Westinghouse Electric (1886)

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This article is about the defunct Westinghouse Electric Corporation founded in 1886, renamed CBS Corporation in 1997, and purchased by Viacom in 1999. For the present-day industrial company, see Westinghouse Electric Company. For other uses of the term "Westinghouse" including modern incarnations and recent licensing deals, see Westinghouse (disambiguation).
Westinghouse Electric Corporation
Former type Public
Fate Dissolved
Successor(s) Westinghouse Electric Company, Westinghouse Licensing Corporation, Viacom
Founded Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. (January 8, 1886 (1886-01-08))
Founder(s) George Westinghouse
Defunct 1999 (1999)
Headquarters Monroeville, Pennsylvania, United States
Area served worldwide
Subsidiaries CBS

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886, as Westinghouse Electric Company and later renamed Westinghouse Electric Corporation by George Westinghouse. George Westinghouse had previously founded the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. The company purchased CBS in 1995 and became CBS Corporation in 1997.

In 1998, CBS established a brand licensing subsidiary Westinghouse Licensing Corporation (Westinghouse Electric Corporation). A year later, CBS sold all of its nuclear power businesses to British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). Soon after, BNFL gained license rights on the Westinghouse trademarks and they used those to reorganize their acquired assets as Westinghouse Electric Company. That company was sold to Toshiba in 2007.

History[edit]

Westinghouse Electric was founded by George Westinghouse in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1886. The firm became active in helping to bring electricity throughout the United States. The company's largest factories were located in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where they made turbines and coils for electricity.[1] In addition to George Westinghouse, engineers working for the company included William Stanley, Nikola Tesla, Vladimir Zworykin, Oliver B. Shallenberger, Benjamin Garver Lamme and his sister Bertha Lamme. The company was historically the rival to General Electric which was founded by George Westinghouse's arch-rival, Thomas Edison (see War of the Currents).

Products and sponsorships[edit]

The company pioneered long-distance power transmission and high-voltage alternating-current transmission, unveiling the technology for lighting in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.[citation needed]

The company is also known for its time capsule contributions during the 1939 New York World's Fair and 1964 New York World's Fair.[citation needed] They also participated in the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. They sponsored the Westinghouse Auditorium at the fair, where they showed films documenting Westinghouse products and company plants.[1]

Westinghouse produced the first operational American turbojet, but fumbled on the disastrous J40 project. It not only severely hampered a generation of U.S. Navy jets when the project had to be abandoned, but led to leaving the aircraft engine business in the 1950s.

Timeline of company evolution[edit]

George Westinghouse
Pittsburgh Plant (before 1888)

1880s[edit]

Starting years
  • 1886 – Founded Westinghouse Electric Company
  • 1889 – renames itself the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company

1890s[edit]

Alternating currents promoter

1900s to 1920s[edit]

Growth and change

1930s and 1940s[edit]

Close up of Westinghouse logo on historic kitchen stove at John & Mable Ringling Museum, Sarasota

1950s to 1970s[edit]

  • 1951 - conducts first live network TV in U.S.[3]
  • 1952 - opens Cathode Ray Tube facility in Horseheads, NY; facility housed three divisions: Cathode Ray Tube, Electronic Tube, and Industrial and Government Tube.
  • 1954 - enters finance as Westinghouse Credit Corporation
  • 1954 - adopts "You Can Be Sure... If It's Westinghouse" as advertising slogan for home appliances
  • 1955 - buys KDKA-TV (then WDTV) and WKYW (originally, and currently WTAM) radio Cleveland.[3]
  • 1955 – Westinghouse J40 engine failure causes all F3H fighters using the engine to be grounded, and all other jets using it to switch to other engines. Westinghouse forced out of aircraft engine business.
Pittsburgh Westinghouse Sign, 1967.
  • 1961 – acquires Thermo King (sold in 1997 to Ingersoll Rand)
  • 1964 – begins Skybus project; beginning of automated mass transit
  • 1965 - buys Marketeer Electronic Vehicles[3]
  • 1966 - founds Cinema Center Films[3]
  • 1966 - starts housing and real estate development divisions[3]
  • 1966 - buys a toy manufacturer[3]
  • 1967 - lights America's first computer-controlled outdoor electric sign[10]
  • 1967 - makes the lowest bid for the BART project[11]
  • 1969 - buys 7-Up bottling[3]
  • 1973 - develops world's first AMLCD displays
  • 1974 – sells well-known home appliance division to White Consolidated Industries which becomes White-Westinghouse
  • 1979 – withdraws from all oil related projects in the Middle East after Iranian Revolution

1980s[edit]

  • 1981 – acquires both cable television operator TelePrompter (sold 1985), Muzak (sold September 1986) and 50% of Showtime[12] for $576 million.[13]
  • 1982 – acquires robot maker Unimation
  • 1982 – sells street light division to Cooper Lighting
  • 1983 – sells electric lamp division to Philips
  • 1984 - buys Unimation robotics for $105 million.[3]
  • 1986 - buys Los Angeles TV station.[3]
  • 1987 - buys radio stations in Sacramento and Chicago.[3]
  • 1987 - buys electrical equipment, engineering and waste disposal divisions.[3]
  • 1988 – sells elevator/escalator division to Schindler Group
  • 1988 – Enters into joint venture with Taiwan Electric to build Electric motors; Taiwan Electric eventually becomes sole owner of business as TECO Motor Company
  • 1988 - spins Industrial and Government Tube Division off as Imaging and Sensing Technologies Corporation.
  • 1988 – closes the East Pittsburgh plant, which had once been the primary Westinghouse manufacturing facility
  • 1988 - Bryant Electric subsidiary closed, assets sold to Hubbell in 1991
  • 1988 – Transportation Division, including railroad (locomotive and mass transit) propulsion equipment business sold to AEG, later merged into AdTranz and Bombardier Transportation (2001)
  • 1989 – sells transmission and distribution business to Asea Brown Boveri Group (ABB)
  • 1989 - buys Shaw-Walker Furniture and Reff Furniture.[3]
  • 1989 - buys Legacy Broadcasting.[3]

1990s to 2000s[edit]

  • 1990 - buys Knoll International Furniture.
  • 1994 - buys United Technologies' Norden electronic systems.[3]
  • 1994 – sells electric power distribution and control business unit to Eaton Corporation for $1 billion ($1.6 billion today)
  • 199x – separates IT and phone service sales into Westinghouse Communications division
  • 1995 – under the leadership of Michael H. Jordan buys CBS for $5.4 billion ($8.4 billion today)
  • 1996 – buys Infinity Broadcasting for $4.7 billion.[3]
  • 1996 – sells Westinghouse Electronic Systems defense business to Northrop Grumman for $3 billion ($4.5 billion today), becoming Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems
  • 1997 - sells Thermo King division to Ingersoll Rand
  • 1997 - buys American Radio Systems for $2.6 billion, increasing station network to 175.[3]
  • 1997 – sells most non-broadcast operations; renames itself CBS Corporation as of December 1
  • 1998 – sells remaining manufacturing asset, its nuclear energy business, to BNFL which sold it to Toshiba in 2006 which still operates it as Westinghouse Electric Company today
  • 1998 – CBS Corporation creates Westinghouse Licensing Corporation (Westinghouse Electric Corporation) subsidiary to manage the Westinghouse brand
  • 1999 - buys Outdoor Systems for $8.7 billion and King World Productions for $2.5 billion.[3]
  • 1999 – sells itself to Viacom, Inc.
  • 2005 – Viacom is split into two companies on December 31, with a new Viacom being spun off of the company, and the "old" Viacom being renamed CBS Corporation thus reviving Westinghouse's last name prior to sale and reversing the 1999 Viacom-CBS merger.
  • 2010 – The Westinghouse Electric Company (Toshiba) opened new headquarters in Cranberry Township, Butler County, Pennsylvania where it preserves the industrial legacy of the original Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

CEOs[edit]

  • George Westinghouse 1886-1909[14]
  • Gwilym A. Price 1946-57[15][16]
  • Mark W. Cresap, Jr. 1957-63[17]
  • Don Burnham 1963-1975[18]
  • Robert Kirby 1975-1983[19]
  • Douglas Danforth December 1983-December 1987[20][21]
  • John Marous 1988-June 29, 1990[22]
  • Paul Lego June 30, 1990-January 1993[23]
  • Gary Clark January 1993-July 1993
  • Michael Jordan July 1993 – 1998[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Steam Hammer, Westinghouse Works, 1904". World Digital Library. 1904-05. Retrieved 2013-07-28. 
  2. ^ John W. Klooster, Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates, page 305. Books.google.com. 30 July 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Westinghouse: Chronology". Ketupa.net. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  4. ^ Reginald Fessenden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved on 2013-11-02.
  5. ^ Westinghouse Company Enters Wireless Field (article from the October 16, 1920 Electrical Review)
  6. ^ Westinghouse Company Enters Wireless Field (1920). Earlyradiohistory.us (1920-10-16). Retrieved on 2013-11-02.
  7. ^ "Westinghouse Electric Corporation". ExplorePaHistory.com. 
  8. ^ Feurer R (2006). Radical Unionism in the Midwest, 1900–1950. University of Illinois Press. 
  9. ^ "Heartland of UE Struggle". UE. September 2002. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  10. ^ "Westinghouse Sign". Pittsburgh Press. 16 January 1968. p. 49. 
  11. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=sclaAAAAIBAJ&sjid=c2wDAAAAIBAJ&dq=westinghouse%20bay%20area&pg=5072%2C1046464
  12. ^ "Three Decades of Wall Street's Muzak Fixation - Ray Gustini". The Atlantic Wire. March 24, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  13. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=gtVRAAAAIBAJ&sjid=RG4DAAAAIBAJ&pg=4275%2C2365340
  14. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - In the beginning". Old.post-gazette.com. March 12, 1914. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  15. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=PuUcAAAAIBAJ&sjid=H5YEAAAAIBAJ&pg=7171%2C299791
  16. ^ Gwilym A. Price, 89, a high school dropout who became... - Orlando Sentinel. Articles.orlandosentinel.com (1985-06-04). Retrieved on 2013-08-18.
  17. ^ http://www.marspapers.org/papers/Shirk_2011_contrib.pdf
  18. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 1: Doing Well by Doing Good". Old.post-gazette.com. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 2: Sue Me, Sue You Blues". Old.post-gazette.com. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  20. ^ Douglas Danforth: Executive Profile & Biography - Businessweek. Investing.businessweek.com. Retrieved on 2013-11-02.
  21. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 3: Money, It's a Hit". Old.post-gazette.com. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 4: Big Money and Bad Choices". Old.post-gazette.com. June 29, 1990. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 5: Coming Apart at the Seams". Old.post-gazette.com. January 15, 1991. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Who Killed Westinghouse? - Chapter 6: Free at Last". Old.post-gazette.com. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 

External links[edit]