Sperm oil, a special kind of oil obtained from the head cavities of sperm whales, differs chemically from ordinary whale oil: it comprises mostly liquid wax. Its properties and applications differ from those of regular whale oil, and it sold for more when marketed.
Early industrial societies used whale oil widely in oil lamps and to make soap and margarine. With the commercial development of substitutes such as kerosene and vegetable oils, the use of whale oils declined considerably in the 20th century. With most countries having banned whaling, the sale and use of whale oil as of 2014[update] has practically ceased.
Whale oil was obtained by boiling strips of blubber harvested from whales. This process was called "trying out". The boiling was carried out on land in the case of whales caught close to shore or beached. On longer deep-sea whaling expeditions, the trying-out was carried out on the ship itself so that the waste carcass could be thrown away to make room for the next catch.
Baleen whales were generally the main source of whale oil. The oil of baleen whales is exclusively composed of triglycerides, whereas that of toothed whales contain a lot of wax esters. The bowhead whale and right whale were considered the ideal whaling targets. They are slow, docile, and float when slain. They yield plenty of high-quality oil and whalebone. They were hunted to near extinction.
Whale oil has low viscosity (lower than olive oil), is clear, and varies in colour from a bright honey yellow to a dark brown, according to the condition of the blubber from which it has been extracted and the refinement it went through. It has a strong fishy odor. When hydrogenated, it turns solid and white, and loses its unpleasant taste and odor.
The composition of whale oil varies with the species from which it was sourced and the method by which it was harvested and processed. Whale oil is mainly composed of triglycerides (molecules of fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule). Oil sourced from toothed whales will contain a substantial amount of wax esters (especially the oil of sperm whales). Most of the fatty acids are unsaturated. The most common fatty acids are oleic acids and its isomers (18:1 carbon chains).
Whale oil is exceptionally stable.
|specific gravity||0.920 to 0.931 at 15.6 °C (60.1 °F)|
|flash point||230 °C (446 °F)|
|refractive index||1.4760 at 15 °C (59 °F)|
|iodine number (Wijs)||110–135|
|viscosity||35–39.6 cSt at 37.8 °C (100.0 °F)|
The use of whale oil saw a steady decline starting in the late 19th century due to the development of superior alternatives and, later, the passing of environmental laws. In 1986, the International Whaling Commission declared a moratorium on commercial whaling, which has all but halted the use of whale oil today. The Inuit of North America are granted special whaling rights (justified as being integral to their culture), and they still use whale oil as a food and as lamp oil.
Whale oil was used as a cheap illuminant, though it gave off a strong odor when burnt and was not very popular. It was replaced in the late 19th century by cheaper, more efficient and longer lasting kerosene.
After the invention of hydrogenation in the early 20th century, whale oil was used to make margarine, a practice that is no longer used. Whale oil in margarine has been replaced by vegetable oil.
Whale oil was used to make soap. Until the invention of hydrogenation in the early 20th century, it was only used in industrial-grade cleansers because its foul smell and tendency to discolor made it unsuitable for cosmetic soap.
Maoris cutting up the blubber of beached pilot whales (New Zealand, 1911).
In literature, fiction, and memoirs
The pursuit and use of whale oil, along with many other aspects of whaling, are discussed in Herman Melville's Moby-Dick. In the novel, the preciousness of the substance to contemporary American society is emphasized when the fictional narrator notes that whale oil is "as rare as the milk of queens." John R. Jewitt, an Englishman who wrote a memoir about his years as a captive of the Nootka people on the Pacific Northwest Coast in 1802–1805, describes how what he calls train oil was used as a condiment with every dish, even strawberries.
Friedrich Ratzel in The History of Mankind (1896), when discussing food materials in Oceania, quoted James Cook's comment in relation to "the Maoris" saying "No Greenlander was ever so sharp set upon train-oil as our friends here, they greedily swallowed the stinking droppings when we were boiling down the fat of dog-fish."
Dunwall, a port city in video game Dishonored (2012), uses whale oil as a basis for its industrial revolution.
- Barfield, Rodney (1995). Seasoned by Salt. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-8078-2231-0.
- Rice, Dale W. (2009). "Spermaceti". Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (Second ed.). pp. 1098–1099. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-373553-9.00250-9.
- Clapham, Phil (2004). Right Whales: Natural History & Conservation. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-89658-657-X.
- Joh. N. Tønnessen, Arne Odd Johnsen (1982). The History of Modern Whaling. pg 231
- Robert Lloyd Webb (1988). On the Northwest: Commercial Whaling in the Pacific Northwest, 1790-1967. pg 144
- Moninder Mohan Chakrabarty (2009). Chemistry And Technology Of Oils And Fats. pg 183
- Bottino, Nestor R. (1971). "The composition of marine-oil triglycerides as determined by silver ion-thin-layer chromatography". Journal of Lipid Research 12: 24–30.
- Emil F Dieterichs (1916). A Practical Treatise on Friction, Lubrication, Fats and Oils. pg 23
- Frank Sims (1999). Engineering Formulas Interactive: Conversions, Definitions, and Tables. pg 132
- J. N. Goldsmith (1921). Table of Refractive Indices. pg 259
- Video on YouTube
- Wilson Heflin (2004). Herman Melville's Whaling Years. pg 232
- New Scientist 1 May 1975 pg 262
- Ratzel, Friedrich. The History of Mankind. Vol. I, P257 (London: MacMillan, 1896). URL: www.inquirewithin.biz/history/american_pacific/oceania/oceania-food.htm accessed 6 December 2009.
- Whale oil and its uses, an overview with illustrations
- Knapp, Friedrich Ludwig; Dibdin, William Joseph (1895), "Whale oil - Train oil", Chemical technology: or, Chemistry in its applications to arts and manufactures, II, Lighting, London: J & A Churchill, pp. 43–44, OCLC 3592958
- Stevenson, C H; United States Fish Commission (1903), "Conversion of blubber into whale oil, Refining sperm oil and whale oil", Aquatic products in arts and industries: Fish oils, fats, and waxes, fertilizers from aquatic products. U.S. Fish Commission Report, 1902, Washington, DC: GPO, pp. 193–204, OCLC 21059426, Includes descriptions, photographs and statistics.
- Tower, Walter Sheldon (1907), A history of the American whale fishery, Series in political economy and public law, no. 20, Philadelphia: Published for the University, pp. 94–95, ISBN 1-116-72422-7, OCLC 145429333
- How Capitalism Saved the Whales, by James S. Robbins
- Coleman, Jr, James L (1995), The American Whale Oil Industry: A Look Back at the Future of the American Petroleum Industry, Natural Resources Research 4 (no. 3)