Westernizers (Russian: Зáпадник, zapadnik) were a group of 19th century intellectuals who believed that Russia's development depended upon the adoption of Western European technology and liberal government. In their view, western ideas such as industrialisation needed to be implemented throughout Russia in order to make it a more successful country. In Russian the term was known as Zapadnichestvo (зáпадничество) which can be translated as "Westernism", and its adherents were known as the Zapadniki, westernists in English. In some contexts of Russian history, the term zapadnichestvo or "Westernism" can be contrasted with Slavophilia, whose proponents argued that the West should adopt Russian cultural values, rather than the other way around.
In modern usage, especially in the developing world, the term can refer to supporters of Western-style economic development.
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