Westland Lynx

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Lynx / Super Lynx
British Lynx landing on Kearsarge.jpg
A British Lynx lands on the flight deck of USS Kearsarge
Role Multi-purpose military helicopter
National origin United Kingdom
Manufacturer Westland Helicopters
AgustaWestland
First flight 21 March 1971
Introduction 1978
Status In service
Primary users British Army
Royal Navy
French Navy
German Navy
Produced 1978–present
Number built 450 (As of 2009)[1]
Variants AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat
Developed into Westland 30

The Westland Lynx is a British multi-purpose military helicopter designed and built by Westland Helicopters at its factory in Yeovil. Originally intended as a utility craft for both civil and naval usage, military interest led to the development of both battlefield and naval variants. The Lynx went into operational usage in 1977 and was later adopted by the armed forces of over a dozen nations, primarily serving in the battlefield utility, anti-armour, search and rescue and anti-submarine warfare roles.

The Lynx has the distinction of being the world's first fully aerobatic helicopter. In 1986, a specially modified Lynx set the current Fédération Aéronautique Internationale's official airspeed record for helicopters.[2] As of 2014, this record remains unbroken.[3]

In addition to a wide number of land and naval-orientated variants of the Lynx, several major derivatives have been produced. The Westland 30 was produced as a civil utility helicopter, it did not become a commercial success, only a small number were built during the 1980s. In the 21st century, a modernised variant of the Lynx designed as a multirole combat helicopter, designated as the AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat; the Wildcat is intended to replace existing Lynx helicopters. The Lynx remains in production under AgustaWestland, the successor to Westland Helicopters.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

The initial design (then known as the Westland WG.13) was started in the mid-1960s as a replacement for the Westland Scout and Wasp, and a more advanced alternative to the UH-1 Iroquois.[4] As part of the Anglo-French helicopter agreement signed in February 1967, the French company Aérospatiale were given a 30 per cent production work share in the programme, Westland performing the remainder.[5][6] It was intended that France would procure the Lynx for its Navy and of a heavily-modified armed reconnaissance variant for the French Army, with the United Kingdom in return buying Aérospatiale Gazelle and Puma for its armed forces. In October 1969, the French Army cancelled its requirement for the Lynx,[5][7] thus development work of the dedicated armed attack variant was terminated early on.[1]

Lynx XX153, which broke the helicopter speed record in 1972, preserved on public display

The first Lynx prototype took its maiden flight on 21 March 1971.[6][8] In 1972, a Lynx broke the world speed record over 15 and 25 km by flying at 321.74 km/h (199.9 mph). It also set a new 100 km closed circuit record shortly afterwards, flying at 318.504 km/h (197.9 mph).[9] In 1986, the former company demonstrator Lynx, registered G-LYNX, was specially modified with Gem 60 engines and British Experimental Rotor Programme (BERP) rotor blades.[10] On 11 August 1986 the helicopter was piloted by Trevor Egginton when it set an absolute speed record for helicopters over a 15 and 25 km course by reaching 400.87 kilometres per hour (216.45 kn; 249.09 mph);[2][11] an official record with the FAI it currently holds.[2][12] At this speed, it had a lift-to-drag ratio of 2,[13] and its BERP blade tips had a speed of Mach 0.97.[14]

The British Army ordered over 100 Lynx helicopters under the designation of Lynx AH.1 (Army Helicopter Mark 1) to perform several different roles, such as transport, armed escort, anti-tank warfare (with eight TOW missiles), reconnaissance and evacuation missions.[15] Deliveries of production helicopters began in 1977.[6] An improved Lynx AH.1 with Gem 41-1 or Gem 42 engines and an uprated transmission was referred to as the Lynx AH.5; only five were built for evaluation. The AH.5 led to the Lynx AH.7, which added a new tail rotor derived from the Westland 30, a reinforced airframe, improved avionics and defensive aids.[citation needed]

The initial naval variant of the Lynx, known as the Lynx HAS.2 in British service, or Lynx Mk.2(FN) in French service,[citation needed] differed from the Lynx AH.1 in being equipped with a tricycle undercarriage and a deck restraint system, folding main rotor blades, an emergency flotation system and a nose-mounted radar. An improved Lynx for the Royal Navy, the Lynx HAS.3, had Gem 42-1 Mark 204 engines, an uprated transmission, a new flotation system and an Orange Crop ESM system. The Lynx HAS.3 also received various other updates in service. A similar upgrade to the French Lynx was known as the Lynx Mk.4(FN).[citation needed]

Super Lynx and Battlefield Lynx[edit]

A Royal Navy Lynx HMA.8 of the Lynx Operational Evaluation Unit

Announced in 1984, the Lynx-3 was an enhanced development, featuring a stretched fuselage, a redesigned tailboom, Gem 60-3/1 engines, a wheeled tricycle undercarriage, BERP rotor blades, and increased fuel capacity.[16] Both Army and Naval variants were proposed;[15] however, the project was ultimately ended in 1987 due to insufficient orders being placed.[16] Only one Army Lynx-3 prototype was built.[citation needed] A development of the Lynx AH.7 with the wheeled undercarriage of the Lynx-3 was marketed by Westland as the Battlefield Lynx in the late 1980s. The prototype first flew in November 1989; deliveries began in 1991, in British Army service this variant is designated as the Lynx AH.9.[17]

In the early 1990s, Westland incorporated some of the technology from the Naval Lynx-3 design into a less-radical Super Lynx. This featured BERP rotor blades, the Westland 30-derived tail rotor, Gem 42 engines, a new under-nose 360-degree radar installation and an optional nose-mounted electro-optical sensor turret. Royal Navy Lynx HAS.3s upgraded to Super Lynx standard were known in service as the Lynx HMA.8, and several export customers ordered new-build or upgraded Super Lynxes. From the 1990s onwards, Westland began offering the Super Lynx 200, which was equipped with LHTEC CTS800 engines, and the Super Lynx 300, which also had a new cockpit and avionics derived from the AgustaWestland EH101. Both of these models have achieved several export sales.[18] In 2002, Flight International reported that more than 40 variants of the Lynx were in service, numbering almost 400 aircraft having been built for various customers.[19]

Future Lynx/Lynx Wildcat[edit]

The British Army and Royal Navy Lynx fleets are due to be upgraded to a new common advanced Lynx variant based on the Super Lynx 300, with a new tailboom, undercarriage, cockpit, avionics and sensors. Initially referred to as the Future Lynx and later as the Lynx Wildcat, this type has since been re-designated as the AW159 Wildcat. While having the Lynx as the origins and basis of its design, the Wildcat differs substantially, only 5% of its components, such as the fuel system and main rotor gearbox, remain interchangeable the later variants of the Lynx.[20]

Design[edit]

Cockpit of a German Navy Lynx

The Lynx is a multi-purpose twin-engine battlefield helicopter, of which specialized versions have been developed for both sea and land-based warfare. A distinguishing feature between early and later aircraft is the undercarriage: early versions of the Lynx were often equipped with skids, while the later models have been outfitted with wheels.[21][22] Early versions of the Lynx were powered by a pair of Rolls-Royce Gem turboshaft engines, which powered a four-blade semi-rigid main rotor.[N 1] The rotors were of a completely new design, the blades being composed of a honeycomb sandwich structure and made out of composite material.[15][24] For shipboard stowage, both the rotor blades and tail can be folded. In flight, the main rotor is kept at a constant speed, simplifying aircraft control;[25] the rotor also features a vibration absorption system.[26]

The Lynx is an agile helicopter, capable of performing loops and rolls, and of attaining high speeds. The agility of the type led to its use as an aerial display aircraft, having been operated with by the Blue Eagles and Black Cats helicopter display teams.[27][28] The efficiency of the main rotor, as well as the overall top speed of the Lynx, was substantially improved with the adoption of BERP rotor blade technology.[19][29][N 2] During the 1990s, the hot-and-high performance of the type was considerably boosted in the later Super Lynx 200 series, at which point the type's Gem engines were replaced with the newer LHTEC T800 turboshaft engine with associated FADEC system;[31] the Lynx can also maintain a good level of performance under moderate icing conditions.[26] The FADEC controls eliminated the requirement for a throttle or manual speed selection switches, further simplifying flight control. Later aircraft feature automatic stabilization equipment; functions such as auto-hover are optionally installed upon some Lynx.[32]

Various avionics and onboard systems are integrated on the Lynx in order to perform differing mission profiles. Several operators have equipped their Lynx with BAE Systems' Sea Spray surveillance radar to provide for a surface search capability, which is used in maritime patrol, search and rescue, and other mission profiles.[33] British Army models are equipped with a Marconi Elliot automatic flight control system capable of performing automatic three axes stabilisation.[15] The integration of both avionics and weapons systems is customized upon each Lynx batch to customer specifications and requirements.[34] Most of the installed sensors and avionics are typically integrated with the aircraft's avionics management system (AMS), from where they can be managed by either pilot;[31] sensors such the optional nose-mounted FLIR can be setup to directly cue the weapon systems. Functions such as navigation and communications are also tied into the AMS, information from these systems are displayed directly to the pilots on interchangeable integrated display units in the cockpit.[19][35] The Lynx is considerably easier to service and maintain than the AgustaWestland Apache.[36][N 3]

Aéronavale Lynx hovering above the deck of Latouche-Tréville

The Lynx features a two-man cockpit for a pilot and observer sitting side by side; the British Army typically operates their fleet with a three-man crew, a door gunner being the third member. The cabin, located behind the cockpit, is accessed through a pair of large sliding doors on each side of the fuselage; it can accommodate up to ten equipped troops depending upon seating configuration.[21] An alternative configuration houses radio equipment in the cabin area when the aircraft is being used in the airborne command post role; the cabin can also be used to house additional fuel tanks for conducting long distance missions and ferry trips.[citation needed] The Lynx can perform a wide variety of mission types, including anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare, vessel replenishment, search and rescue, airborne reconnaissance, armed attack, casualty evacuation and troop transport; according to AgustaWestland, a Lynx can be converted from one mission-type to another within the space of 40 minutes.[19][37]

Typical combat equipment includes stabilised roof-mounted sensors, onboard countermeasures and door guns; when being used in the anti-tank role, the Lynx is typically armed with BGM-71 TOW missiles; missiles such as the Sea Skua have been used in the maritime anti-surface role.[21] Additional armaments that have been interchangeably used include rockets, 20 mm cannons, torpedoes, and depth charges.[38] Those Lynx built for export have typically outfitted with armaments and equipment customized for the end-user, such as the Mokopa air-to-surface missile used on Algeria's Lynx fleet;[39] studies into equipping the AGM-114 Hellfire have been performed, air to air missiles could also reportedly be adopted if the capability is sought by operators.[40] Equipped armaments can be managed and controlled inflight through the onboard stores management system.[35] In order to counteract battlefield threats such as infrared-guided missiles, various defensive aid subsystems can be optionally installed, including warning receivers and countermeasures.[40]

Many of the Lynx's components had been derived from earlier Westland helicopters such as the Scout and Wasp.[15] The Lynx has been substantially upgraded since originally entering service in the 1970s; improvements made to in-service aircraft have typically included strengthened airframes, new avionics and engines, improved rotor blades, additional surveillance and communications systems.[19][38] Various subsystems from overseas suppliers have been incorporated into some Lynx variants; during a South Korean procurement, hulls produced in the United Kingdom were equipped with Korean-built systems, such as ISTAR, electro-optical, electronic warfare, fire-control systems,[41][42] flight control actuators,[43] and undercarriages.[44] A glass cockpit was adopted on the Super Lynx 300, featuing fully integrated flight and mission display systems, a variety of integrated display units including head-up displays, and dual controls; AgustaWestland has commented that the new cockpit reduces aircrew workload and increases aircraft effectiveness.[31][33] The head-up display installed could be replaced by a helmet-mounted sight system on customer demand.[40]

Operational history[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

The Lynx AH.1 entered service with the Army Air Corps (AAC) in 1979, followed by the Lynx HAS.2 with the Fleet Air Arm (FAA) in 1981. The FAA fleet was upgraded to Lynx HAS.3 standard during the 1980s, and again to HMA.8 standard in the 1990s. Most Army aircraft were upgraded to Lynx AH.7 and the later AH.9/AH.9A standards as utility helicopters; they have also served with the Commando Helicopter Force (CHF) of the FAA, operating as reconnaissance and attack/utility helicopters to support the Royal Marines. During the Cold War, it was envisioned that Army Lynxes would be paired with Westland Gazelle helicopters to counter Soviet armoured vehicles.[45] Lynx HAS.3 and HMA.8 variants operate as anti-submarine warfare and maritime attack helicopters armed with Sting Ray torpedoes, Sea Skua anti-ship missiles and depth charges, from Royal Navy warships. Navy Lynx have been critical to maritime patrol operations, including non-military operations such as counter-narcotics missions.[46][47]

A Lynx HAS.3 of HMS Cardiff in March 1982 prior to the Falklands War practising search and rescue

The Lynx HAS.2 ASW variant participated in combat operations during the Falklands War in 1982. A combination of Lynx and Westland Sea King helicopters were used to maintain continuous anti-submarine patrols in order to protect the British taskforce offshore from the Falkland Islands. On 3 May, a Lynx conducted the first combat-firing of a Sea Skua missile, firing on the Argentinian patrol boat 'Alferez Sobral, inflicting considerable damage to the vessel. This was the first use of sea-skimming missiles in the conflict.[48] Although none were shot down in combat, a total of three were lost aboard vessels that were struck by attacks from Argentine aircraft, these vessels being HMS Coventry, HMS Ardent and MV Atlantic Conveyor.[49]

On 14 May 1989, in the type's second fatal accident, Lynx HAS3GM XZ244, attached to HMS Brilliant, crashed near Mombasa, Kenya, while en route to the city's airport for a period of shore leave. A door had detached when opened inflight and collided with the tail rotor, resulting in the aircraft splitting in half and the death of all nine personnel on board. As a result, door modifications and inflight opening restrictions were introduced. As of 2004, it remained the deadliest Lynx crash.[21][50]

The Navy's Lynx helicopters were among Britain's contribution to the coalition against Saddam Hussain's Iraq during the 1991 Gulf War. During the Battle of Bubiyan, the biggest naval engagement of the conflict, the Lynx and its Sea Skua missiles proved to be decisive, being responsible for the majority of individual engagements with various Iraqi Navy vessels.[51] By 2 February 1991, a total of 25 Sea Skuas had been launched, out of these, 18 were confirmed as having hit their targets, and had succeeding in heavily damaging a significant portion of Iraq's navy.[52][53] Navy Lynxes were routinely used to deploy troops to oil platforms and into occupied Kuwait itself, as well as to perform aerial reconnaissance across the Gulf.[54]

A British Army Lynx AH.7 in Bosnia during Operation Resolute, in 1996

The British Army also deployed 24, TOW-armed Lynxes alongside an equal number of Westland Gazelle helicopters during the Gulf War. They were assigned the mission of locating and attacking Iraqi tank concentrations, and to support the advance of coalition ground forces into Kuwait and Southern Iraq during the 100 hours war phase of the conflict. On 26 February 1991, a Lynx of 654 Squadron AAC destroyed two MTLB armoured personnel carriers (APCs) and four T-55 tanks using TOW missiles, the engagement was the first recorded use of the missile from a British helicopter.[55]

During The Troubles in Northern Ireland, on 19 March 1994 the IRA brought down Lynx AH.7 ZD275 of the AAC with an improvised mortar, striking it while attempting to land at Crossmaglen Army base. The pilot managed to crash land, the aircraft was destroyed but all crew on board survived. Author Toby Harnden described the incident as the IRA's most successful operation against a helicopter.[56][57]

Various British Lynxes were used during the NATO intervention in the conflict between Serbia and Kosovo, later known as the Kosovo War. They were frequently employed to supply NATO forces inside the theatre, including those engaged in humanitarian operations.[58] In June 1999, the type was employed to escort British ground forces being air-deployed into Kosovo via Chinooks, during NATO's first phase of deployment.[59] For a number of years, British Army Lynx and Gazelle helicopters were deployed within Kosovo, performing reconnaissance and transport duties in support of the deployed NATO peacekeeping forces.[60]

In September 2000, Army Lynxes were used in Sierra Leone to rescue several British soldiers during Operation Barras. In 2002, a Lynx attached to HMS Richmond crashed 200 miles off the coast of Virginia.[61]

Army Air Corps Lynx AH.7 at RIAT 2010

In March 2003, the Lynx formed the bulk of the deployed British rotary aviation battle group in the invasion of Iraq. Participating aircraft were quickly outfitted with engine sand filters, armour, heat dissipaters, modern secure radios and radar warning receivers.[62] In the subsequent multi-national occupation force, a flight of either AAC or CHF Lynx AH.7s were based at Basra International Airport under command of the Joint Helicopter Force (Iraq) on a rotational basis.[63][64] In theatre, they would escort infantry patrols, perform aerial reconnaissance, provide fire support and act as airborne communications hubs. Performance issues were encountered in the high temperature environment, often operating with no power reserve and thus no ability to overshoot during landings; these were belatedly resolved by the introduction of the Lynx AH.9A.[65]

On 6 May 2006, Lynx AH.7 XZ6140 of the CHF, was shot down by a man-portable surface-to-air missile over Basra, southern Iraq; the first British helicopter and only the second British aircraft downed by enemy fire in the war. Among the 5 killed were Wing Commander Coxen, who had been due to take command of the region's British helicopter forces, and Flight Lieutenant Sarah-Jayne Mulvihill; Coxen was the most senior British officer to die in the conflict and Mulvihill was the first British servicewoman to die in action in 22 years.[66][67] At the crash scene, British troops reportedly encountered rioting Iraqi civilians and were fired on by militia, while civilians were killed in the ensuing clashes.[68] The crash led to a review of the vulnerability of helicopter transports in southern Iraq.[69]

In 2006, the first Lynx AH.7 was deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan; this variant would only be subsequently used during winter months due to the performance limitations imposed during the high summer temperatures,;[70] the Lynx AH.9A later deployed was praised as having been a substantial performance improvement.[71] On 26 April 2014, Lynx AH.9A ZF540 of the Army Air Corps, crashed near Kandahar Airfield in Afghanistan, killing the 3 crew and 2 passengers on board. This was the first, fatal accident in the conflict involving a British military helicopter, and the third biggest loss of life of British troops in a single incident in Afghanistan, since 2001.[72]

Germany[edit]

German Lynx in a display livery

The first German Navy Lynx, a Sea Lynx Mk88 model, was manufactured in 1981, a total of 19 were built.[73][74] In 1996, the German Navy elected to purchase seven additional Super Lynx Mk88As; in 1998, the decision was taken to upgrade the existing Mk88 fleet, by then numbering a total of 17, to the improved Mk88A standard.[75] In the anti-surface role, Germany's Lynx fleet were supplemented by several Westland Sea Kings, which were upgraded with Sea Skua missiles in the 1990s.[76] In 2009, Germany was studying a limited upgrade program for their Super Lynx fleet, this reportedly included the replacement of the current anti-ship missile.[77] In 2013, the German defence ministry signed a contract with Selex ES to integrate new electro-optical/infrared sensors onto the Super Lynx.[74]

Since 2012, German Lynx have been deployed routinely off the coast of Somalia to discourage and intervene against acts of piracy as a part of the multinational Operation Atalanta.[78] In September 2014, 15 of the navy's 22-strong Sea Lynx Mk88A fleet were temporarily grounded following the discovery of fuselage cracks on some aircraft. The German Defense Ministry estimated that the Sea Lynx fleet will return to full strength in early 2015.[79] In the long term, the German Navy is to retire the Super Lynx in favour of the larger and newer NHIndustries NH90.[74]

South Korea[edit]

The Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN) of South Korea took delivery of the first batch of 12 Mk.99 Lynx helicopters in 1990, a second batch of 13 Mk.99A Super Lynx helicopters began delivery in 1999.[80] The first Lynx batch was later upgraded to the same standard as the second batch; the changes included the adoption of a new radar, FLIR, and ESM systems.[81][82] In 2013, South Korea's Defense Acquisition Program Administration announced its selection of the AW159 Wildcat; deliveries of eight aircraft are planned for 2015–16; these will be used for search and rescue, anti-submarine warfare and surveillance missions.[83]

In May 2009, a ROKN Lynx successfully protected a North Korean freighter from pursuing pirates off the coast of Somalia.[84] In 2010, South Korea's Lynx fleet was temporarily grounded for emergency inspections following the crashes of two aircraft within the same week.[80] Shortly afterwards it was discovered that the ROKN's helicopters had been victim to a maintenance scam, involving the falsified documentation and faked replacement of components; by 2011, 12 employees of two South Korean private companies had been jailed, two ROKN officers were indicted, and several other officers were to be remanded as a result.[85]

Others[edit]

French Navy Lynx approaching at a low altitude, 2000

In 1979, the Lynx Mk.2(FN) entered service with the French Naval Aviation of the French Navy, a total of 26 aircraft would be procured.[86] Upon entering service, the French Lynx was more capable of performing independent anti-submarine operations than its Royal Navy counterpart, a single aircraft being capable of simultaneously being equipped for detection and weapon delivery roles.[87] In February 2011, a French Lynx landed on the flight deck of a FREMM multipurpose frigate for the first time as a part of qualifying trials.[88] In addition to France's own Lynx fleet, French Navy vessels have also hosted British Lynx helicopters, such as during an extended counter-piracy deployment onboard the La Fayette-class frigate Surcouf during 2012.[89]

The Royal Netherlands Navy's (RNN) Naval Aviation Service operated fleet of 24 Lynx for a total of 36 years, between 1976 and 2012. These performed search and rescue, anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare tasks while operating from the flightdecks of most RNN vessels during this period. In 1993, the RNN fleet were upgraded to a common Lynx SH-14D standard.[90] In 1999, a design defect in the rotor-head used on some Lynx aircraft was responsible for the loss of a Dutch aircraft in 1999; this led to a number of Lynx worldwide to be temporarily grounded until retrofitted with new titanium rotor-heads.[91] On 28 February 2011, a Dutch Lynx and three navy personnel were captured by Libyan forces while performing an evacuation mission inside the country.[92] On 19 September 2012, the RNN performed its final operational Lynx flight.[90]

The Portuguese Naval Aviation of the Portuguese Navy exclusively operates the Super Lynx Mk.95.[93] In 1990, Portugal signed a contract for a total of five Super Lynx, two of them being refurbished ex-Royal Navy aircraft.[94] A total of two Lynx can be operated from the flight deck of a single Vasco da Gama-class frigate; they typically accompany the vessels, including during long distance deployments for anti-piracy operations off the Horn of Africa.[95]

Super Lynx Mk.21A of the Brazilian Navy on static display, 2005

In 1978, the Brazilian Navy became the first foreign operator of the Lynx helicopter, having taken delivery of its first of a batch of five that year. During the 1990s, the fleet was more than doubled by the acquisition of a further batch of nine.[96] During overseas deployments for multinational training exercises and United Nations operations, the Lynx has been described as "eyes and the ears of the fleet".[97] In 2009, Brazil deployed several Lynx in an effort to locate the missing Air France Flight 447.[98] In 2014, a mid-life upgrade process was agreed for Brazil's Lynx fleet, they shall receive LHTEC CTS800-4N engines, new avionics, satellite navigation systems, countermeasures, and night vision-compatible cockpit displays.[96]

The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) received its six Lynx Mk 86 in 1981. 337 Squadron was reactivated at Bardufoss and declared operational with Lynx in 1983. RNoAF operates the aircraft with the Norwegian Coast Guard's Nordkapp-class offshore patrol vessels. In 2010, one Lynx reached the end of its operational life and was withdrawn from service; a second aircraft suffered a non-fatal crash in 1988 and was totally rebuilt by Westland.[99] The Lynx was to have been progressively replaced by the NH90 from 2005 onwards; however, deliveries of the new type suffered multiple delays, leading to Norway considering life extension measures on some of their Lynx fleet.[100]

The Royal Danish Navy (RDN) took delivery of eight Lynx Mk 80 between 1980 and 1981. A further two Mk 90 were delivered in 1987 and 1988 as attrition replacements. Operated by the Danish Naval Air Squadron, the RDN fleet is typically stationed upon naval inspection vessels and used to patrol Greenland and Faroe Islands as well as the Danish mainland. Beginning in 2000, the whole Lynx fleet was upgraded to Mk 90B standard.[101] On 7 November 2006, a Danish Lynx had the distinction of performing the first helicopter landing onboard a Visby-class corvette of the Swedish Navy.[102] In January 2011, control of the Lynx fleet was transferred from the Danish Navy to the Royal Danish Air Force.[103]

Variants[edit]

Land-based variants[edit]

Westland WG.13
Prototype, first flight 21 March 1971. Thirteen prototypes built.[104]
Lynx AH.1
Initial production version for the British Army Air Corps, powered by 671 kW (900 hp) Gem 2 engines,[105] with first production example flying 11 February 1977, and deliveries continuing until February 1984, with 113 built.[106] Used for a variety of tasks, including tactical transport, armed escort, anti-tank warfare (60 were equipped with eight TOW missiles as Lynx AH.1 (TOW) from 1981),[107] reconnaissance and casualty evacuation.[108]
Lynx AH.1GT
Interim conversion of the AH.1 to partial AH.7 standard for the Army Air Corps with uprated engines and revised tail rotor.[109]
Lynx HT.1
Planned training version for Royal Air Force to replace the Westland Whirlwind, cancelled.[109][110]
Lynx AH.5
Upgraded version for the Army Air Corps, with 835 kW (1,120 shp) Gem 41-1 engines and uprated gearbox.[111] Three built as AH.5 (Interim) as Trials aircraft for MoD. Eight ordered as AH.5s for Army Air Corps, of which only two built as AH.5s, with remaining six completed as AH.7s.[112] Four were later upgraded to AH.7 standard and one was retained for trials work as an AH.5X.
Lynx AH.6
Proposed version for the Royal Marines with undercarriage, folding tail and deck harpoon of Naval Lynx. Not built.[112]
Lynx AH.7
Further upgraded version for the Army Air Corps, with Gem 41-1 engines and uprated gearbox of AH.5 and new, larger, composite tail rotor. Later refitted with BERP type rotor blades. Twelve new build, with 107 Lynx AH.1s converted.[113] A small number also used by the Fleet Air Arm in support of the Royal Marines.[114] The Lynx AH.7 can also be outfitted for the anti-armour role, with the attachment of 2 pylons, each carrying four, BGM-71 TOW, anti-tank guided missiles. In the light-lift role, it can carry an aircrewman armed with a cabin door mounted machine gun, as well as troops for fast-rope or abseiling insertions, or regular landings. It can also transport cargo. Now replaced by the WAH-64 Apache as the only attack helicopter.
Lynx AH.7(DAS)
AH.7 with Defensive Aids Subsystem.
Lynx AH.9 ("Battlefield Lynx")
Utility version for Army Air Corps, based on AH.7, but with wheeled undercarriage and further upgraded gearbox. Sixteen new-built plus eight converted from AH.7s.[115]
Lynx AH.9A
AH.9 with uprated LHTEC CTS800-4N 1,015 kW (1,362 shp) engines.[116] All 22 have been upgraded.[117] A small number also used by the Fleet Air Arm in support of the Royal Marines.

Naval variants[edit]

Royal Navy Lynx HAS.3(ICE(S)) supporting an Antarctic research base
Lynx HAS.3 of the Black Cats (Royal Navy) display team
Lynx HAS.2 / Mk.2(FN)
Initial production version for the Royal Navy (HAS.2) and the French Navy (Mk.2(FN)), powered by Gem 2 engines and with wheeled undercarriage, folding rotors and tail and deck harpoon. HAS.2 equipped with British Sea Spray radar, with Mk.2(FN) having French radar and dipping sonar. When it is used in the anti-submarine role, it can carry two torpedoes or depth charges. For anti-surface warfare, it is equipped with either four Sea Skua missiles (Royal Navy) or four AS.12 missiles (French Navy).[118] 60 built for Royal Navy,[119] and 26 for France.[86]
Lynx HAS.3
Improved version of HAS.2 powered by Gem 42-1 engines and with upgraded gearbox. Thirty built from new, with deliveries starting in March 1982 and all remaining HAS.2s (53 aircraft) converted to HAS.3 standards.[120][121]
Lynx HAS.3S
Improved version of the HAS.3 for the Royal Navy fitted with secure radio systems.[122]
Lynx HAS.3GM
Modified helicopters for the Royal Navy, for service in the Persian Gulf, with improved electronic warfare equipment, revised IFF and provision for Forward looking infrared (FLIR) under fuselage. Originally deployed for 1990–91 Gulf War. Designated HAS.3S/GM when fitted with secure radios.[122] (GM denotes Gulf Modification).
Lynx HAS.3ICE
HAS.3 modified for Antarctic service aboard ice patrol ships HMS Endurance. Designated HAS.3SICE when fitted with secure radios.[123]
Lynx HAS.3CTS
HAS.3 upgraded with avionics system proposed for HMA.8. Seven converted as test beds.[123]
Lynx Mk.4(FN)
Upgraded version for the Aéronavale, with Gem 42-1 engines. Fourteen built.[123]
Lynx HMA.8
Upgraded maritime attack version based on Super Lynx 100. Gem 42-200 engines, BERP type main rotors and larger tail rotor of AH.7. Fitted with FLIR in turret above nose, with radar moved to radome below nose.[124]
Lynx HMA.8(DSP)
Digital Signal Processor.
Lynx HMA.8(DAS)
Defensive Aids Subsystem. DSP aircraft were modified.
Lynx HMA.8(SRU)
SATURN (Second-generation Anti-jam Tactical UHF Radio for NATO) Radio Upgrade. DAS aircraft modified. Incorporates SIFF (Successor to IFF).
Lynx HMA.8(CMP)
Combined Mods Programme. SRU aircraft modified with improved communications and defensive systems.
Note: At the time of writing, all HMA.8 aircraft have been upgraded to CMP standard and as such HMA.8(CMP) aircraft have since been re-designated back to HMA.8(SRU). The Lynx HAS.8 fleet are currently undergoing further modifications, by the Lynx Operational Support Team, to improve self-defense, mission execution and survivability. These modifications will not affect the SRU designation.

Export variants[edit]

A boarding team rappel onto their ship from a Brazilian Navy Super Lynx Mk.21A
Personnel being hoisted onboard by a Royal Danish Navy Lynx
Lynx Mk.90B landing on a Royal Danish Navy Thetis-class vessel
Super Lynx of the Brazilian Navy
Lynx Mk.21
Export version of the HAS.2 for the Brazilian Navy. Brazilian navy designation SAH-11. Nine delivered.[125]
Super Lynx Mk.21A
Version of the Super Lynx (based on HAS.8) for the Brazilian navy, with Gem 42 engines and 360° traverse Seaspray 3000 radar under nose. Nine new build helicopters plus upgrades of remaining five original Mk.21s.[126][127]
Lynx Mk.22
Unbuilt export version for the Egyptian Navy.[125]
Lynx Mk.23
Export version of the HAS.2 for the Argentine Navy. Two built. Grounded due to British embargo on spares following Falklands War. Single surviving helicopter later sold to Denmark.[125] The two Lynx 23s took part in the Argentine invasion and occupation of the Falkland Island in March 1982 as part of Task Force 40, one was lost in a accident on Santisma Trinidad on 2 May 1982.[128]
Lynx Mk.24
Unbuilt export utility version for the Iraqi army.[112]
Lynx Mk.25
Export version of the HAS.2 for the Royal Netherlands Navy. Designated UH-14A in Dutch service. Used for utility and SAR roles.[125] Six built.[129]
Lynx Mk.26
Unbuilt export armed version for the Iraqi army.[112]
Lynx Mk.27
Export version for the Royal Netherlands Navy with 836 kW (1,120 kW) Gem 4 engines. Equipped for ASW missions with dipping sonar. Designated SH-14B in Dutch service. 10 built.[120]
Lynx Mk.28
Export version of the AH.1 for the Qatar Police. Three built.[112]
Lynx Mk.64
Export version of the Super Lynx for the South African Air Force.
Lynx Mk.80
Export version for the Royal Danish Navy based on the HAS.3 but with non-folding tail. Eight built.[130]
Lynx Mk.81
Upgraded ASW version for the Royal Netherlands Navy, powered by Gem 41 engines with no sonar but fitted with towed Magnetic anomaly detector. Designated SH-14C in Dutch service, and mainly used for training and utility purposes. Eight built.[131]
SH-14D
UH-14A/SH-14B/SH-14C Lynx upgraded to a common standard by the Royal Netherlands Navy under the STAMOL programme with Gem 42 engines, provision for dipping sonar and FLIR. 22 upgraded.[131]
Lynx Mk.82
Unbuilt export version for the Egyptian army.[112]
Lynx Mk.83
Unbuilt export version for the Saudi Arabian army.[112]
Lynx Mk 84
Unbuilt export version for the Qatar army.[112]
Lynx Mk 85
Unbuilt export version for the United Arab Emirates army.[112]
Lynx Mk.86
Export SAR version of the HAS.2 for the Royal Norwegian Air Force.[120]
Lynx Mk.87
Embargoed export version for the Argentine navy. Two completed and sold to Denmark as Mk.90[131]
Lynx Mk.88
Export version for the German Navy with Gem 42 engines, and dipping sonar. Nineteen built.[73]
Super Lynx Mk.88A
Upgraded export version for the German Navy with Gem 42 engines, under-nose radome with 360° traverse radar and FLIR above nose. Seven new build helicopters plus conversion of 17 Mk.88s.[75][93]
Lynx Mk.89
Export version of HAS.3 for the Nigerian navy. Three built.[73]
Lynx Mk.90
Export version for the Royal Danish Navy, modified from embargoed Argentine Mk.87s. Lynx Mk.90A is the upgraded version.[73] The Lynx Mk.90 and Mk.90A were upgraded to Super Lynx standard and designated Mk.90B.[93]
Lynx Mk.95
Version of Super Lynx for the Portuguese Navy, with Bendix radar in undernose radome, dipping sonar but no FLIR. Three new build plus two converted ex-Royal Navy HAS.3s.[93]
Super Lynx Mk.99
Version of Super Lynx for the South Korean Navy, with Seaspray 3 radar in undernose radome, dipping sonar, and FLIR, for anti-submarine and anti-ship operations.[132] Twelve were built. Super Lynx Mk.99A is the upgraded version with improved rotor, with a further 13 built.[133]
Super Lynx Mk.100
Super Lynx for the Royal Malaysian Navy, with 990 kW (1,327 hp) CTS-800-4N engines.[134] Six built.[135]
Super Lynx Mk.110
Super Lynx 300 for Thai Navy. Four ordered.[135][136]
Super Lynx Mk.120
Export version for the Royal Air Force of Oman. 16 built.[135]
Super Lynx Mk.130
Export version for the Algerian Navy. Four ordered.[137]
Super Lynx 300
Advanced Super Lynx with CTS-800-4N engines.[134]

Projects[edit]

Lynx HT.3
Proposed training version for the Royal Air Force, not built.
Lynx-3
Enhanced Lynx variant with Westland 30 tail boom and rotor, Gem 60 engines, new wheeled tricycle undercarriage and MIL-STD-1553 databus. Only one prototype built (serial/registration ZE477 / G-17-24) in 1984.[22]
Battlefield Lynx
Proposed export version of Lynx AH.9.
Battlefield Lynx 800
Proposed export version of Lynx AH.9 with LHTEC T800 engines,[138] the project was suspended in 1992.[139] One demonstrator helicopter was built and flight tested.[16]
Lynx ACH
Proposed Advanced Compound Helicopter technology demonstrator, partly funded by the Ministry of Defence. Announced in May 1998, the ACH was planned to be powered by RTM322 engines with variable area exhaust nozzles and a gearbox from the Westland 30-200, have wings attached at cabin roof level and BERP rotor blades. It was predicted to fly approximately 50% faster than a standard Lynx.[140]
Westland 606
Proposed civilian variant.[141]
Westland 606-10 proposed civil variant powered by Pratt & Whitney PT6-34B engines.
Westland 606-20 proposed civil variant powered by Gem engines.

Derivatives[edit]

Westland 30
Medium helicopter based on the Lynx, using some dynamic systems with a new, enlarged fuselage for up to 22 passengers.
AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat
Further development of the Super Lynx with two LHTEC CTS800 engines; previously known as the Future Lynx.

NOTES: AH = Army Helicopter, HAS = Helicopter, Anti-Submarine, HMA = Helicopter, Maritime Attack, IFF = Identification Friend or Foe, (GM) = Gulf Modification, (S) = Secure speech radio, and SIFF = Successor to IFF.

Operators[edit]

German Lynx departs USS Whidbey Island
 Algeria
 Brazil
 Denmark
 France
 Germany
 Malaysia
 Oman
A Royal Danish Navy Lynx 90
 Portugal
 South Africa
 South Korea
 Nigeria
 Thailand
 United Kingdom

Former operators[edit]

Lynx of the South African Navy
 Argentina
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Pakistan

Aircraft on display[edit]

Specifications (Super Lynx Series 100)[edit]

Westland LYNX.png
Rendering of a Lynx in Army Air Corps livery

Data from Flight International World Aircraft and Systems Directory (3rd ed.),[page needed] British Army[38]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2 or 3
  • Capacity: 8 troops
  • Payload: 1,480 kg [150] (Brochure)
  • Length: 15.241 m (50 ft)
  • Rotor diameter: 12.80 m (42 ft)
  • Height: 3.734 m for mk7; 3.785 m for mk9 (12.25 ft for mk7; 12.41 ft for mk9)
  • Disc area: 128.71 m² (1,385 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 3,291 kg (7,255 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 5,330 kg (11,750 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Gem turboshaft, 835 kW (1,120 shp) each

Performance

Armament

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Upon the introduction of the uprated Gem-4 engine, the engine was described by Roy Heathcot, Rolls-Royce's Chief Engineer at Leavesden, as having virtually no competition at its power range.[23]
  2. ^ Aerodynamicists at Westland calculated that a Lynx equipped with BERP rotor blades generate approximately 35% more thrust before encountering blade stall than conventional counterparts; the validity of this finding has been called into question however.[30]
  3. ^ According to Flight International, the anti-tank capabilities of the Lynx compare favorably to the Apache attack helicopter.[22]
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Bibliography

External links[edit]