Wetlands of New Zealand
The Resource Management Act 1991, an important Act of Parliament determining land use, defines wetlands as "permanently or intermittently wet areas, shallow water, and land water margins that support a natural ecosystem of plants and animals that area adapted to wet conditions.". The Ramsar Convention, an international conservation agreement for wetlands to which New Zealand signed up to in 1971, has a wider definition of wetland.
Wetlands in New Zealand
- Farewell Spit
- Firth of Thames
- Kopuatai Peat Dome
- Manawatu River mouth and estuary
- Waituna Wetlands Scientific Reserve
- Whangamarino Wetland
These make up a total area of 39,068 hectares. Other notable wetlands are Aramoana, the Kepler Mire, Kai Iwi Lakes, the Sinclair Wetlands, and Te Henga, as well as areas around the lower reaches of the Waikato River.
In the past 150 years New Zealand has lost about 90% of its wetland areas due to draining for farming. Many remaining wetlands are also degraded due to pollution, grazing, drainage and presence of invasive plants.
In recent decades there have been efforts made towards wetland conservation. The Rakatu Wetlands in the South Island that are an ecological restoration project set up address the environmental effects of the construction of the Manapouri Power Station. Travis Wetland is a restoration project covering 116 ha of land formerly drained and used as a dairy farm. It is in an urban area of Christchurch.
- Johnson, Peter; Philippe Gereaux (2004). Wetland types of New Zealand. Department of Conservation (New Zealand). ISBN 0-478-22604-7.
- "Who administers the convention?: About DOC's international wetlands role". Department of Conservation. 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Chapter 7: Key points". State of New Zealand's Environment 1997. Ministry for the Environment. Retrieved 2010-05-28. "Wetland areas have been reduced by about 85 percent in the last century and a half, from nearly 700,000 hectares to about 100,000 hectares."
- Cromarty, P. & Scott, D.A, ed. (1995). A Directory of Wetlands in New Zealand. Wellington: Department of Conservation. ISBN 0-478-01776-6.
- Johnson, Peter N; Brooke, Pat A (illustrator) (1998, 2007, 2009). Wetland plants in New Zealand. Canterbury, N.Z.: Manaaki Whenua Press. ISBN 9780478093216.
- Johnson, Peter; Gerbeaux, Philippe (2004). Wetland types in New Zealand. Wellington, N.Z.: Dept. of Conservation. ISBN 978-0-478-22604-1.
- Hunt, Janet (2007). Wetlands of New Zealand. Random House New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-86941-904-2.
- Tanner, C.C.; Sukias, J.P.S.; Yates, C.R. (2010), New Zealand Guidelines for Constructed Wetland Treatment of Tile Drainage, NIWA Information Series No. 75, NIWA, ISSN 1174-264X
- Peters, Monica; B. R Clarkson (2010). Wetland restoration : a handbook for New Zealand freshwater systems. Lincoln, N.Z: Manaaki Whenua Press. ISBN 978-0-478-34706-7.
- "Arawai Kakariki wetland restoration programme 2007-2010: Implementation report". Department of Conservation. December 2011.
- Department of Conservation - wetlands conservation page
- The National Wetland Trust of New Zealand
- Wetlands in Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand
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