Westminster Cathedral

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Westminster Cathedral
The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Most Precious Blood
Westminster Cathedral from Victoria Street
Westminster Cathedral is located in Central London
Westminster Cathedral
Westminster Cathedral
Shown within Central London
Coordinates: 51°29′46″N 0°08′23″W / 51.4961°N 0.1397°W / 51.4961; -0.1397
OS grid reference TQ2924879074
Location Westminster, London
Country England
Denomination Roman Catholic
Website westminstercathedral.org.uk
History
Consecrated 1910
Architecture
Status Active
Functional status Cathedral
Heritage designation Grade I listed
Designated 1 December 1987[1]
Architect(s) John Francis Bentley
Style Neo-Byzantine
Years built 1895–1903
Specifications
Length 110m
Number of towers 1
Tower height 87m
Administration
Diocese Westminster (since 1884)
Province Westminster
Clergy
Archbishop Vincent Nichols
Canon(s) Christopher Tuckwell
Laity
Director of music Martin Baker
Organist(s) Peter Stevens (organist)
The interior of Westminster Cathedral
Baptistery
Westminster Cathedral features Neo-Byzantine mosaics
Reliquary of Saint John Southworth
Blessed Sacrament Chapel
Ceiling of the Lady Chapel

Westminster Cathedral is a historical building in London. It is the mother church of the Catholic Church in England and Wales.

The site on which the Cathedral stands in the City of Westminster was purchased by the Archdiocese of Westminster in 1885.[2] Westminster Cathedral is the largest Catholic church in England and Wales and the seat of the Archbishop of Westminster.

John Betjeman called it "a masterpiece in striped brick and stone in an intricate pattern of bonding, the domes being all-brick in order to prove that the good craftsman has no need of steel or concrete." [3]

History[edit]

In the late 19th century, the Catholic Church's hierarchy had only recently been restored in England and Wales, and it was in memory of Cardinal Wiseman (who died in 1865, and was the first Archbishop of Westminster from 1850) that the first substantial sum of money was raised for the new cathedral. The land was acquired in 1884 by Wiseman's successor, Cardinal Manning, having previously been occupied by the second Tothill Fields Bridewell prison.

After two false starts in 1867 (under architect Henry Clutton) and 1892 (architect Baron von Herstel), construction started in 1895 under Manning's successor, the third archbishop Cardinal Vaughan with John Francis Bentley as architect, and built in a style heavily influenced by Byzantine architecture.[4]

The cathedral opened in 1903, a little after Bentley's death. For reasons of economy the decoration of the interior had hardly been started and still much remained to be completed. It is often presumed that Westminster Cathedral was the first Catholic place of worship to be built in England after the English Reformation; however that honour belongs to St Patrick's in Soho Square built in 1792. Britain's first Catholic churches built after the Reformation are both in Banffshire, Scotland. They are St. Ninian's, Tynet, built in 1755 and its near neighbour, St. Gregory's, Preshome, built in 1788. Both churches are still in use.

Under the laws of the Catholic Church at the time, no place of worship could be consecrated unless free from debt and having its fabric completed, so the consecration ceremony did not take place until 28 June 1910.

In 1923 the chapel to St. Andrew was restored by Gaetano Meo and Robert Weir Schultz.

In 1977, as part of her Silver Jubilee Celebrations, the cathedral was visited by Her Majesty The Queen. Although there was no religious service (the visit was to a flower show) it was highly symbolic as the first visit of a reigning monarch of the United Kingdom to a Catholic church in the nation since the Reformation.

On 28 May 1982, the first day of his six-day pastoral visit to the United Kingdom, His Holiness Pope John Paul II celebrated Mass in the cathedral.

In 1995, at the invitation of Cardinal Basil Hume, the cathedral was again visited by HM The Queen but this time for a liturgy, the first participation of a reigning monarch of the United Kingdom in a Catholic church liturgy for several years.

On Saturday 18 September 2010, on the third day of his four day state visit to the United Kingdom, His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI also celebrated Mass in the Cathedral.

In January 2011 the cathedral was the venue for the reception and ordination of three former Anglican bishops[5] into the newly formed Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham.

Architecture[edit]

The whole building, in the neo-Byzantine style, covers an area of about 5 017 m2 (54000 sqft); the dominating factor of the scheme, apart from the campanile, being a spacious and uninterrupted nave, 18 m (60 ft), covered with domical vaulting.

In planning the nave, a system of supports was adopted not unlike that to be seen in most Gothic cathedrals, where huge, yet narrow, buttresses are projected at intervals, and stiffened by transverse walls, arcading and vaulting. Unlike in a Gothic Cathedral at Westminster they are limited to the interior. The main piers and transverse arches that support the domes divide the nave into three compartments, each 5.56 m2 (60 sq ft). The domes rest on the arches at a height of 27 m (90 ft) from the floor, the total internal height being 34 m (111 ft).

In selecting the pendentive type of dome, of shallow concavity, for the main roofing, weight and pressure have been reduced to a minimum. The domes and pendentures are formed of concrete, and as extraneous roofs of timber were dispensed with, it was necessary to provide a thin independent outer shell of impervious stone. The concrete flat roofing around the domes is covered with asphalt. The sanctuary is essentially Byzantine in its system of construction. The extensions that open out on all sides make the corona of the dome seem independent of support.

The eastern termination of the cathedral suggests the Romanesque, or Lombardic style of Northern Italy. The crypt with openings into the sanctuary, thus closely following the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio, Milan, the open colonnade under the eaves, the timber roof following the curve of the apex, are all familiar features. The huge buttresses resist the pressure of a vault 14.5 m (48 ft) in span. Although the cruciform plan is hardly noticeable inside the building, it is emphasised outside by the boldly projecting transepts. These with their twin gables, slated roofs, and square turrets with pyramidal stone cappings suggest a Norman prototype in striking contrast to the rest of the design.

The main structural parts of the building are of brick and concrete, the latter material being used for the vaulting and domes of graduated thickness and complicated curve. Following Byzantine tradition, the interior was designed with a view to the application of marble and mosaic. Throughout the exterior, the lavish introduction of white stone bands in connection with the red brickwork (itself quite common in the immediate area) produces an impression quite foreign to the British eye. The main entrance façade owes its composition, in a measure, to accident rather than design. The most prominent feature of the façade is the deeply recessed arch over the central entrance, flanked by tribunes, and stairway turrets. The elevation on the north, with a length of nearly 91.5 m (300 ft) contrasted with the vertical lines of the campanile and the transepts, is most impressive. It rests on a continuous and plain basement of granite, and only above the flat roofing of the chapels does the structure assume a varied outline.

On entering the cathedral the visitor who knows Saint Mark’s in Venice, or the churches of Constantinople, will note the absence of a spacious and well lighted outer narthex, comprising all the main entrances; but this is soon forgotten in view of the fine proportions of the nave, and the marble columns, with capitals of Byzantine type, that support the galleries and other subsidiary parts of the building. The marbles selected for the columns were, in some instances, obtained from formations quarried by the ancient Romans, chiefly in Greece.

High altar[edit]

The central feature of the decoration in the cathedral is the baldacchino over the high altar. This is one of the largest structures of its kind, the total width being 9.5 m (31 ft), and the height 11.5 m (38 ft). The upper part of white marble is richly inlaid with coloured marbles, lapis lazuli, pearl, and gold. Eight columns of yellow marble, from Verona, support the baldacchino over the high altar, and others, white and pink, from Norway, support the organ galleries.

Behind the baldacchino the crypt emerges above the floor of the sanctuary, and the podium thus formed is broken in the middle by the steps that lead up to the retro-choir. The curved wall of the crypt is lined with narrow slabs of green carystran marble. Opening out of this crypt is a smaller chamber, directly under the high altar. Here are laid the remains of the first two Archbishops of Westminster, Cardinal Wiseman and Cardinal Manning. The altar and relics of Saint Edmund of Canterbury occupy a recess on the south side of the chamber. The little chapel of Saint Thomas of Canterbury, entered from the north transept, is used as a chantry for Cardinal Vaughan. A large Byzantine style crucifix, suspended from the sanctuary arch, dominates the nave.

Chapels[edit]

The chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, on the north side of the sanctuary, and the Lady Chapel on the south, are entered from the transepts; they are 6.7 m (22 ft) wide, lofty, with open arcades, barrel vaulting, and apsidal ends. Over the altar of the Blessed Sacrament chapel a small baldacchino is suspended from the vault, and the chapel is enclosed with bronze grilles and gates through which people may enter. In the Lady Chapel the walls are clad in marble and the altar reredos is a mosaic of the Virgin and Child, surrounded by a white marble frame. The conches of the chapel contain predominantly blue mosaics of the Old Testament prophets Daniel, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Unlike the Blessed Sacrament chapel, that dedicated to the Blessed Mother is completely open.

Those chapels which may be entered from the aisles of the nave are also 6.7 m (22 ft) wide, and roofed with simple barrel vaulting. The chapel of Saints Gregory and Augustine, next the baptistery, from which it is separated by an open screen of marble, was the first to have its decoration completed. The marble lining of the piers rises to the springing level of the vaulting and this level has determined the height of the altar reredos, and of the screen opposite. On the side wall, under the windows, the marble dado rises to but little more than half this height. From the cornices the mosaic decoration begins on the walls and vault. This general arrangement applies to all the chapels yet each has its own distinct artistic character. Thus, in sharp contrast to the chapel dedicated to St. Gregory and St. Augustine which contains vibrant mosaics, the chapel of the Holy Souls employs a more subdued, almost funereal style, decoration with late Victorian on a background of silver.[6]

As in all Catholic churches, there are the Stations of the Cross to be found along the outer aisles. The ones at Westminster Cathedral are by the sculptor, Eric Gill, and are considered to be amongst the finest examples of his work.[2]

Mosaics[edit]

When the Cathedral's architect John Bentley died, there were no completed mosaics in the Cathedral and Bentley left behind precious little in terms of sketches and designs. Consequently, the subject and styles of the mosaics were influenced by donors as well as designers, overseen by a Cathedral committee established for this purpose. Indeed, Bentley’s influence is, in reality, only seen in the chapel dedicated to the Holy Souls.[7] Due to the prevailing absence of any real designs by Bentley, there was no real agreement as to how the mosaics should look, and in one instance, already installed mosaics (those in the Sacred Heart shrine) were removed after the death of the artist, George Bridge.[7]

The mosaics installed during the period 1912–1916 were mostly done by devotees of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Those in the Lady Chapel were installed by the experienced mosaicist Gertrude Martin (who had worked with George Bridge), in 1912–1913. The worked was supervised by Anning Bell and Marshall, who later designed the mosaic of Christ Enthroned which is above the entrance to the Cathedral. The mosaics (paid for by the 4th Marquis of Bute in the chapel dedicated to Saint Andrew also belong to work of the Arts and Craft Movement.[8]

The 5 year period (1930–1935) saw a tremendous amount of work done and saw mosaics placed in the Lady Chapel, in the alcoves above the confessionals, in the crypt dedicated to Saint Peter as well as on the sanctuary arch.

No new mosaics were installed until 1950 when one depicting St Thérèse of Lisieux (later replaced by a bronze) was placed in the south transept and another (in memory of those in the Royal Army Medical Corps who died in World War II) in the chapel of Saint George in 1952. From 1960–1962 the Blessed Sacrament Chapel was decorated in a traditional, early Christian, style with the mosaics being predominantly pale pink in order to afford a sense of light and space. The designer, Boris Anrep, chose various Eucharistic themes such as the sacrifice of Abel, the hospitality of Abraham and the gathering of the manna in the wilderness as well as the Feeding the Multitude and the Wedding Feast at Cana. In his old age, Anrep also acted as adviser and principal sketch artist for the mosaics installed in the chapel of Saint Paul (1964–1965)[9] These mosaics depict various moments in the life of Paul; his occupation as a tent-maker, his conversion to Christ, the shipwreck on Malta and his eventual execution in Rome.

It was not until the visit of Pope John Paul II in 1982 that the next mosaic was installed above the northwest entrance. Rather than a scene, this mosaic is an inscription: Porta sis ostium pacificum par eum qui se ostium appellavit, Jesus Christum (May this door be the gate of peace through Him who called Himself the gate, Jesus Christ). In 1999 the mosaic of Saint Patrick, holding a shamrock and a pastoral staff as well as trampling on a snake, was installed the entrance to the chapel in his honour. In 2001 a striking mosaic of Saint Alban, strongly influenced by the style of early Byzantine iconography, was installed by the designer, Christopher Hobbs. Due to the very favourable reception of this work, Hobbs was commissioned for further mosaics: the chapel to Saint Joseph which contains mosaics of the Holy Family (2003) and men working on Westminster Cathedral (2006). Hobbs also did the chapel in honour of Saint Thomas Becket illustrating the saint standing in front of the old Canterbury Cathedral on the chapel’s east wall and the murder of Thomas on the west wall. The vault is decorated with a design of flowers, tendrils and roundels. (2006). As of 2011, there were plans for further mosaics, for example Saint Francis of Assisi and Saint Anthony in the narthex [10]

Music[edit]

Despite its relatively short history, compared to other English cathedrals, Westminster has a distinguished choral tradition, and the choir is considered a fine one. This musical excellence has its origin in the shared vision of Cardinal Vaughan, the cathedral's founder, and Sir Richard Runciman Terry, its inaugural Master of Music. Terry prepared his choristers for a year before their first sung service in public. For the remainder of his tenure (until 1924) he pursued a celebrated revival of great quantities of Latin repertoire from the English Renaissance, most of which had lain unsung ever since the Reformation. Students at the Royal College of Music who would become household names were introduced to their heritage when Charles Villiers Stanford sent them to the cathedral to hear "polyphony for a penny" (the bus fare). This programme also required honing the boys' sight-reading ability to a then-unprecedented standard.

The cathedral's musical traditions have been upheld by successive distinguished Masters of Music. Holders have included George Malcolm, whose trebles innovated a brilliant 'continental' tone, "voices like razors" to quote one auditor; Colin Mawby, Stephen Cleobury, David Hill and James O'Donnell. Since 2000, the post has been occupied by Martin Baker.

The choir has commissioned many works from distinguished composers, many of whom are better known for their contribution to Anglican music, such as Benjamin Britten and Ralph Vaughan Williams. However, the choir is particularly renowned for its performance of Gregorian chant and polyphony of the Renaissance.

All the boys of the Choir are boarders at the nearby Westminster Cathedral Choir School.

Unlike most other English cathedrals, Westminster does not have a separate quire; instead, the choir are hidden from view in the apse behind the high altar. This, with the excellent acoustic of the cathedral building, contributes to its distinctive sound.

Located in the west gallery, the Grand Organ of four manuals and 81 stops occupies a more commanding position than many British cathedral organs enjoy. Built by Henry Willis III from 1922 to 1932, it remains one of the most successful and admired. One of Louis Vierne's best-known organ pieces, "Carillon de Westminster," the final movement from Suite no. 3 (op. 54) of Pièces de Fantaisie, was composed for it and dedicated to the builder. The apse organ of fifteen stops was built in 1910 by Lewis & Co.[11] Although the Grand Organ has its own attached console, a console in the apse can play both instruments.

On 19th June 2007 the première of John Tavener's 'The Beautiful Names', a setting of the 99 names of Allah found in the Qur'an, was performed in the Cathedral by the BBC Symphony Chorus and Orchestra in the presence of HRH The Prince of Wales. [12]

Choir[edit]

The establishment of a fine choral foundation was part of the original vision of the founder of Westminster Cathedral, Cardinal Herbert Vaughan. Vaughan laid great emphasis on the beauty and integrity of the new cathedral’s liturgy, and regarded a residential choir school as essential to the realisation of his vision. Daily sung Masses and Offices were immediately established when the cathedral opened in 1903, and have continued without interruption ever since. Today, Westminster Cathedral Choir is the only professional Catholic choir in the world to sing daily Mass and Vespers.

Sir Richard Runciman Terry, the cathedral’s first Master of Music, proved to be an inspired choice. Terry was both a brilliant choir trainer and a pioneering scholar, one of the first musicologists to revive the great works of the English and other European Renaissance composers. Terry built Westminster Cathedral Choir's reputation on performances of music—by Byrd, Tallis, Taverner, Palestrina and Victoria, among others—that had not been heard since the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and Mass at the cathedral was soon attended by inquisitive musicians as well as the faithful. The performance of great Renaissance Masses and motets in their proper liturgical context remains the cornerstone of the choir's activity.

George Malcolm consolidated the musical reputation of Westminster Cathedral Choir during his time as Master of Music—in particular through the now legendary recording of Victoria’s Tenebrae Responsories. More recent holders of the post have included Colin Mawby, Stephen Cleobury, David Hill and James O'Donnell. The choir continues to thrive under the current Master of Music, Martin Baker, who has held the post since 2000.

In addition to its performances of Renaissance masterpieces, Westminster Cathedral Choir has given many first performances of music written especially for it by contemporary composers. Terry gave the premières of music by Vaughan Williams (whose Mass in G minor received its liturgical performance at a Mass in the Cathedral), Gustav Holst, Herbert Howells and Charles Wood; in 1959 Benjamin Britten wrote his Missa brevis for the choristers; and since 1960 works by Lennox Berkeley, William Mathias, Colin Mawby and Francis Grier have been added to the repertoire. Most recently four new Masses—by Roxanna Panufnik, James MacMillan, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies and Judith Bingham—have received their first performance in the cathedral. In June 2005 the choristers performed the world première of Sir John Tavener's Missa Brevis for boys' voices.

Westminster Cathedral Choir made its first recording in 1907. Many more have followed, most recently the acclaimed series on the Hyperion label, and many awards have been conferred on the choir's recordings. Of these the most prestigious are the 1998 Gramophone Awards for both 'Best Choral Recording of the Year' and 'Record of the Year', for the performance of Martin’s Mass for Double Choir and Pizzetti’s Requiem. It is the only cathedral choir to have won in either of these categories.

The choir's recordings include two discs of Palestrina on the Hyperion label – the Missa Hodie Christus Natus Est with motets for Advent and Christmas, and the Missa Dum Complerentur with Pentecost motets and plainchant. In addition, the choir has recorded MacMillan's Mass and a complete Mass for Easter Sunday on the Herald Label. More recent recordings include a disc of Victoria's Marian music and Vaughan Williams's Mass in G minor which was recorded in July 2004.

When its duties at the cathedral permit, the choir also gives concert performances both at home and abroad. It has appeared at many important festivals, including Aldeburgh, Cheltenham, Salzburg, Copenhagen, Bremen and Spitalfields. It has appeared in many of the major concert halls of Britain, including the Royal Festival Hall, the Wigmore Hall and the Royal Albert Hall. The Cathedral Choir also broadcasts frequently on radio and television.

Westminster Cathedral Choir has recently undertaken a number of international tours, including visits to Hungary, Germany and the US. The choristers participated in the 2003 and 2006 International Gregorian Chant Festival in Watou, Belgium and the full choir performed twice at the Oslo International Church Music Festival in March 2006. In April 2005, 2007 and 2008 they performed as part of the "Due Organi in Concerto" festival in Milan. In October 2011, they sang the inaugural concert of the Institute for Sacred Music at Saint John's in Minnesota.

Burials[edit]

In order of years of office:

  • Richard Challoner (1691–1781) Vicar Apostolic of the London District (Re-interred in the cathedral 1946)
  • Nicholas Wiseman (28 September 1850 – 15 February 1865) First Archbishop of Westminster upon the re-establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales in 1850
  • Henry Edward Manning (16 May 1865 – 14 January 1892) Archbishop of Westminster
  • Herbert Vaughan (8 April 1892 – 19 June 1903) Archbishop of Westminster
  • Arthur Hinsley (1 April 1935 – 17 March 1943) Archbishop of Westminster
  • Bernard Griffin (18 December 1943 – 19 August 1956) Archbishop of Westminster
  • William Godfrey (3 December 1956 – 22 January 1963) Archbishop of Westminster
  • John Heenan (22 February 1965 – 7 November 1975) Archbishop of Westminster
  • Basil Hume (9 February 1976 – 17 June 1999) Archbishop of Westminster

Popular culture[edit]

The Campanile Bell Tower of Westminster Cathedral was featured prominently in the Alfred Hitchcock film Foreign Correspondent, at which the attempted murder of a journalist played by Joel McCrea took place.

In Shekhar Kapur's Elizabeth: The Golden Age scenes taking place at El Escorial were shot in Westminster Cathedral.

The Cathedral has been painted by London Irish artist Brian Whelan.

Westminster Cathedral by Brian Whelan

In an episode of Two Fat Ladies, the titular ladies cook a meal for the priests of Westminster Cathedral in the cathedral's kitchens.

See also[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Patrick Rogers. Westminster Cathedral: from Darkness to Light. Burns & Continuum International Publishing Group, London (2003). ISBN 0-86012-358-8
  • Peter Doyle. Westminster Cathedral: 1895–1995. Geoffrey Chapman Publishers, London (1995). ISBN 978-0225666847

References[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text (concerning architecture) from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed (1913). "Westminster Cathedral". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company