the eligibility of these votes commences 3 days prior to election day at the Count Centre in Fremantle. After the close of polls at 6:00 pm, ballot boxes are emptied and a provisional count of ordinary votes is conducted at each of the 800 polling places.[21] Preliminary results are telephoned to District and Regional Returning Officers, who forward aggregated results to the Tally Room at ABC's East Perth studios.

Election night results are provisional for several reasons. Firstly, there is insufficient time to conduct a full distribution of voter preferences in those Legislative Assembly seats that require it. The official count for all Assembly districts does not commence till after the closing date for postal votes which is the Thursday following the election.[22] Secondly, only ticket votes and first-preference votes for candidates on non-ticket ballots for the Legislative Council are counted on election night, providing only a notional distribution for each region.[23] The high proportion of early votes cast in this election along with the large number of absentee votes cast on election day (caused by elector confusion arising from the recent changes to electoral boundaries) was expected to delay the determination of final results, particularly in closely fought seats.

Legislative Council ballot papers and all declaration (absentee and provisional) votes cast on election day are delivered to the Count Centre on Sunday where the official count of these votes continues for 7–10 days. Ticket votes are sorted (ticket/non-ticket/informal) then manually counted, while preferences on non-ticket ballots are entered into a computer database under the scrutiny of party officials.[23] The ticket vote results are added to the full preference results and the final result determined. Finally, all Legislative Assembly votes are officially counted by each District Returning Officer who then declares (announces) the successful candidate for the particular district.[24]

Key dates[edit]

  • Issue of writ: 6 pm, 7 August
  • Nominations open: 8 August
  • Close of nominations: 12 noon, 15 August
  • Close of rolls: 6 pm, 15 August
  • Postal voting commences: 18 August
  • Pre-poll voting commences: 19 August
  • Polling day: 6 September
  • Return of writ: On or before 4 November

Candidates[edit]

For a list of competing candidates and parties, see Candidates of the Western Australian state election, 2008.

Polling[edit]

Newspoll polling was conducted via random telephone number selection in city and country areas. Sampling sizes normally consist of around 800–900 electors, with the 10 – 14 August poll consisting of 1088 electors, and the 2 – 4 September poll consisting of 1802 electors. The margin of error was around ±3.5 percent, while the 2 – 4 September poll had a declared margin of error of ±2.3 percent.

Better Premier ratings
Date Labor
Carpenter
Liberal
Barnett
Uncommitted
2008 election
2 – 4 Sep 2008 48% 35% 17%
10 – 14 Aug 2008 49% 31% 20%
Apr – Jun 2008 64% 14%1 22%
Jan – Mar 2008 61% 12%1 27%
Oct – Dec 2007 63% 13%2 24%
Jul – Sep 2007 59% 14%2 27%
Apr – Jun 2007 59% 14%2 27%
Jan – Mar 2007 63% 14%2 23%
Oct – Dec 2006 54% 17%2 29%
Jul – Sep 2006 52% 15%2 33%
Apr – Jun 2006 58% 12%2 30%
Jan – Mar 2006 56% 14%4 30%
Oct – Dec 2005 51%3 25%4 24%
2005 election
23 – 24 Feb 2005 58%3 27%5 15%
Polling conducted by Newspoll and published in The Australian.
1 Buswell, 2 Omodei, 3 Gallop, 4 Birney, 5 Barnett
Legislative Assembly opinion polling
Primary vote 2PP vote
Date ALP Lib Nat Grn Oth ALP Lib/Nat
2008 election 35.8% 38.4% 4.9% 11.9% 9.0% 48.1% 51.9%
2 – 4 Sep 2008 35% 37% 6% 12% 10% 50% 50%
10 – 14 Aug 2008 42% 37% 5% 10% 6% 51% 49%
Apr – Jun 2008 41% 31% 4% 16% 8% 54% 46%
Jan – Mar 2008 42% 35% 3% 12% 8% 53% 47%
Oct – Dec 2007 40% 41% 4% 8% 7% 49% 51%
Jul – Sep 2007 44% 38% 5% 6% 7% 51% 49%
Apr – Jun 2007 44% 35% 3% 8% 10% 54% 46%
Jan – Mar 2007 39% 35% 4% 10% 12% 51% 49%
Oct – Dec 2006 38% 40% 2% 7% 13% 49% 51%
Jul – Sep 2006 42% 37% 3% 6% 12% 52% 48%
Apr – Jun 2006 42% 37% 3% 4% 14% 52% 48%
Jan – Mar 2006 42% 35% 4% 8% 11% 53% 47%
Oct – Dec 2005 37% 39% 4% 5% 15% 48% 52%
2005 election 41.9% 35.6% 3.7% 7.6% 11.2% 52.3% 47.7%
23 – 24 Feb 2005 45% 36.5% 3% 7% 8.5% 54% 46%
Polling conducted by Newspoll and published in The Australian.


References[edit]

  1. ^ ABC Online (14 September 2008). "Nationals hand WA election win to the Liberals". Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  2. ^ "WA voters go to polls on September 6". The Age (Australia). 7 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2008. 
  3. ^ "Parliament of Western Australia, Assembly election". University of Western Australia. 
  4. ^ Antony Green (March 2009). "2008 Western Australian State Election - Analysis of Results". Western Australian Parliamentary Library. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  5. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Perth (Statistical Division)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 15 January 2008. 
    * Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Western Australia". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 15 January 2008. 
  6. ^ Western Australian Electoral Commission (30 September 2007). "September enrolment statistics". Retrieved 15 January 2008. [dead link]
  7. ^ Black, David (December 1987). "Australian Political Chronicle: January–June 1987". Australian Journal of Politics and History 33 (3): 300–301. ISSN 0004-9522.  See also Rumley, Dennis (April 1985). "The evaluation of electoral redistributions: the case of Western Australia". Australian Geographical Studies 23 (1): 105–114. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8470.1985.tb00481.x. 
  8. ^ Green, Antony (17 November 2004). "WA: A Peculiar Electoral System". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 7 August 2008.  (description of the zonal electoral system prior to the enactment of the 'Electoral Amendment and Repeal Act 2005')
  9. ^ "High Court dismisses WA vote appeal". ABC Online. 13 November 2003. Retrieved 13 November 2003. 
  10. ^ "2 June 2004". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) (Western Australian Legislative Assembly): pages 3288–3289. 
  11. ^ Phillips, Harry; Kerr, Liz (December 2004). "Australian Political Chronicle: January–June 2004". Australian Journal of Politics and History 50 (4): 614. ISSN 0004-9522. 
  12. ^ Mason, Graham (30 April 2005). "Cadby: I'll back vote reform". The West Australian. p. 4. 
  13. ^ Western Australian Electoral Commission (7 August 2008). "Electoral Funding". Retrieved 20 August 2008. 
  14. ^ "23 August 2006". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) (Western Australian Legislative Assembly): pages 5079–5083. 
  15. ^ Hickman, Belinda (5 November 2003). "Public funding of parties really not that frightening". The Australian. p. 6. 
  16. ^ Pennells, Steve (11 November 2003). "Poll tax dumped but Liberals keep Barnett". The West Australian. 
  17. ^ Western Australian Electoral Commission (11 June 2008). "Final Boundaries". Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  18. ^ Western Australian Electoral Commission (28 August 2008). "Marking Ballot Papers Correctly". Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  19. ^ Parliament of Western Australia (2008). "Legislative Council". Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  20. ^ WAEC (1 September 2008). "Media Release: Postal voting hits unprecedented levels". Retrieved 14 September 2008. [dead link]
  21. ^ WAEC (1 September 2008). "Media Release: All in readiness for single largest organised event in Western Australia this year". Retrieved 14 September 2008. [dead link]
  22. ^ WAEC (8 August 2008). "A Guide for Candidates – Legislative Assembly". Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  23. ^ a b WAEC (8 August 2008). "A Guide for Candidates – Legislative Council". pp. 19–20. Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  24. ^ WAEC (February 2006). 2005 State General Election – Election Report. p. 22. Retrieved 14 September 2008. 

External links[edit]