Indo-Aryan languages

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Indo-Aryan
Indic
Geographic
distribution:
South Asia
Linguistic classification: Indo-European
Proto-language: Vedic Sanskrit
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-5: inc
Linguasphere: 59= (phylozone)
Glottolog: indo1321[1]

Geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages. (Urdu is included under Hindi. Romani, Domari, and Lomavren language are outside the scope of the map.)

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent, spoken largely by Indo-Aryan people. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Indo-Aryan speakers form about one half of all Indo-European speakers (approx 1.5 of 3 billion) and more than half of Indo-European languages recognized by Ethnologue.

The largest in terms of native speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 240 million), Bengali (about 230 million), Punjabi (about 110 million),[2] Marathi (about 70 million), Gujarati (about 45 million), Bhojpuri (about 40 million), Oriya (about 30 million), Sindhi (about 20 million), Sinhala (about 16 million), Nepali (about 14 million), and Assamese (about 13 million) with a total number of native speakers of more than 900 million.

History[edit]

Indian subcontinent[edit]

Old Indo-Aryan[edit]

The earliest evidence of the group is from Vedic Sanskrit, the proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages which is used in the ancient preserved texts of the Indian subcontinent, the foundational canon of Hinduism known as the Vedas. The Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni is of similar age to the language of the Rigveda (and almost identical), but the only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords.

In about the 4th century BCE, the Vedic Sanskrit language was codified and standardized by the grammarian Panini, called "Classical Sanskrit" by convention.

Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)[edit]

Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardha Magadhi, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan dialects. "Apabhramsa" is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the Sravakachar of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book.

The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim invasions of India in the 13th–16th centuries. Under the flourishing Mughal empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects.

The two largest languages that formed from Apabhramsa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Gujarati, Oriya, Marathi, and Punjabi.

New Indo-Aryan[edit]

Dialect continuum[edit]

The Indic languages of Northern India (that includes Assam Valley as for the language Assamese) and Pakistan form a dialect continuum. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskrit-ized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar to Rajasthan. The Indo-Aryan prakrits also gave rise to languages like Gujarati, Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Nepali, Marathi, and Punjabi, which are not considered to be part of this dialect continuum.

Standard Hindi-Urdu[edit]

In the Hindi-speaking areas, the prestige dialect was long Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by Khari Boli–based Hindustani. This state of affairs continued until the Partition of India in 1947, when Hindi continued as an official language of India and Pakistan but renamed Urdu in Pakistan. In contemporary times, there is a continuum of Hindi–Urdu, with heavily-Persianised Urdu at one end and Sanskritised Hindi at the other, although the basic grammar remains identical. Most speakers of Hindustani speak something in between these extremes.

Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni[edit]

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general [3]

Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha,~ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen< Heidelberg 1986-2000; Vol. II 358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaiašaratha, Vedic Tvastr "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).

Romani language[edit]

The Romani language is usually included in the Central Indo-Aryan languages.[4] Romani is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case – both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest.

There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language.

Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882–1888) showed that the Romani language is to be a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not a Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Romani could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000.

The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, and its reduction to just a two-way case system, nominative vs. oblique. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation. Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this old system even today.

It is argued that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have been cited as evidence that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, perhaps even as late as the tenth century.

Classification[edit]

There can be no definitive enumeration of Indic languages, as their dialects merge into one another. Named languages are therefore social constructs as much as objective ones. The major ones are illustrated here; for the details, see the dedicated articles.

The classification follows Masica (1991) and Kausen (2006).

Dardic[edit]

The relation of this family to other Indo-Aryan languages is unclear; these languages have very different grammatical structure from that of the Classical Indo-Aryan languages. The representative languages are:

Pashayi, Khowar, Kohistani, Shina language, Kashmiri

Northern Zone[edit]

Central Pahari
Garhwali, Kumauni
Eastern Pahari
Nepali (Gurkali), etc.

North-Western Zone[edit]

Dogri–Kangri region
Dogri–Kangri (Western Pahari)
Dogri, Kangri, Mandeali, etc.
Punjabi (Eastern Punjabi)
Lahnda (Western Punjabi)
Sindhi

Western Zone[edit]

Rajasthani
Marwari, Rajasthani
Gujarati
Bhil
Khandeshi

Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi)[edit]

Indic, Central Zone
Western Hindi
Hindustani, etc.
Eastern Hindi
Fijian Hindi, Chhattisgarhi, etc.
DomariRomani[5]

Eastern Zone (Magadhan)[edit]

These languages evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from eastern Middle Indo-Aryan dialects such as the Magadhi Prakrit, Pali (the language of Gautama Buddha and the major language of Buddhism), and Ardhamagadhi ("Half-Magadhi") from a dialect or group of dialects that were close, but not identical to, Vedic and Classical Sanskrit.[6]

Bihari
Bhojpuri (incl. Caribbean Hindustani), Maithili, etc.
Tharu
Oriya
Halbic
Bengali–Assamese

Southern Zone languages[edit]

These group of languages developed from Maharashtri. It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.

Marathi

Konkani

Insular Indic
Sinhalese, Maldivian

The insular languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages.

Unclassified[edit]

The following poorly attested languages are listed as unclassified within the Indo-Aryan family by Ethnologue 17:

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Stop positions[7][edit]

The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: labial, dental, "retroflex", palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The "retroflex" position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as [tʃ], Masica (1991:94) claims [cʃ] to be a more accurate rendering.

Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates [ts] instead of palatal, though some among them retain [tʃ] in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. /i/), before /j/, or when geminated. Alveolar as an additional point of articulation occurs in Marathi and Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (*t̪ɾ, > /tʃ/), and in Kashmiri. The addition of a retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed /q/), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > /s/, which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian, Sinhala (though there have been other sources of a secondary /ts/), and Southern Mewari.

Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which may lose its labial and velar articulations through spirantization in many positions (> [f, x]).

Stop series Language(s)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, //, /k/ Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Sindhi, Gujarati, Bihari, Maithili, Sinhala, Oriya, Standard Bengali, dialects of Rajasthani (except Lamani, NW. Marwari, S. Mewari)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, /k/ Nepali, E. and N. dialects of Bengali (Dacca, Maimansing, Rajshahi), dialects of Rajasthani (Lamani and NW. Marwari), Northern Lahnda's Kagani, Kumauni, many West Pahari dialects (not Chamba Mandeali, Jaunsari, or Sirmauri)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, /k/ Marathi, Konkani, certain W. Pahari dialects (Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi, Padari, Simla, Satlej, maybe Kulu), Kashmiri
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, //, /k/ Shina, Bashkarik, Gawarbati, Phalura, Kalasha, Khowar, Shumashti, Kanyawali, Pashai
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /k/ Rajasthani's S. Mewari
/p/, /t/, /k/ Assamese
/p/, /t/, //, /k/ Romani
//, /ʈ/ Chittagonian

Nasals[8][edit]

Sanskrit was noted as having five nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analyzed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals /m/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/, with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ([ɲj] > [ɲ] and [ŋɡ] > [ŋ]), though there are other sources as well.

Charts[edit]

The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, as presented in Masica (1991:106–107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.

Romani
p t (ts) k
b d (dz) ɡ ɡʲ
tʃʰ
m n
(f) s ʃ x ()
v (z) ʒ ɦ
ɾ l
j
Shina
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ ɖʐ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
(f) s ɽ
w j
Kashmiri
p ʈ ts k t̪ʲ ʈʲ tsʲ
b ɖ ɡ d̪ʲ ɖʲ ɡʲ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ pʲʰ t̪ʲʰ ʈʲʰ tsʲʰ kʲʰ
m n ɲ
s ʃ
z ɦ ɦʲ
ɾ l ɾʲ lʲ
w j
Saraiki
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
ɳʱ
s (ʃ) (x)
(z) (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Punjabi
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
m n ɳ ŋ
(f) s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
[w] [j]
Nepali
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Marwari
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ̪ ɗ ɠ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
w j
Hindustani
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
(f) s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɽʱ
([w]) ([j])
Assamese
p t k
b d g
ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s x
z ɦ
ɾ l
[w]
Bengali
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
[w] [j]
Gujarati
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
ɳʱ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Marathi
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Oriya
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l [ɽ] ɭ
[ɽʱ]
[w] [j]
Sinhala
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
ᵐb ⁿ̪d̪ ᶯɖ ᵑɡ
m n ɲ ŋ
s ɦ
ɾ l
w j

Language comparison chart[edit]

English Gujarati Marathi Hindi Bhojpuri Oriya Assamese Bengali Maithili Punjabi (Indian) Sinhala Nepali Kashmiri Vedic Sanskrit Pali Romani Saraiki (southern Punjabi)
beautiful sundar sundar sundar suhnar/khapsoorat sundara dhuniya, xundôr shundor sundar sohnā, sundar sonduru,sundara sundar sondar sundara sundaro shukar sohnra
blood lohi, khun, rakt rakt khun, rakta, lahu khoon, lahu rakta tez rôkto, lohit, lohu shonit khoon, lahoo le,rudiraya,ruhiru ragat ratth rakta, loha rat laho, rat
bread paũ, roṭlā chapāti, poli chapātī, roṭī roṭī pauroṭi pauruti (pau-)ruṭi roṭi roṭi paan paũroṭi tçhot rotika manro roti, ma(n)ri, dhodha
bring lā- ān- lā- lāv- nai an- an- ano anaah liya, laao ghenna lyaunu ann anayati anel Ghin aa, Lai aa
brother bhāi bhau, bandhu bhāī bhāī, bhaīyā bhai, bhaina bhaiti bhai bveer, bhai, Bhaji sahodaraya bhaai, dai, daju boéy bhatar, bandhu phral Bharaa, Veer, Lala
come āv- ye- ā- āv- ās-, ā- aanha, aanhok asho, ai ā- aao, aajaa enna aaunu vall agataah aagaccha avel Aao
cry raḍ- rad- ro- ro- kandu kand- kãd- roh, ronaa adanawa,handanawa runu wódun rodana, rava rodanam rovel rovanra
dark andhārũ andhar andhera anhār, anhera andhāra andhar, ôndhôkar ôndhokar, ãdhar haneraa anduru,andhakaraya andhyaro anyí-got andhakara andhakaaro kalo andhara
daughter chhokḍi leki beṭi dhiyā, beṭi, chhori jhiya ziyari, ziyek me-lok beti duva,du chhori koor putri chhai Dhee
day divas divas, din din din dina din din, dibôsh dina dinaya,dawasa din dóh divasa, dina dives denh, jehara
do kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kôr- koro kar- kar, karo karanna garnu kar karoti kerel karo
door kerel bārņu, darvājo darvāzā, kavad darvājā, kevadi darwāzā duar, dôrza dôrja, dur booha, darwaza dora,duwaraya dhoka darwaaz dvara, kapat vudar buha, dar
die mar- mar- mar-, mar jā- mu, mar ja mar- môr- môr, more ja-, mara ja- mar-, mar ja- maranaya,maruna marnu marun marana, glah merel marna
egg iṇḍũ aṇḍ anḍā anḍā anḍā, ḍimba koni ḍim āṇḍā bitharaya,biju andaa thool andaka anro anda, Aana
earth pruthvi pruthvi, dharani prithvī, dhartī, zamīn jamīn, pirthvi pruthibi prithibi prithibi, duniya jag, jahān, prithvi, zamin pruthuvi,polova,bhoomi,bima prithivi dharti pruthvi, mahi, bhuvana phuv zameen, dharti
eye āñkh netra, ḍoḷā āñkh āñkh ākhi soku chokh ainkh ākh asa,akshi,neth,nuwan aankha aéchh netra, lochna yakh akh
father bāp pitā bāp bāp, babuji, pitaji bāpa, bābā dêuta baba, abba, bap bāp, pitā piya,thatha buwā, pitā mol pitra, janak dad abba, piyoo
fear bik, ḍar bhiti, bhaya ḍar ḍar ḍara bhoi bhôe, ḍôr bhay dhar baya,biya dar bhaya, bhi dar, trash darr
finger āñgḷi bote anguli, ungli anguri ānguthi anguli ang-gul āngur ongli angili aunla ungij aguli, aguliyaka angusht ungil
fire agni, jvaḷa āg, agni āg āgh agni, nia zui agun agg agni,gini āgo agénn agni, bhujyu manta yag bhaa
fish māchhli masa machhlī machhri mācha mas machh machhi masun,mathasya,malu māchā gaad matsya machho machhey
food anna, khorāk, poshaṇ jevana, bhojan khānā, bhojan khana, ann-roti khādya, bhojana ahar, khaiddyô, khuwa bostu khabar khānā, roti, ann āhāra,kema,bojun,bhojana khānā, anna, āhār 'khyann bhojana, khadati xal roti-tukkur, khanra
go jā- jā- jā- jā- ja- zu-, za- ja-, gê- jaa yanna janu gachati jal vanj
god parmeshvar, dev, bhagvān dev, parmeshwar, ishwar bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, xudā bhagvān, malik, iswar bhagabāna, ṭhākura, diyan debôta, bhôgôwan bhôgoban, ishshor, rab rabb, bhagwaan, waheguru devi,devathava bhagawaan, dewataa, ishwor bhagwaan, parmeshwar, deevta deva, ishwara, parmeshwara, devata devel rab, mālik, allāh
good sārũ changala achhā badhiya, neek, niman, changa, achha bhāla bhal bhalo neek, neeman changa, wadia hondhai raamro jaan shobhna, uttama lachho, mishto changa
grass ghāsthāro gavata ghās ghās ghāsa ghã ghash kāh thana,thruna ghaas dramunn truna, kusha char ghā
hand hāth hāt hāth hāth hāta hat hat hath atha,hasthaya hāt atth bhuj vast hat
head māthũ ḍoke sir, shīsh sīr munḍa mur matha sirr, sees oluwa,sirasa tauko, seer kall shir, mastak shero ser
heart hruday rudaya dil dil hridaya hridai, hiyan ridôe dil hada,herdaya hridaya, mutu hridaya ilo Dil
horse ghoḍũ ghoda ghorha ghorha ghoda ghůra ghoṛa ghorha ashvaya,thuranga ghoda gur ashva, ghotaka, hayi khoro, grast ghora
house ghar ghar ghar ghara ghôr ghôr ghar gedhara,gruha ghar ghar graha, alaya kher ghar
hunger bhukh bhukh bhūkh bhūkh bhoka bhuk khide bhukh kusagini,badagini bhok bo'tchh bubuksa, ksudha bokh bhuk
language bhāshā bhāshā bhāshā, zabān bhākhā, boli, jubaan bhāsā bhaxa bhasha bhāshā bhashawa,basa bhaashaa booyl bhasha, vaani chhib boli, zaban
laugh (v.) has- hās- hãs- hãs- hās- hã- hãsh- has- hina,sinaha,sina hasnu assun haasa, smera asal khill
life jivan, jindagi jivan jīvan, zindagī jinigi jibana, prāna zibôn jibon jiban jeevan, zindgi jeevithe jeewan, jindagi zindagayn jivana, jani jivipen zindgey
moon chandra, chāndo chandra chandramā, chandā channa, channarma chandra zunbai chãd, chôndro chann, chand, chandarmā chandra,sandu,handa chandramā, juun tçhandram chandra, suma, bhanta chhon chandr
mother mā, bā āi, māi matāri, māi, amma mā, bou ai, ma ma, amma, mao myay maa, mata, bebe mawa,amma,matha aamaa, maataa maeyj janani, martr dai amma, maa
mouth moḍhũ, mukh tond, mukha mūñh mukha, muha mukh mukh moonh mukha mukha,kata aaes mui mukh
name nām nāv nām nā, nām nāma, nā nam nam nām nām, nā nama nām naav nāma nav
night rāt, rātri, nishā rātra rāt, rātri, nishā rāt rāti rati rat, ratri, ratro rat rat rāthriya,rae raat, raatri raath raatri, rajani raat
open khullũ khol, ughad khulā khullā kholā khula khola khol, khulla harinna khulla khol uttana, udhatita rat khulla
peace shānti, shāntatā shānti shānti, aman sānti-sakoon, aman sānti xanti shanti shaanti, aman shanti samaya,shāntiya shaanti aman, shaanti shaanti kotor aman, sakoon
place jagyā, sthaļ sthān, sthal, jāga sthān, jagah jagah jāgā thai jaega, sthan jomin jagah, thaan, asthaan sthanaya thaaun, sthal jaay stapana, sthala, bhu than jaga
queen rāṇi, madhurāṇi rāni, rājmātā rāni, malkā rāni, mallika rāṇi rani rani rāni rajina,devi,bisawa rāni rāni, rājpatni rani, thagarni ranri, malka
read vānch- vāch- paṛh- paṛh- paḍh- pôṛh- pôṛ- parh- kiyawanna padh- parun pathati, vachana chaduvu parhnra, parh
rest ārām vishrām ārām rām ārām, visrām zirani aram, bishrom ramman, araam vishrāma shalawa,thanayama ārām, bishrām araam vishrama Araam
say bol- bol-, sang- bol-, keh- bol- kah- kũ- bôl- baiju bol, kaeh pawasanna,kiyanna bhannu vann vadati phenel bol, aakh
sister bêhn bhagani, bahin baihn bahin bhauṇi bhonti bon, apa, didi bahin bahini,didi bhaen,bhaengi sohouri,souri baeynn phen bheinr
small nāhnũ lahan, laghu chhoṭā chhoṭ, nanhi choṭa, sana xoru chhoṭo chhoit chhotaa, nikka chuti,podi saano lokutt alpa, laghu tikno, xurdo nikka, chauta
son chhokḍo mulga beṭā putt/chhora pua putek chhele, pola putt, putter, munda puthra,putha,puthu chhora nyechu tanaya, putra chhavo putr
soul ātma ātma ātma, rūh rūh ātmā atma attã, ãtta ātma, rooh ātma ātmā athma ātma, atasa di rooh
sun suraj, surya surya sūrya, sūraj sūruj surjya xuirzyô, baeli shurjo, roud suruj suraj ira,hiru,surya surya surya surya kham sijh
ten das daha das das dasa dôh dôsh das dahaya,dasa dus dhuh dasha desh dah
three traṇ tin tīn tīn tini tini tin tinn thuna tin t're tree, trayah trin trai
village gāñḍu gāv, kheda gāoñ gāoñ, jageer gān, grāma gaon gram pind, gran gama,gramaya gaun gaam graam, kheda gav dehat, jhoauk, vasti
want joi- pahije, ha- chāh- chāh- lôg- cha- chāh oone,awashyayi chaahanaa amati, apekshita kamel, mangel chah
water pāṇi pāṇi pāni, jal pāni pāṇi, jala pani jôl, pani pāni, jal jalaya,wathura,paen pāni, jal poyn paniya, jala pani panri
when kyahre kevhā kab kab kebe ketiyan kôkhon, kôbe kakhan, kahiya kad, kadon kawadhada,kedinada kahile karr kada, ched kana kadanr
wind havā, pavan vāra havā, pavan hāvā pabana bôtãh batash, haoa havā, paun hulan,sulan,pavana,vathaya huri, batas pavan, vata balval hava, Phook
wolf shiyāl kolha bherhiyā bherhiyā gadhiyā xiyal sheal siyār bherhiya vurkaya shyaal, bwanso vruka, shwaka ruv baghiyaar
woman mahilā, nāri bāi, mahilā, stri aurat, strī, mahilā, nāri mehraru, aurat, janaani stri, nāri mohila, maiki manuh mohila, nari, shtri aurat, zanaani, teeveen, istari kanthawa,gahaniya,sthriya,

mahilawa,lalanawa,liya,landa,vanithawa

mahilaa, naari, stri zanaan nari, vanita, stri, mahila, lalana juvli aurat, treimat, zaal, zanaani
year varash varsh sāl, varsh sāl barsa bôsôr bôchhor barxa saal, varah varshaya barsha váreeh varsh, shaarad bersh saal
yes / no hā / nā hoy, ha / nahi, na hāñ / nā, nahīñ hāñ / nā han / hoi / nohoi hê, hoi, ho, oi / na haan, aaho / naheen, naa ow / nā ho / hoina, la / nai aa / ná hyah, kam / na, ma va / na ha / na
yesterday (gai-)kāl(-e) kāl kāl kālh (gata-)kāli (zuwa-)kali (gôto-)kal(-ke) kal ēyeh hijo hyah, gatdinam, gatkale ij kal

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ "världens-100-största-språk-2010". Nationalencyclopedin. Govt. of Sweden publication. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  3. ^ Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301–17
  4. ^ "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
  5. ^ treated as a separate group by Kausen
  6. ^ Oberlies, Thomas Pali: A Grammar of the Language of the Theravāda Tipiṭaka, Walter de Gruyter, 2001.
  7. ^ Masica (1991:94–95)
  8. ^ Masica (1991:95–96)
  • John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872–1879. 3 vols.
  • Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 .
  • Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk).
  • Chakrabarti,Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9
  • Erdosy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6.
  • Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3.
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 .
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991–1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1–2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.

External links[edit]