|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
|Traded as||ASX: WBC
|Industry||Banking, Financial services|
|Predecessor(s)||Bank of NSW (est. 1817); Commercial Bank of Australia|
|Founded||1982 as Westpac|
|Number of locations||1,200 branches
2,900 ATMs 
|Key people||Gail Kelly (CEO and Managing director)
Lindsay Maxsted (Chairman)
|Products||Finance and insurance
Global Wealth Management
|Revenue||A$43.01 billion (2011)|
|Net income||A$6.991 billion (2011)|
|Total assets||A$670.22 billion (2011)|
Westpac (a portmanteau of "Western-Pacific"), is an Australian bank and financial-services provider headquartered in Sydney. It is one of Australia's big four banks and is also the second-largest bank in New Zealand.
As of November 2011, Westpac had 12.2 million customers, Australia's largest branch network with almost 1200 branches and a network with more than 2900 ATMs. The bank is Australia's second-largest bank by assets.
- 1 History
- 2 Core business activities
- 2.1 Westpac Retail and Business Banking (RBB)
- 2.2 Westpac Institutional Bank (WIB)
- 2.3 Product and Operations (P&O)
- 2.4 BT Financial Group
- 2.5 St.George Bank Group (including BankSA, Bank of Melbourne and RAMS)
- 2.6 Westpac New Zealand
- 2.7 Other business units
- 2.8 ATM Alliance
- 2.9 Westpac Migrant Banking
- 2.10 Pacific Banking
- 3 Corporate governance
- 4 Controversy
- 5 Corporate responsibility
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Established in Sydney in 1817, the Bank of New South Wales (BNSW) was the first bank in Australia with Edward Smith Hall as its first cashier and secretary. During the 19th and early 20th century, the Bank opened branches first throughout Australia and Oceania, at Moreton Bay (Brisbane) in 1850, then in Victoria (1851), New Zealand (1861), South Australia (1877), Western Australia (1883), Fiji (1901), Papua New Guinea (1910) and Tasmania (1910).
- 1927: BNSW acquired the Western Australian Bank.
- 1931: BNSW acquired the Australian Bank of Commerce, which had branches in both New South Wales and Queensland.
- 1942: BNSW suspended operations in Papua New Guinea as the Japanese Army captured many of the towns in which it had branches and agencies, and bombed Port Moresby. It resumed operations in 1946.
- 1968: BNSW joins Databank Systems Limited consortium to provide joint data processing services.
- 1970: BNSW established a branch on Tarawa in Kiribati (ex-Gilbert Islands), which also took over the government savings bank. Also, the company first became listed on 18 July 1970.
- 1971: It established a branch in the New Hebrides. The next year HSBC and Commercial Bank of Australia (see below) also established branches.
- 1973: BNSW became the corporate sponsor of the Rescue Helicopter service started by Surf Life Saving Australia. The service is known today as the Westpac Life Saver Rescue Helicopter Service
- 1974: The Bank of New Zealand (20%), BNSW (20%), Bank of Hawaii (20%), and the Government of Tonga (40%) established Bank of Tonga as a joint venture.
- 1975: BNSW incorporated its local business in Papua New Guinea as Bank of New South Wales(PNG).
- 1977: BNSW formed Pacific Commercial Bank in Samoa as a joint venture with Bank of Hawaii, buying into Pacific Savings and Loan Company (est. 1969), in which Bank of Hawaii had had an ownership interest since 1971.
Westpac is formed
- 1982: BNSW merged with the Commercial Bank of Australia to form Westpac Banking Corporation. WBC was framed with the mission to become a significant Western-Pacific bank from which the Westpac portmanteau is derived. The brandname incorporated the "W" which had been the logo of the Bank of New South Wales (popularly known as "the Wales").
- 1984: The original agreement between BNSW and the government in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands expired and WBC and the government of Kiribati formed Bank of Kiribati as a 51%–49% joint venture. Bank of Kiribati also fulfilled the functions of a reserve or central bank.
- 1985: WBC replaced Barclays Bank in the National Bank of Tuvalu (est. 1981) in Tuvalu (ex-Ellice Islands), taking 40% of the shares as well as a 10-year management contract.
- 1988: WBC acquired the European Pacific Banking Corporation in the Cook Islands and a HSBC subsidiary, the Solomon Islands Banking Corporation, which HSBC had established as a branch in 1973. WBC also acquired HSBC's operations in Fiji and the New Hebrides, and established a branch in Niue that is the only bank in that country. (HSBC had established its branch in Fiji only some 18 months earlier).
- 1990: Bank of New Zealand sold half its shares in Bank of Tonga to WBC and half to Bank of Hawaii, giving each of them 30%. WBC bought Banque Indosuez's operations in New Caledonia and Tahiti. (Banque de l'Indochine, which later merged into Banque Indosuez, had established itself in New Caledonia in 1888 and in Papeete, Tahiti in 1905. In both places l'Indochine functioned as the bank of issue until 1966-7.)
- 1992: WBC recorded a 1.6 billion dollar loss, which at the time, was the largest loss for an Australian corporation. In this environment, the Bank dismissed staff and raided the superannuation to sustain its viability. In the process WBC came close to insolvency, and slipped from being Australia's largest to third largest bank.
- 1995: WBC sold its shares in National Bank of Tuvalu to that country's government, which now wholly owns the bank.
- 1995: WBC acquired Challenge Bank in Western Australia.
- 1996: WBC Holdings NZ bought TrustBanks, a chain of regional banks owned by Community Trusts, for NZD1.2 billion to form NZ largest bank, WestpacTrust. The bank had promised to keep the funding to Community Trusts flowing and to keep "Trust" in its name. However, Community Trust funding has slowed to a trickle, and in 2002 the bank launched a major rebranding which included dropping the "Trust" from its name. The merger of WBC and Trustbank also saw the closure of many branches around New Zealand. In towns and cities where both WBC and Trustbank existed, the bank merged redundant branches into a single branch; also it closed down many branches in rural areas and outer suburbs.
- 1997: WBC acquired Bank of Melbourne in Victoria, paying an estimated price in excess of A$1.4b. WBC retained the rights to the Bank of Melbourne name and logos. It has been announced that the Bank of Melbourne brand will return in August 2011, with a network of up to 100 branches in Victoria.
- 1998: WBC sold its operations in New Caledonia and Tahiti to Société Générale, which merged them with Société Générale Calédonienne de Banque (est. 1971) and Banque de Polynésie (est. 1973), respectively.
- 2001: The government of Kiribati sought to reduce Westpac's share in Bank of Kiribati from 51 to 49%, leading WBC to sell its shares back to the government. Bank of Hawaii sold its interest in Pacific Commercial Bank (42.7%) to Westpac, which held an equal portion. WBC offered Samoan investors, who held the remaining shares, the same price it had paid Bank of Hawaii. WBC now owns 93.5% of Westpac Bank Samoa and Samoan companies and individuals own 6.5%. In Tonga, Bank of Hawaii sold its shares in Bank of Tonga to Westpac, giving WBC 60% ownership of what is now Westpac Bank of Tonga.
- 2002: WBC acquired BT Financial Group and Rothschild Australia Asset Management.
- 2004: The Reserve Bank of New Zealand required WBC to incorporate its NZ branches network. WBC sold its branch in Niue to Bank of South Pacific.
- 2008: Former St.George Bank CEO Gail Kelly appointed Chief executive officer and Managing director. WBC announced that it intended to acquire the 5th largest Australian bank, St.George Bank, for A$19 billion. About 95 percent of St George shareholders voted in favor of the merger.
- 2008: On 17 November, the Federal Court of Australia approved the merger of Westpac and St.George.
- 2008 & 2009: Secret funds are secured from the Federal Reserve of USD$1.09 billion. (see Secret Bailout 2007 & 2008)
- 2011: During July Bank Of Melbourne started taking over St.George in the state of Victoria.
- In early February 2012, Westpac announced plans to axe more than 400 domestic jobs and another 150 offshore jobs. This action was a response to much slower growth over the past several years and the need to rationalise following Westpac's 2008 merger with St. George Bank.
- February 2013: Westpac selected Oracle’s Exadata Database Machine and Exalogic Elastic Cloud solutions to support the ongoing deployment of Oracle-based Master Data Management (MDM) applications, with the overall aim to achieve a single view of its customer information.
Core business activities
Westpac's core business consists of nine business units (five customer facing) through which it serves around 8.2 million customers. These business areas are:
Westpac Retail and Business Banking (RBB)
This includes deposit taking, transaction accounts, credit cards, mortgages, and other lending. Westpac is a major home loan provider and also serves the financial needs of business customers with a turnover of up to $20 million. Investment, superannuation and general and life insurance products are also sold through the branch network. In the past, RBB operated as Consumer Financial Services. The name was changed when all retail products were combined into the one division.
Westpac Institutional Bank (WIB)
Customers include governments, property, financial institutions, and medium to large corporates. In the Australian market, WIB holds a prominent position in providing banking services amongst the big four Australian banks and global investment banks, with an increasing presence in the Asia/Pacific region. Business units within WIB include Corporate and Institutional Banking, Global Transactional Services, Capital and Loan Markets, Financial Markets, Equities, Funds Management, International Operations, WIB Finance, WIB Risk, and WIB Technology.
Product and Operations (P&O)
P&O provides end-to-end banking solutions to small and medium enterprises across Australia.
BT Financial Group
BT Financial Group, Westpac's wealth management division, includes managed investments, life insurance, superannuation and discount broking products in Australia and New Zealand. BT also offers custody and settlement services to institutional customers and fund managers.
Westpac (and BT) has been granted a MySuper authority, enabling it to continue to receive default superannuation contribution from 1 Jan 2014.
St.George Bank Group (including BankSA, Bank of Melbourne and RAMS)
St.George was founded in 1937 as a housing-based financial institution, becoming Australia's largest building society before achieving full banking status in July 1992. Westpac merged with St.George on 1 December 2008, but has pledged to keep the branch network for a minimum of 3 years and to maintain a corporate presence in the Sydney suburb of Kogarah.
BankSA is the largest financial institution in South Australia, and the State's main provider of housing, personal finance and rural banking services. It also provides funds management, life and general insurance, and superannuation and investment services. Westpac acquired BankSA in December 2008. It continues to be a division of St.George Bank.
Westpac acquired RAMS home loans in January 2008 and operates the RAMS distribution business and brands as part of the St.George group.
Westpac New Zealand
In 1861 the Bank of New South Wales opened seven branches in New Zealand. Some of the old buildings still stand, including one in Oamaru and another in Tokomaru Bay. Today this unit offers a whole range of consumer and corporate services to clients throughout New Zealand. It is the dominant provider of banking services to small to medium business, corporate and institutional organisations, and is the banker of the New Zealand government. Currently Westpac is the second largest bank in New Zealand, after the merger of ANZ and National Bank of New Zealand, with around 1.5 million customers, 3,000 shareholders and 197 branches nationwide.
On 29 September 2006 the New Zealand Commerce Commission forced Westpac to pay NZ$5.1 million for hidden foreign transaction fees; most of the fine is reimbursement to affected customers, in the order of 12% of the fees actually charged. All other banks operating in New Zealand have either already been fined or are awaiting a court case.
Other business units
Servicing the group, the three remaining business units are Group Finance, Human Resources and Group Risk. These are sometimes collectively referred to as the 'Corporate Core'.
Westpac is a member of the Global ATM Alliance, a joint venture of several major international banks that allows customers of the banks to use their ATM card or check card at another bank within the Global ATM Alliance with no fees when traveling internationally. Other participating banks are Allied Irish Banks (Ireland), Barclays (in the United Kingdom, Spain and parts of Africa), Bank of America (United States), BNP Paribas (France), Ukrsibbank (Ukraine), Deutsche Bank (in Germany, Spain, Italy, Poland), and Scotiabank (in Canada, Chile, Mexico among many other countries).
Westpac Migrant Banking
This unit of both the Australian and New Zealand Bank offers banking facilities to those migrating to either New Zealand or Australia. Bank accounts for migrants can be opened before people arrive in the country using their easy account opening process. Credit cards and mortgages can even be approved before arrival. Westpac Migrant Banking has a representative office in London where accounts can be arranged, although the process can be done remotely from any country. Westpac plans to open a retail branch in London in 2011.
Westpac operates in seven south Pacific nations; the unit is headquartered in Sydney, Australia. The financial services offered include electronic banking (via online banking, ATMs and EFTPOS), deposit, loan, transaction accounts and international trade facilities to personal and business customers. Westpac Fiji is Westpac's Fijian operation. It is one of the largest banks in the country and has a 40% market share.
Board of Directors
- Lindsay Maxsted (Chairman).
- Gail Kelly (Chief Executive Officer).
- John Curtis (businessman).
- Elizabeth Bryan (Australian businesswoman).
- Gordon Cairns.
- Robert Elstone (Australian businessman).
- Peter Hawkins (businessman).
- Ann Pickard.
- Gail Kelly (Chief Executive Officer).
- John Arthur (Chief Operating Officer).
- Peter Clare (Chief Executive Officer of Westpac New Zealand).
- Philip Coffey (Chief Financial Officer).
- Brad Cooper (Chief Executive Officer of the BT Financial Group).
- George Frazis (Chief Executive Officer of St.George Bank.
- Brian Hartzer (Chief Executive Officer of the Australian Financial Services).
- Christine Parker (Group Executive of Human Resources & Corporate Affairs).
- Greg Targett (Chief Risk Officer).
- Rob Whitfield (Group Executive of Westpac Institutional Bank).
- Jason Yetton (Group Executive of Westpac Retail & Business Banking).
US Federal reserve borrowings
In 2009, a Westpac owned entity secured US$1.09 billion from the US Federal Reserve. Commentary suggests this was an unusual move for the bank, given its relatively minor position in North America. The borrowings by Westpac occurred at the height of the Global Financial Crisis and was part of a Federal Reserve move to stabilise financial markets globally. The public and Government attention of the borrowings followed the release of the information by the Federal Reserve in 2011, not Westpac.
In 2002 released a Social Impact Report that outlined the bank's plan to meet the highest international standards in the area of corporate social responsibility. This led to Westpac being assessed as the global sustainability leader for the banking sector in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index from 2004–2007.
Westpac has been criticised for backing logging operations on the Solomon Islands that destroy virgin rainforests. Because of this engagement, the Australian Greens have called for the Banksia Awards to be withdrawn from Westpac.
- Global ATM Alliance
- Westpac House
- Westpac Life Saver Rescue Helicopter Service
- Westpac Rescue Helicopter (New Zealand)
- Westpac Stadium
- "Westpac – Fast Facts". Retrieved 13 April 2009.[dead link]
- "Sound result with customer strategy delivering". Westpac (media release). 2 November 2011.
- by M. J. B. Kenny. "Biography - Edward Smith Hall - Australian Dictionary of Biography". Adb.online.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- Westpac revives Bank of Melbourne: report, Business Spectator 10 March 2011.
- "St George and WBC sign merger deal], NEWS.com.au". 26 May 2008. Retrieved May 2008.
- "Westpac boss hints at more job cuts". 3 February 2012.
- "Westpac deploys Oracle for singular customer view". 4 February 2013.
- [dead link]
- "Westpac to pay $5.1 million over credit card fees, Kiwibank joins list of companies facing charges". Commerce Commission. 29 September 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2007.
- Louisson, Simon (7 October 2009). "Westpac loses NZ Court Tax Case". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
- "Five big banks form Global ATM Alliance", ATMmarketplace.com. 9 January 2002. Accessed 22 June 2007.
- "Accessing Money Overseas". Westpac. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- "Westpac expands its presence in London". The Sydney Morning Herald. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
- Westpac Board of Directors
- Executive Team
- "Australian banks in secret U.S. Fed reserve bail-out..we didnt get told that! « Follow The Money". Seeker401.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- "NAB, Westpac tapped Fed". The Age (Melbourne). 3 December 2010.
- Keating, B; Quazi, A; Kriz, A; Coltman, T (2008), "In pursuit of a sustainable supply chain: insights from Westpac Banking Corporation", Supply Chain Management: an International Journal 13 (3): 175–179
- Westpac backs logging project, 2012
- Westpac criticised over Solomons logging project, 2012
- Narube, S. and B.T. Whiteside. 1985. "Financial Institutions and Markets in Fiji". In M. T. Skully, ed. Financial Institutions and Markets in the Southwest Pacific. London: Macmillan Press.
- Tschoegl, A.E. 2005. Foreign Banks in the Pacific: A Note. Journal of Pacific History.
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