Western Maori

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Western Maori was one of the four former New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorates, from 1868 to 1996.

Tribal areas[edit]

The Western Maori electorate extended from South Auckland and the Waikato to Taranaki and the Manawatu. The seat originally went to Wellington. With MMP it was replaced by the Te Tai Hauāuru electorate in 1996.

The electorate includes the following tribal areas: Tainui, Taranaki

History[edit]

The first member of parliament for Western Maori from 1868 was Mete Paetahi.[1] At the nomination meeting in Wanganui, held at the Courthouse, Paetahi was the only candidate proposed.[2] He was thus elected unopposed.[3] He represented the electorate of Western Maori from 1868 to 1870. He contested the electorate again at the 1871 general election, but of the three candidates, he came last. He was defeated by Wiremu Parata, with Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui in second place.[4]

From the 1890s to the 1930s the seat was held by various Reform Party MPs. In 1935, Toko Ratana the eldest son of the founder of the Ratana Church won the seat and became the second Ratana MP; he became a Labour MP following the Labour-Ratana pact. From this point until the abolition of the seat prior to the 1996 election the seat was held by Labour MPs.

Toko Ratana died in 1944 and was succeeded by his younger brother, Matiu Rātana. He died in 1949 shortly before the 1949 general election. His wife Iriaka Matiu Ratana stood in his stead, despite significant opposition from those supporting traditional leadership roles, with Te Puea Herangi speaking out against her claim to "captain the Tainui canoe". Only the strong backing of the Rātana church and her threat to stand as a Rātana Independent secured her the Labour Party nomination. She became the first woman Maori MP, getting a similar majority (6317) to her husband in 1946 (his majority then was 6491), but no less than seven independent candidates (and one Kauhananui candidate, K Nutana) stood against her; they got 116 to 326 votes each.[5]

Candidates for the National Party (who usually came second) included Hoeroa Marumaru (1946, 1949 & 1951) and Pei Te Hurinui Jones (1957, 1960 and 1963; also earlier).

Members of Parliament[edit]

Western Maori was represented by 15 Members of Parliament:[6]

Key

 Independent    Reform    Ratana    Labour  

Election Winner
1868 Māori election Mete Paetahi
1871 election Wiremu Parata
1876 election Hoani Nahi
1879 election Wiremu Te Wheoro
1881 election
1884 election Te Puke Te Ao
1886 by-election Hoani Taipua
1887 election
1890 election
1893 election Ropata Te Ao
1896 election Henare Kaihau
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election Maui Pomare
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election
1930 by-election Taite Te Tomo
1931 election
1935 election Toko Ratana
1938 election
1943 election
1945 by-election Matiu Ratana[nb 1]
1946 election
1949 election Iriaka Matiu Ratana
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election Koro Wētere
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Matiu Ratana died on 7 October 1949, shortly before the 1949 election. His wife stood for election instead.

Election results[edit]

Note that the affiliation of many early candidates is not known. There is contradictory information about the affiliation of Henare Kaihau. In Wilson's New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984, the authoritative work covering parliamentary history, Kaihau is listed as a Reform Party supporter from the party's inception in 1908.[7] Kaihau does, however, appear on a poster of the Liberal Party in 1910.[8] The New Zealand Herald, in its 1905 election reporting, also lists him as a government supporter, i.e. a Liberal.[9]

Another example of contradictory reporting is for the 1911 election. Three newspapers, The Marlborough Express, The New Zealand Herald, and the Auckland Star reported political affiliations. Two papers have Maui Pomare as an independent, whilst the third has him as a Labour supporter. Henare Kaihau is given three different affiliations: independent, Liberal, and Reform. Pepene Eketone is categorised as Labour by two of the papers, whilst the third has him as a Liberal supporter. The Auckland Star lists another Labour supporter, but the name is a composite of first and last names of two of the candidates.[10][11][12]

1931 election[edit]

General election, 1931: Western Maori[13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Reform Taite Te Tomo 4,172 53.54
Ratana Toko Ratana 2,736 35.11
Independent Rima Wakarua 394 5.06
Pepene Eketone 293 3.76
Hane Henare Piahana 103 1.32
United Timi Takirihi (James Douglas) 95 1.22
Majority 1,436 18.43
Turnout 7,793

1914 election[edit]

General election, 1914: Western Maori[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Reform Maui Pomare 3,416 50.29 +15.05
Liberal Hema Ropata te Ao[pb 1] 1,309 19.27
Liberal Pepene Eketone 1,074 15.81 -5.21
Liberal Rangi Mawhete 703 10.35
Independent Hori Tiro Paora 166 2.44
Reform Tuwhakaririka Patena[pb 2] 125 1.84
Majority 2,107 31.02 +22.94
Turnout 6,793

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Some sources have Hema Ropata te Ao as an Independent
  2. ^ Some sources have Tuwhakaririka Patena as an Independent

1911 election[edit]

General election, 1911: Western Maori[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Maui Pomare 2,464 35.24
Henare Kaihau 1,899 27.16 -5.49
Pepene Eketone 1,470 21.02 -1.22
Tarapipipi Taingakawa 581 8.31
Ngarangi Katitia 560 8.01
Pomare Hetaraka 19 0.27
Majority 565 8.08 -2.33
Turnout 6,993

1908 election[edit]

General election, 1908: Western Maori[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Henare Kaihau 2,375 32.65 -17.49
Pepene Eketone 1,618 22.24
Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V 1,375 18.90 -3.27
Hema Te Ao 1,178 16.19
Eruera te Kahu 728 10.01 -6.41
Majority 757 10.41 -17.56
Turnout 7,274

1905 election[edit]

General election, 1905: Western Maori[17][9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Henare Kaihau 3,026 50.14 -2.91
Independent Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V 1,338 22.17 +8.76
Liberal Eruera te Kahu 991 16.42
Independent Pitiera Taipua 394 6.53
Independent Te Weraro Kingi 162 2.68 +1.47
Independent Hare Teimana 124 2.05
Majority 1,688 27.97 -9.85
Turnout 6,035

1902 election[edit]

General election, 1902: Western Maori[18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Henare Kaihau 3,324 53.05 +0.36
Ngarangi Katitia 954 15.23
Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V 840 13.41 -3.73
Eruera te Kahu 673 10.74
Te One Teehi 399 6.37
Te Weraro Kingi 76 1.21
Majority 2,370 37.82 +2.27
Turnout 6,266

1899 election[edit]

General election, 1899: Western Maori[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Henare Kaihau 2,685 52.69 +25.99
Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V 873 17.13
Te Aohau Nikitini 581 11.40 +4.23
Waata Hipango 440 8.63
Hone Patene 199 3.91
Takarangi Mete Kingi 173 3.39
Wiremu Ngapaki 145 2.85 -1.50
Majority 1,812 35.56 +23.40
Turnout 5,096

1896 election[edit]

General election, 1896: Western Maori[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Henare Kaihau 1,605 26.70
Liberal Ropata Te Ao 874 14.54 -28.10
Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui 854 14.20
Ngarangi Katitia 655 10.89 -6.54
John Ormsby 575 9.56
Te Aohau Nikitini 431 7.17
Pepene Eketone 351 5.84 -32.11
Wiremu Ngapaki 261 4.34
Reha Aperahama 186 3.09 -11.21
Te Remana Nutana 158 2.63
Te Wirihana Hunia 37 0.62 -18.43
Hohepa Horomona 8 0.13
Majority 731 12.16 +7.46
Turnout 6,012[mb 1]

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ The source says 6,022, but the votes add up to 6,012. Whilst the source states the count was final, McRobie states the number of votes cast as 6,072.[21]

1893 election[edit]

General election, 1893: Western Maori[22][23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Ropata Te Ao 817 42.64
Pepene Eketone 727 37.94
Te Wirihana Hunia 365 19.05
Ngarangi Katitia 334 17.43
Reha Aperahama 274 14.30
Eruera Whakaahu 224 11.69
Majority 90 4.70
Turnout 1,916

1890 election[edit]

General election, 1890: Western Maori[24][25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Opposition Hoani Taipua[ob 1] '
Pepene Eketone
Kipa Te Whatanui[ob 2]
Te Kahui Kararahe
Tatana Te Whataupoko
Majority
Turnout 1,916[21]

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Final results were not reported in contemporary media
  2. ^ Rankings from the third place down are based on preliminary results only

1887 election[edit]

General election, 1887: Western Maori[26][27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Hoani Taipua 1,691 53.68 -2.98
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 1,067 33.87 +10.49
Independent Pepene Eketone 198 6.29
Independent John Ormsby 153 4.86
Independent Takarangi Mete Kingi 41 1.30
Majority 624 19.81 -13.48
Turnout 3,150

1886 by-election[edit]

Western Maori by-election, 1886[28][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Hoani Taipua 1,258 56.67
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 519 23.38 +12.40
Independent Henare Kaihau 225 10.14 +0.43
Independent Sydney Taiwhanga 148 6.67 +1.14
Independent Ngawaka Taurua 70 3.15
Majority 739 33.29 +28.19
Turnout 2,220

1884 election[edit]

General election, 1884: Western Maori[30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Te Puke Te Ao 356 25.21
Independent Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui 284 20.11
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 155 10.98
Independent Wetere Te Rerenga 141 9.99
Independent Henare Kaihau 137 9.70
Independent Mita Karaka 136 9.63 -0.35
Independent Hamiora Mangakahia 125 8.85 -6.72
Independent Sydney Taiwhanga 78 5.52
Majority 72 5.10 -48.53
Turnout 1,412

1881 election[edit]

General election, 1881: Western Maori[31][32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 991 69.20 -1.28
Independent Hamiora Mangakahia 223 15.57
Independent Mita Karaka 143 9.99
Independent William Hughes 75 5.24
Majority 768 53.63 +12.67
Turnout 1,432

1879 election[edit]

General election, 1879: Western Maori[33][34][35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 1,053 70.48
Independent Hoani Taipua 441 29.52
Majority 612 40.96 +31.05
Turnout 1,494

1876 election[edit]

General election, 1876: Western Maori[36][37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Hoani Nahi 671 46.24
Independent Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui 490 33.77 +2.72
Independent Wiremu Parata 290 19.99 -23.09
Majority 181 12.47 +0.45
Turnout 1,451

1871 election[edit]

General election, 1871: Western Maori[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Wiremu Parata 258 43.07
Independent Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui 186 31.05
Independent Mete Paetahi 155 25.88
Majority 72 12.02
Turnout 599

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 225.
  2. ^ "Latest News from Wanganui". Wellington Independent XXII (2669). 18 April 1868. p. 5. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  3. ^ Wilson 2003, p. 13.
  4. ^ "Result of the Maori Election". Wanganui Herald IV (1100). 23 February 1871. p. 2. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  5. ^ Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946-1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. p. 402. ISBN 0-475-11200-8. 
  6. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 276.
  7. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 209.
  8. ^ "Members of the Liberal Party". NZ Liberal Party. Retrieved 19 May 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "The Maori Election". The New Zealand Herald XLII (13055). 21 December 1905. p. 6. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  10. ^ "The Maori Seats". The Marlborough Express XLV (296). 20 December 1911. p. 5. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  11. ^ "The Candidates". The New Zealand Herald. XLVIII (14849). 28 November 1911. p. 9. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  12. ^ "The Elections". Auckland Star XLII (287). 2 December 1911. p. 11. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  13. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 6. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  14. ^ "The General Election, 1914". National Library. 1915. pp. 31–33. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  15. ^ "The General Election, 1911". National Library. 1912. pp. 1–14. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  16. ^ "The General Election, 1908". National Library. 1909. p. 27. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  17. ^ "The General Election, 1905". National Library. 1906. p. 6. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  18. ^ "The General Election, 1902". National Library. 1903. p. 4. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  19. ^ "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  20. ^ "Untitled". Poverty Bay Herald XXIV (7816). 4 January 1897. p. 2. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  21. ^ a b McRobie 1989, p. 133.
  22. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. p. 3. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  23. ^ "Three Government Supporters". Auckland Star XXIV (303). 22 December 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  24. ^ "Telegrams". Inangahua Times XV (20887). 1 December 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  25. ^ "By Telegraph". The Southland Times (11568). 28 October 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  26. ^ "The Maori Election". The Star (6036). 19 September 1887. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  27. ^ "The Maori Election". The Evening Post. XXXIV (69). 19 September 1887. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  28. ^ "Wanganui Herald". Wanganui Herald XXI (6117). 11 January 1887. p. 2. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  29. ^ "The Western Maori Election". The Evening Post. XXXII (191). 30 December 1886. p. 2. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  30. ^ "The Western Maori Election". Waikato Times. XXIII (1885). 5 August 1884. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  31. ^ "The Elections". The New Zealand Herald. XVIII (6266). 16 December 1881. p. 6. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  32. ^ "Wellington". Wanganui Herald XV (4542). 13 December 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  33. ^ "The Western Maori District". The New Zealand Herald XVI (5552). 2 September 1879. p. 4. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  34. ^ "Speech by Mr. Te Wheoro, M.H.R.". The New Zealand Herald XVI (5566). 18 September 1879. p. 6. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  35. ^ Scott, Gary. "Te Wheoro, Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  36. ^ "Wanganui". Auckland Star VII (1850). 21 January 1876. p. 2. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  37. ^ "Maori Election: Western District". Bay of Plenty Times IV (351). 19 January 1876. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  38. ^ "Result of the Maori Election". Wanganui Herald IV (1100). 23 February 1871. p. 2. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 

References[edit]

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 
  • Wilson, John (9 November 2003). The Origins of the Māori Seats (PDF) (updated May 2009 ed.). Wellington: Parliamentary Library. Retrieved 27 August 2010.