Westminster (UK Parliament constituency)

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Westminster
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
1545–1918
Number of members two to 1885, then one
Replaced by Westminster Abbey and Westminster St George's
Created from Middlesex

Westminster was a parliamentary constituency in the Parliament of England to 1707, the Parliament of Great Britain 1707-1800 and the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801. It returned two members to 1885 and one thereafter.

The constituency was first known to have been represented in Parliament in 1545 and continued to exist until the redistribution of seats in 1918. The constituency's most famous former representatives are Charles James Fox and John Stuart Mill.

Boundaries and boundary changes[edit]

Westminster in the Metropolitan area from 1868 to 1885.
Westminster in the Metropolitan area, showing boundaries used from 1885 to 1918.

The City of Westminster is a district of Inner London. Its southern boundary is on the north bank of the River Thames. It is located to the west of the City of London, to the south of Holborn and St. Pancras and to the east of Kensington and Chelsea.

Before 1545 the area which became this borough constituency was represented as part of the county constituency of Middlesex. Until 1885 the constituency had two representatives.

In the 1885 redistribution of seats the Westminster area (within the expanded boundaries of what became the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster which was created in 1900) was divided into three single-member seats. The south-eastern part, including the traditional heart of Westminster and such important centres of power as the Houses of Parliament and the seat of government in Whitehall, continued to be a constituency called Westminster. The official definition of the areas included was "the Westminster district and Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter". In the north-east was the constituency of Strand and to the west that of St George's, Hanover Square.

In the 1918 redistribution the Metropolitan Borough was divided into two single member constituencies, Westminster St George's in the west and Westminster Abbey in the east. The Abbey division incorporated the area of the 1885-1918 Westminster constituency.

History[edit]

This was a prestigious constituency, because it represented the centre of British government and had such a large electorate that it was independent of the control of a patron.

Before the Reform Act 1832 the right to vote was held by the male inhabitants paying Scot and Lot (a kind of local property tax). This was an extensive franchise, by the standards of that era. Westminster had the largest electorate of any borough in the Kingdom. Only the largest county constituency of Yorkshire had more voters. Sedgwick estimated the electorate at about 8,000 in the first half of the eighteenth century. Namier and Brooke estimated that there were about 12,000 voters later in the century. The large size of the electorate made contested elections immensely expensive.

In the sixteenth century the Church officials associated with Westminster Abbey had a large influence in the area, but as the community became bigger that became less important. The Court (or His Majesty's Treasury) had some legitimate influence (by the standards of the age), because of the royal residences and government offices in the borough. The use of public funds to bribe the electorate was not unknown, during close elections (see the comments about the cost of the 1780 and 1784 contests below). Local landowners who were prepared to stir up ill-will by threatening to evict or raise the rents of tenants voting the wrong way, could also affect the result.

Unlawful means were sometimes used to make sure that the right candidates were elected. In 1722 the election of two Tories was declared void because of rioting which prevented some Whigs voting. In 1741 a Whig returning officer called upon the assistance of some troops to close the poll before the Tory candidates could catch up to the Whig votes.

The House of Commons declared the 1741 election void with the ringing resolution that "the presence of a regular body of armed soldiers at an election of members to sit in Parliament, is a high infringement of the liberties of the subject, a manifest violation of the freedom of election and an open defiance of the laws and constitution of this kingdom".

By the eighteenth century it was normal for the members to be Irish peers, the sons of peers or baronets, as it was thought appropriate for them to be of high social standing so as to be worthy to represent the seat.

The Treasury spent the enormous sums of more than £8,000 in 1780 and £9,000 in 1784, in unsuccessful attempts to defeat the opposition Whig leader Charles James Fox. So expensive were these contests that for the next general election in 1790, the government and opposition leaders reached a formal agreement for each to have one member returned unopposed. However in the event a second Whig candidate did appear, but the Tory (the famous Admiral Lord Hood) and Fox were re-elected without too much difficulty.

The last MP for this constituency, William Burdett-Coutts, was connected with a family prominent in City of Westminster politics since the eighteenth century. He himself was born in the United States in 1851, his grandparents on both sides having been British subjects. After he married Baroness Burdett-Coutts in 1881 he changed his surname from Bartlett to Burdett-Coutts. He represented the area from 1885 until 1918 and continued to sit for the Abbey division until his death in 1921.

Lists of Members of Parliament[edit]

Preliminary note: The English civil year started on 25 March until 1752 (Scotland having changed to 1 January in 1600). The years used in this article have been converted to the new style where necessary. It should be noted that old style dates would be a year earlier than the new style for days between 1 January and 24 March. No attempt has been made to compensate for the eleven days which did not occur in September 1752 in both England and Scotland as well as other British controlled territories (when the day after 2 September was 14 September), so as to bring the British Empire fully in line with the Gregorian calendar.

Members of Parliament 1545-1660[edit]

Some of the members elected during this period have been identified. The year first given is for the initial meeting of the Parliament, with the month added where there was more than one Parliament in the year. If a second year is given this is a date of dissolution. Early Parliaments sometimes only existed for a few days or weeks, so dissolutions in the same year as the first meeting are not recorded in this list If a specific date of election is known this is recorded in italic brackets. The Roman numerals in brackets, following some names, are those used to distinguish different politicians of the same name in 'The House of Commons' 1509-1558 and 1558-1603.

Year First member Second member
1545-1547 Robert Smallwood John Russell (II)
1547-1552 (Sir) George Blagge, died
and repl.Jan 1552 by
Robert Nowell
John Rede (I)
1553 (Mar) (Sir) Robert Southwell Arthur Stourton
1553 (Oct) Robert Southwell William Gyes
1554 (April) William Gyes Richard Hodges
1554 (Nov)-1555 William Jennings William Gyes
1555 Arthur Stourton Richard Hodges
1558 Nicholas Newdigate John Best
1559 (elected 7 January 1559) Richard Hodges John Best
1563-1567 (elected 1562/3) Robert Nowell William Bowyer (II)
1571 Sir William Cordell William Staunton
1572-1583 Thomas Wilbraham, died
and repl. 1576 by
John Osborne
John Dodington
1584-1585 Hon. Robert Cecil Thomas Knyvett
1586-1587 Hon. Robert Cecil Thomas Knyvett
1589 (elected 20 December 1588) Thomas Knyvett Peter Osborne
1593 Richard Cecil Thomas Cole
1597-1598 (elected 27 September 1597) Thomas Knyvett Thomas Cole died
and repl. January 1598 by
Anthony Mildmay
1601 (elected 26 September 1601) Thomas Knyvett William Cooke (II)
1604 Sir Thomas Knyvett Sir Walter Cope
1614 Sir Humphrey May Edmund Doubleday
1621 Sir Edward Villiers Edmund Doubleday
(died before taking his seat and replaced by
William Mann)
1624 Sir Edward Villiers William Mann
1625 Sir Edward Villiers William Mann
1626 Sir Robert Pye Peter Heywood
1628 Joseph Bradshaw Thomas Morice
Apr 1640 Sir John Glynne William Bell
Nov 1640 Sir John Glynne William Bell
Glynne disabled 7 September 1747 but restored 7 June 1648
Glynne and Bell both possibly secluded in Pride's Purge
Westminster unrepresented in the Rump and Barebones Parliament
1654 Thomas Latham Thomas Falconbridge
1656 Colonel Edward Grosvenor Edward Cary
1659 Edward Grosvenor Richard Sherwyn

Members of Parliament 1660-1918[edit]

Key to parties: C Conservative from 1832, L Liberal from 1832, NP Non Partisan candidate (no party or no party identified), T Tory to 1832, W Whig to 1832.

From To Name (Party) Born Died
1660 1660 Gilbert Gerard (NP) c. 1618 5 November 1683
1660 1660 Thomas Clarges (NP) c. 1618 4 October 1695
1661 1679 Sir Philip Warwick (NP) 24 December 1609 15 January 1683
1661 1679 Sir Richard Everard (NP) c. 1625 29 August 1694
1679 1679 Sir Stephen Fox (NP) 27 March 1627 28 October 1716
1679 1685 Sir William Pulteney (NP) 25 March 1624 6 September 1691
1679 1680 Francis Wythens (NP) c. 1635 9 May 1704
1680 1685 Sir William Waller (NP) c. 1639 18 July 1699
1685 1686 Charles Bonython (T) c. 1653 30 April 1705
1685 1686 Michael Arnold (T) ... 31 August 1690
1689 1691 Sir William Pulteney (W) 25 March 1624 6 September 1691
1689 1690 Hon. Philip Howard (W) 5 March 1629 September 1717
1690 1695 Sir Walter Clarges, Bt (T) 4 July 1653 March 1706
1691 1698 Sir Stephen Fox (NP) 27 March 1627 28 October 1716
1695 1701 Charles Montagu (NP) 16 April 1661 19 May 1715
1698 1702 James Vernon (NP) 1 April 1646 31 January 1727
1701 1701 Sir Thomas Crosse (T) 29 November 1664 27 May 1738
1701 1702 Sir Henry Colt (NP) c. 1646 25 April 1731
1702 1705 Sir Walter Clarges, Bt (T) 4 July 1653 March 1706
1702 1705 Sir Thomas Crosse (T) 29 November 1664 27 May 1738
1705 1710 Henry Boyle (NP) 12 July 1669 14 March 1725
1705 1708 Sir Henry Colt (NP) c. 1646 25 April 1731
1708 1715 Thomas Medlycott (NP) 22 May 1662 July 1738
1710 1722 Sir Thomas Crosse, Bt (T) 29 November 1664 27 May 1738
1715 1722 Hon. Edward Wortley-Montagu (W) 8 February 1678 22 January 1761
1722 1722 Archibald Hutcheson (T) c. 1659 12 August 1740
1722 1722 John Cotton (T) 22 October 1671 December 1736
1722 1727 Charles Montagu (W) after 1695 29 May 1759
1722 1727 1st Baron Carpenter (W) 10 February 1657 10 February 1732
1727 1734 Lord Charles Cavendish (W) after 1700 28 April 1783
1727 1741 William Clayton (1st Baron Sundon) (W) 9 November 1671 29 April 1752
1734 1741 Sir Charles Wager (W) c. 1666 24 May 1743
1741 1747 Viscount Perceval (T) 24 February 1711 20 December 1770
1741 1747 Charles Edwin (T) c. 1699 29 June 1756
1747 1754 Viscount Trentham (W) 4 August 1721 26 October 1803
1747 1752 Sir Peter Warren (W) c. 1703 29 July 1752
1753 1762 Hon. Edward Cornwallis (W,NP) 22 February 1713 14 January 1776
1754 1761 Sir John Crosse, Bt (NP) c. 1700 12 March 1762
1761 1763 Viscount Pulteney (NP) c. 1731 11 February 1763
1762 1770 Hon. Edwin Sandys (NP) 18 April 1726 11 March 1797
1763 1776 Baron Warkworth (Earl Percy) (NP) 14 August 1742 10 July 1817
1770 1774 Sir Robert Bernard, Bt (NP) c. 1739 2 January 1789
1774 1780 Lord Thomas Pelham-Clinton (NP) 1 July 1752 18 May 1795
1776 1779 Viscount Petersham (NP) 20 March 1753 15 September 1829
1779 1780 Viscount Malden (NP) 13 November 1757 23 April 1839
1780 1782 Sir George Brydges Rodney, Bt (W) 13 February 1719 24 May 1792
1780 1784 Rt. Hon. Charles James Fox (W) 24 January 1749 13 September 1806
1782 1784 Sir Cecil Wray, Bt (W) 3 September 1734 10 January 1805
1784 1788 Samuel Hood (T) 12 December 1724 27 January 1816
1784 1806 Rt. Hon. Charles James Fox (W) 24 January 1749 13 September 1806
1788 1790 Lord John Townshend (W) 19 January 1757 25 February 1833
1790 1796 Samuel Hood (T) 12 December 1724 27 January 1816
1796 1806 Sir Alan Gardner, Bt (1st Baron Gardner) (T) 12 April 1742 1 January 1809
1806 1806 Earl Percy (W) 20 April 1785 11 February 1847
1806 1807 Sir Samuel Hood (T) 27 November 1762 24 December 1814
1806 1807 Richard Brinsley Sheridan (W) 30 October 1751 7 July 1816
1807 1837 Sir Francis Burdett, Bt (W,L,C) 25 January 1770 23 January 1844
1807 1818 Lord Cochrane (W) 14 December 1775 31 October 1860
1818 1818 Sir Samuel Romilly (W) 1 March 1757 2 November 1818
1819 1820 Hon. George Lamb (T) 11 July 1784 2 January 1834
1820 1833 Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Bt (W,L) 27 June 1786 3 June 1869
1833 1841 George de Lacy Evans (L) 1787 9 January 1870
1837 1847 John Temple Leader (L) 7 May 1810 1903
1841 1846 Hon. Henry John Rous (C) 23 January 1795 19 June 1877
1846 1865 Sir George de Lacy Evans (L) 1787 9 January 1870
1847 1852 Charles Lushington (L) 14 April 1785 23 September 1866
1852 1865 Sir John Shelley, Bt (L) 18 March 1808 26 January 1867
1865 1874 Hon. Robert Wellesley Grosvenor (L) 25 January 1834 13 November 1914
1865 1868 John Stuart Mill (NP) 20 May 1806 8 May 1873
1868 1885 William Henry Smith (C) 24 June 1825 6 October 1891
1874 1882 Sir Charles Russell, Bt (C) 22 June 1826 14 April 1883
1882 1885 Lord Algernon Percy (C) 2 October 1851 28 December 1933
1885 1918 William L.A.B. Burdett-Coutts (C) 1851 28 July 1921
  • Constituency abolished (1918)

Elections[edit]

General notes[edit]

In multi-member elections the bloc voting system was used. Voters could cast a vote for one or two candidates, as they chose. The leading candidates with the largest number of votes were elected.

In by-elections and all elections after 1885, to fill a single seat, the first past the post system applied.

After 1832, when registration of voters was introduced, a turnout figure is given for contested elections. In two-member elections, when the exact number of participating voters is unknown, this is calculated by dividing the number of votes by two. To the extent that electors did not use both their votes this will be an underestimate of turnout.

Where a party had more than one candidate in one or both of a pair of successive elections change is calculated for each individual candidate, otherwise change is based on the party vote. Change figures at by-elections are from the preceding general election or the last intervening by-election. Change figures at general elections are from the last general election.

Candidates for whom no party has been identified are classified as Non Partisan. The candidate might have been associated with a party or faction in Parliament or consider himself to belong to a particular political tradition. Political parties before the nineteenth century were not as cohesive or organised as they later became. Contemporary commentators (even the reputed leaders of parties or factions) in the eighteenth century did not necessarily agree who the party supporters were. The traditional parties, which had arisen in the late seventeenth century, became increasingly irrelevant to politics in the eighteenth century (particularly after 1760), although for some contests in some constituencies party labels were still used. It was only towards the end of the century that party labels began to acquire some meaning again, although this process was by no means complete for several more generations.

Sources: The results for elections before 1790 were taken from the History of Parliament Trust publications on the House of Commons. The results from 1790 until the UK general election, 1832 are based on Stooks Smith and from 1832 onwards on Craig. Where Stooks Smith gives additional information to the other sources this is indicated in a note.

Dates of Westminster general and by-elections 1660-1918[edit]

  • -2 Apr 1660 GE
  • -- Apr 1661 GE
  • 27 Feb 1679 GE
  • 19 Sep 1679 GE
  • 15 Nov 1680 BE
  • 10 Feb 1681 GE
  • 23 Mar 1685 GE
  • 21 Jan 1689 GE
  • 13 Mar 1690 GE
  • -9 Nov 1691 BE
  • 29 Oct 1695 GE
  • 22 Jul 1698 GE
  • 21 Jan 1701 GE
  • -9 Dec 1701 GE
  • -6 Aug 1702 GE
  • 30 May 1705 GE
  • -7 Jul 1708 GE
  • -9 Oct 1710 GE
  • -- --- 1713 GE
  • 24 Jan 1715 GE
  • 27 Mar 1722 GE (1)
  • -3 Dec 1722 BE
  • 15 Aug 1727 GE
  • 22 Apr 1734 GE
  • -8 May 1741 GE (1)
  • 31 Dec 1741 BE
  • -1 Jul 1747 GE
  • 15 May 1750 BE
  • 16 Jan 1753 BE
  • 20 Apr 1754 GE
  • 25 Mar 1761 GE
  • 27 Apr 1762 BE
  • 15 Mar 1763 BE
  • 16 Mar 1768 GE
  • 30 Apr 1770 BE
  • 26 Oct 1774 GE
  • 17 Dec 1776 BE
  • 20 Apr 1779 BE
  • 10 Oct 1780 GE
  • -3 Apr 1782 BE
  • 12 Jun 1782 BE
  • -7 Apr 1783 BE
  • 17 May 1784 GE
  • -4 Aug 1788 BE
  • -2 Jul 1790 GE
  • 13 Jun 1796 GE
  • 15 Jul 1802 GE
  • 13 Feb 1806 BE
  • -7 Oct 1806 BE
  • 19 Nov 1806 GE
  • 23 May 1807 GE
  • -8 Oct 1812 GE
  • -5 Jul 1814 (2)
  • 16 Jul 1814 BE
  • -4 Jul 1818 GE
  • -3 Mar 1819 BE
  • 25 Mar 1820 GE
  • -- --- 1826 GE
  • -- --- 1830 GE
  • -- --- 1831 GE
  • -- Feb 1832 BE
  • -- --- 1832 GE
  • -4 Apr 1833 BE
  • 11 May 1833 BE
  • -- --- 1835 GE
  • 12 May 1837 BE
  • 27 Jul 1837 GE
  • -1 Jul 1841 GE
  • 19 Feb 1846 BE
  • 30 Jul 1847 GE
  • -9 Jul 1852 GE
  • -- --- 1857 GE
  • -- --- 1859 GE
  • 12 Jul 1865 GE
  • 18 Nov 1868 GE
  • -7 Feb 1874 GE
  • 11 Aug 1877 BE
  • -- --- 1880 GE
  • 10 Feb 1882 BE
  • 29 Jun 1885 BE
  • 26 Nov 1885 GE
  • -- --- 1886 GE
  • -- --- 1892 GE
  • -- --- 1895 GE
  • -- --- 1900 GE
  • -- --- 1906 GE
  • -- Jan 1910 GE
  • -- Dec 1910 GE

Notes:

  • (1) Election declared void
  • (2) Date of expulsion from the House of Lord Cochrane

Election results (Parliament of England) 1660-1690[edit]

General Election 2 April 1660: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Gilbert Gerard Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan Thomas Clarges Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election c. April 1661: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir Philip Warwick Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Sir Richard Everard Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Sir Thomas Clarges Defeated N/A N/A
Non Partisan Thomas Elliot Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (1661): Vote totals unavailable
General Election 27 February 1679: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir Stephen Fox Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Sir William Pulteney Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Sir Philip Matthews Defeated N/A N/A
Non Partisan Sir William Waller Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (February 1679): Vote totals unavailable
General Election 19 September 1679: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir William Pulteney Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Francis Wythens Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Sir William Waller Defeated N/A N/A
Non Partisan Sir John Cutler Defeated N/A N/A
Non Partisan Sir Philip Matthews Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (September 1679): Vote totals unavailable
  • On petition Wythens was unseated and Sir William Waller seated on 15 November 1680
General Election 10 February 1681: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir William Pulteney Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Sir William Waller Elected N/A N/A
Non Partisan Richard Tufton Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (1681): Vote totals unavailable
General Election 23 March 1685: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Charles Bonython Elected N/A N/A
Tory Michael Arnold Elected N/A N/A
Whig Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bt Defeated N/A N/A
Whig Sir William Dolbern Defeated N/A N/A
General Election 21 January 1689: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir William Pulteney Elected N/A N/A
Whig Hon. Philip Howard Elected N/A N/A
Tory Sir Roger Langley Defeated N/A N/A
Tory Charles Bonython Defeated N/A N/A
Radical Sir Philip Matthews Defeated N/A N/A
Tory Sir Walter Clarges, Bt Defeated N/A N/A
Radical James Dewey Defeated N/A N/A
  • Note (1689): Vote totals unavailable. Matthews and Dewey are described by Henning as radical candidates, but should not be confused with the followers of John Wilkes in the late eighteenth century or the radicals of the nineteenth century.

Election results (Parliament of Great Britain) 1715-1800[edit]

General Election 24 January 1715: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Hon. Edward Wortley-Montagu Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory Sir Thomas Crosse, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 27 March 1722: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Archibald Hutcheson 4,024 32.74 N/A
Tory John Cotton 3,853 31.35 N/A
Whig William Lowndes 2,215 18.02 N/A
Whig Sir Thomas Crosse, Bt 2,197 17.88 N/A
  • 1st Baron Molesworth (W) was proposed but withdrew before the poll.
  • Election declared void 6 November 1722.
By-Election 3 December 1722: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Charles Montagu 4,835 30.87 +30.87
Whig 1st Baron Carpenter 4,515 28.83 +28.83
Tory John Cotton 3,485 22.25 -9.10
Tory Sir Thomas Clarges 2,827 18.05 +18.05
General Election 15 August 1727: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Lord Charles Cavendish Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig William Clayton Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 22 April 1734: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Charles Wager Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig William Clayton Unopposed N/A N/A
  • Clayton created an Irish peer as 1st Baron Sundon 2 June 1735
General Election 8 May 1741: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Charles Wager 3,686 26.96 N/A
Whig 1st Baron Sundon 3,533 25.84 N/A
Tory Edward Vernon 3,290 24.07 N/A
Tory Charles Edwin 3,161 23.12 N/A
  • Election declared void 22 December 1741.
By-Election 31 December 1741: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Viscount Perceval Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory Charles Edwin Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 1 July 1747: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Viscount Trentham 2,873 42.32 N/A
Whig Sir Peter Warren 2,858 42.10 N/A
Tory Sir Thomas Clarges 544 8.01 N/A
Tory Sir Thomas Dyke 514 7.57 N/A
By-Election 15 May 1750: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Viscount Trentham 4,811 50.83 +8.51
Tory Sir George Vandeput 4,654 49.17 +49.17
Majority 157 1.66 N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
  • After a scrutiny the member returned was unchanged and vote totals were amended to Trentham 4,103; Vandeput 3,933.
  • Death of Warren 29 July 1752
By-Election 16 January 1753: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Hon. Edward Cornwallis Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 20 April 1754: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Hon. Edward Cornwallis 3,385 48.09 N/A
Non Partisan Sir John Crosse, Bt 3,184 45.23 N/A
Non Partisan James Edward Oglethorpe 261 3.71 N/A
Non Partisan Earl of Middlesex 209 2.97 N/A
General Election 25 March 1761: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Hon. Edward Cornwallis Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan Viscount Pulteney Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election 27 April 1762: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Hon. Edwin Sandys Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Pulteney 11 February 1763
By-Election 15 March 1763: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Baron Warkworth Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General Election 16 March 1768: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Hon. Edwin Sandys Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan Earl Percy Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election 30 April 1770: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir Robert Bernard, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General Election 26 October 1774: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Earl Percy 4,994 33.81 N/A
Non Partisan Lord Thomas Pelham-Clinton 4,774 32.32 N/A
Non Partisan 2nd Viscount Mountmorres 2,531 17.13 N/A
Non Partisan Viscount Mahon 2,342 15.86 N/A
Non Partisan Humphrey Cotes 130 0.88 N/A
  • Succession of Percy to his mother's title, as 3rd Baron Percy on 5 December 1776
By-Election 17 December 1776: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Viscount Petersham Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
By-Election 20 April 1779: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Viscount Malden Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Pelham-Clinton was known by the courtesy title of Earl of Lincoln, following the death of his brother in 1779
General Election 10 October 1780: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir George Brydges Rodney, Bt 4,994 35.60 +35.60
Whig Hon. Charles James Fox 4,878 34.77 +34.77
Tory Earl of Lincoln 4,157 29.63 -2.69
By-Election 3 April 1782: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Rt Hon. Charles James Fox Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-Election 12 June 1782: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Cecil Wray, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-Election 7 April 1783: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Rt Hon. Charles James Fox Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 17 May 1784: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory 1st Baron Hood 6,588 35.40 +35.40
Whig Rt Hon. Charles James Fox 6,126 32.92 -1.85
Whig Sir Cecil Wray, Bt 5,895 31.68 +31.68
  • Note (1784): Poll 40 days; 12,301 voted. After a scrutiny the members returned were unchanged and vote totals were amended to the figures as above. Original votes Hood 6,694; Fox 6,234; Wray 5,998. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Hood and Fox were declared elected 4 March 1785
  • Appointment of Hood as a Commissioner of the Admiralty 16 July 1788
By-Election 4 August 1788: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Lord John Townshend 6,392 53.44 +53.44
Tory 1st Baron Hood 5,569 46.56 +11.16
Majority 823 6.88 N/A
Whig gain from Tory Swing N/A
  • Note (1788): Poll 15 days. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 2 July 1790: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Rt Hon. Charles James Fox 3,516 41.80 +8.88
Tory 1st Baron Hood 3,217 38.24 +2.84
Whig John Horne Tooke 1,679 19.96 +19.96
  • Note (1790): Poll 15 days. Mr Tooke proposed himself. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 13 June 1796: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Rt Hon. Charles James Fox 5,160 40.33 -1.47
Tory Sir Alan Gardner, Bt 4,814 37.63 -0.61
Whig John Horne Tooke 2,819 22.04 +2.08

Election results (Parliament of the United Kingdom)[edit]

General Election 15 July 1802: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Hon. Charles James Fox 2,671 39.31 -1.02
Tory 1st Baron Gardner 2,431 35.78 -1.85
Radical John Graham 1,693 24.92 +24.92
By-Election 13 February 1806: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Rt Hon. Charles James Fox Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Fox 13 September 1806
By-Election 7 October 1806: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Earl Percy Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 19 November 1806: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Sir Samuel Hood 5,478 37.22 +1.44
Whig Richard Brinsley Sheridan 4,758 32.33 -6.98
Radical James Paull 4,481 30.45 +5.53
  • Note (1806): Poll 15 days; 10,277 voted. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 23 May 1807: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Francis Burdett, Bt 5,134 37.03 +37.03
Whig Lord Cochrane 3,708 26.75 +26.75
Whig Richard Brinsley Sheridan 2,615 18.86 -13.47
Tory John Elliot 2,137 15.42 -21.80
Radical James Paull 269 1.94 -28.51
  • Note (1807): Poll 15 days; 8,622 voted. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 8 October 1812: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Francis Burdett, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig Lord Cochrane Unopposed N/A N/A
  • Expulsion of Cochrane from the House of Commons, after being convicted of conspiracy, 5 July 1814
By-Election 16 July 1814: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Lord Cochrane Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 4 July 1818: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Samuel Romilly 5,339 34.32 N/A
Whig Sir Francis Burdett, Bt 5,238 33.67 N/A
Tory Sir Murray Maxwell 4,808 30.91 N/A
Radical Henry Hunt 84 0.54 N/A
Whig Hon. Douglas James William Kinnaird 65 0.42 N/A
Radical John Cartwright 23 0.15 N/A
  • Note (1818): Poll 15 days; 10,277 voted. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Death of Romilly 2 November 1818
By-Election 3 March 1819: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Hon. George Lamb 4,465 53.38 +22.47
Whig John Cam Hobhouse 3,861 46.16 +46.16
Radical John Cartwright 38 0.45 +0.30
Majority 604 7.22 N/A
Tory gain from Whig Swing N/A
  • Note (1819): Poll 15 days. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 25 March 1820: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Francis Burdett, Bt 5,327 36.37 +2.70
Whig John Cam Hobhouse 4,882 33.34 +33.34
Tory Hon. George Lamb 4,436 30.29 -0.62
  • Note (1820): Poll 15 days; 9,280 voted. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 1826: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Francis Burdett, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig John Cam Hobhouse Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 1830: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Francis Burdett, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig John Cam Hobhouse Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 1831: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir Francis Burdett, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig John Cam Hobhouse Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election February 1832: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Rt Hon. Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 1832: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir Francis Burdett, Bt 3,248 43.09 N/A
Liberal Rt Hon. Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Bt 3,214 42.64 N/A
Liberal George de Lacy Evans 1,076 14.27 N/A
Turnout 11,576 38.47 N/A
  • Note (1832): 4,453 voted. Burdett and Hobhouse were classified as Whigs and Evans as a Radical. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Appointment of Hobhouse as Chief Secretary for Ireland
By-Election 4 April 1833: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • Note (1833 April): Hobhouse was classified as a Whig. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Resignation of Hobhouse after he left the Ministry in opposition to the House and Window taxes.
By-Election 11 May 1833: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal George de Lacy Evans 2,027 44.07 +29.80
Liberal Rt Hon. Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Bt 1,835 39.89 -2.75
Conservative Bickham Escott 738 16.04 +16.04
Majority 192 4.17 N/A
Turnout 11,576 39.74 +1.27
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • Note (1833 May): Evans was classified as a Radical, Hobhouse as a Whig and Escott as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 1835: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir Francis Burdett, Bt 2,747 40.03 -3.06
Liberal George de Lacy Evans 2,588 37.71 +23.44
Conservative Sir Thomas James Cochrane 1,528 22.26 +22.26
Turnout 13,268 32.06 -6.41
  • Note (1835): 4,254 voted. Burdett was classified as a Whig, Evans as a Radical and Cochrane as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Resignation of Burdett to seek re-election on changing parties.
By-Election 12 May 1837: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Francis Burdett, Bt 3,567 53.89 +31.63
Liberal John Temple Leader 3,052 46.11 +46.11
Majority 515 7.78 N/A
Turnout 15,262 43.37 +11.31
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A
  • Note (1837): Burdett was classified as a Tory and Leader as a Radical. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 27 July 1837: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal John Temple Leader 3,793 37.45 +37.45
Liberal George de Lacy Evans 3,715 36.68 -1.03
Conservative Sir George Murray 2,620 25.87 +3.61
Turnout 15,262 41.61 +9.55
  • Note (1837): 6,350 voted. Leader and Evans were classified as Radicals and Murray as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 1 July 1841: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Hon. Henry John Rous 3,338 33.80 +7.93
Liberal John Temple Leader 3,281 33.22 -4.23
Liberal George de Lacy Evans 3,258 32.99 -3.69
Turnout 13,767 47.91 +6.30
  • Note (1841): 14,254 registered (Craig's figure above used for the turnout calculation); 6,596 voted. Leader and Evans were classified as Radicals (pink and white colours) and Rous as a Tory (blue colour). (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Appointment of Rous as a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty
By-Election 19 February 1846: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir George de Lacy Evans 3,843 56.94 +23.95
Conservative Hon. Henry John Rous 2,906 43.06 +9.26
Majority 937 13.88 N/A
Turnout 14,801 45.60 -2.31
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A
  • Note (1846): Evans was classified as a Radical and Rous as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 30 July 1847: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir George de Lacy Evans 3,139 29.13 -3.86
Liberal Charles Lushington 2,831 26.28 +26.28
Liberal Charles Cochrane[disambiguation needed] 2,819 26.16 +26.16
Conservative Viscount Mandeville 1,985 18.42 -15.38
Turnout 14,572 49.31 +1.40
  • Note (1847): 14,125 registered (Craig's figure above used for the turnout calculation); 7,185 voted. Evans was classified as a Radical, Lushington and Cochrane as Whigs and Rous as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 9 July 1852: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir John Villiers Shelley, Bt 4,199 32.19 +32.19
Liberal Sir George de Lacy Evans 3,756 28.79 -0.34
Conservative Viscount Mandeville 3,373 25.86 +7.44
Liberal William Coningham 1,716 13.16 +13.16
Turnout 14,883 43.82 -5.49
  • Note (1852): In earlier elections Evans and Coningham were classified as Radicals, Shelley as a Whig and Mandeville as a Tory. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 1857: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir George de Lacy Evans Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal Sir John Villiers Shelley, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
  • Note (1857): In earlier elections Evans was classified as a Radical and Shelley as a Whig. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 1859: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir George de Lacy Evans Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal Sir John Villiers Shelley, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
  • Note (1859): In earlier elections Evans was classified as a Radical and Shelley as a Whig. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 12 July 1865: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Hon. Robert Wellesley Grosvenor 4,534 35.19 N/A
Liberal John Stuart Mill 4,525 35.12 N/A
Conservative William Henry Smith 3,824 29.68 N/A
Turnout 12,546 51.34 N/A
General Election 12 November 1868: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Henry Smith 7,648 37.28 +7.60
Liberal Hon. Robert Wellesley Grosvenor 6,584 32.09 -3.10
Liberal John Stuart Mill 6,284 30.63 -4.49
Turnout 18,879 54.35 +3.01
General Election 7 February 1874: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Henry Smith 9,371 35.72 -1.56
Conservative Sir Charles Russell, Bt 8,681 33.09 +33.09
Liberal Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bt 4,749 18.10 +18.10
Liberal Sir William John Codrington 3,435 13.09 +13.09
Turnout 19,845 66.10 +11.75
By-Election 11 August 1877: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Rt Hon. William Henry Smith Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1880: Westminster (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Rt Hon. William Henry Smith 9,093 29.30 -6.42
Conservative Sir Charles Russell, Bt 8,930 28.78 -4.31
Liberal John Morley 6,564 21.15 +21.15
Liberal Sir A. Hobhouse 6,443 20.76 +20.76
Turnout 21,081 73.60 +7.50
  • Resignation of Russell
By-Election 10 February 1882: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Lord Algernon Percy Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
By-Election 29 June 1885: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Rt Hon. William Henry Smith Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
  • Constituency reduced to one seat and boundaries changed in the redistribution of 1885
General Election 26 November 1885: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William L.A.B. Burdett-Coutts 3,991 69.69 +69.69
Liberal Prof. E.S. Beesly 1,736 30.31 +30.31
Majority 2,255 39.37 N/A
Turnout 7,670 74.67 +1.07
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1886: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William L.A.B. Burdett-Coutts Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1892: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William L.A.B. Burdett-Coutts 3,548 64.93 N/A
Liberal Leif Jones 1,916 35.07 N/A
Majority 1,632 29.87 N/A
Turnout 7,971 68.55 N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1895: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William L.A.B. Burdett-Coutts Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1900: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William L.A.B. Burdett-Coutts 2,715 86.08 N/A
Independent Conservative H.H. Montague-Smith 439 13.92 N/A
Majority 2,276 72.16 N/A
Turnout 7,367 42.81 N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 1906: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William L.A.B. Burdett-Coutts 3,167 60.66 -25.42
Liberal Claud Vere Cavendish Hobart 2,054 39.34 +39.34
Majority 1,113 21.32 -50.84
Turnout 7,539 69.25 +26.44
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election January 1910: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William L.A.B. Burdett-Coutts 3,917 69.11 +8.45
Liberal Claud Vere Cavendish Hobart 1,751 30.89 -8.45
Majority 2,166 38.21 +16.89
Turnout 7,284 77.81 +8.56
Conservative hold Swing +8.45
  • Positive swing is Liberal to Conservative
General Election December 1910: Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William L.A.B. Burdett-Coutts 3,397 73.45 +4.34
Liberal H. de Pass 1,228 26.55 -4.34
Majority 2,169 46.90 +8.69
Turnout 7,284 63.50 -14.31
Conservative hold Swing +4.34
  • Constituency abolished in the redistribution of 1918

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies 1885-1972, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1972)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (The Macmillan Press 1977)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (The Macmillan Press 1974)
  • The House of Commons 1509-1558, by S.T. Bindoff (Secker & Warburg 1982)
  • The House of Commons 1558-1603, by P.W. Hasler (HMSO 1981)
  • The House of Commons 1660-1690, by Basil Duke Henning (Secker & Warburg 1983)
  • The House of Commons 1715-1754, by Romney Sedgwick (HMSO 1970)
  • The House of Commons 1754-1790, by Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke (HMSO 1964)
  • The House of Commons 1790-1820, by R.G. Thorne (Secker & Warburg 1986)
  • The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith (1st edition published in three volumes 1844-50), second edition edited (in one volume) by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1973)
  • Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume I 1832-1885, edited by M. Stenton (The Harvester Press 1976)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "W" (part 3)[self-published source][better source needed]