Whale tail is the Y-shaped waistband of a thong or g-string when visible above the waistline of low-rise jeans, shorts, or a skirt that resembles a whale's tail. Intentionally or unintentionally, a whale tail is exposed above the trousers mostly when sitting or bending, or even while standing. The frequency or occasion depends on the style of trousers, the style of underwear, and the way they are worn. Flashing whale tails became popular in the early 2000s, together with the rise of low-rise jeans and thong underwear. The trend, popularized by a number of female celebrities including WWE female wrestler Amy Dumas aka Lita, Christina Aguilera, Victoria Beckham, Mariah Carey, Melanie Blatt, Paris Hilton, Jordan, Anna Kournikova, and Britney Spears, waned within the decade.
Specially designed trousers like low-rise jeans or hip-huggers and higher cut thongs led to greater exposure of the whale tail. The trend was also associated with the trend of sporting lower back tattoos. The word was selected by the American Dialect Society in January 2006 as the "most creative word" of 2005. The concepts of visible panty line, buttock cleavage, and sagging are closely related to the whale tail.
The rising popularity of low-rise jeans led to increased exposure of thong tops in the early 2000s, which quickly became mainstream as a Gucci model revealed one on the catwalk, Melanie Blatt of All Saints was photographed flashing her thong as she got out of a taxi, and Victoria Beckham suggested that her husband enjoyed wearing her G-strings around the home. Britney Spears has been portrayed as a major contributor to the whale tail's popularity. Her whale tail flashing has been referred to in such creative literature books as Married to a Rock Star by Shemane Nugent, Thong on Fire by Noire, The Magical Breasts of Britney Spears by Ryan G. Van Cleave, and Off-Color by Janet McDonald. The Oregonian, a Portland, Oregon, newspaper, wrote in 2004 that an abundance of whale tails had become a distraction on the campus. Social commentator Ann C. Hall identified this campus trend as an "apparent intersection between everyday campus fashion and soft porn". The layered clothing trend of the early 2000s was partly led by the whale tail style that incorporates hip-hugger jeans, crop tops and high riding thongs popularized by celebrities.
By the mid-2000s, whale tails became common to celebrities, providing opportunities to the paparazzi. Whale tail flashing spawned a new accessory — clip-on jewelry for the visible straps. Jess Cartner-Morley of The Guardian claimed that following pop stars in the hipster trousers gave rise to the "low-slung jeans, whale-tail G-string era". On 17 September 2004, a writer for the Chicago Sun-Times stated, "Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera regularly were photographed with thong straps riding high above their low-rise jeans. And even usually tasteful Halle Berry succumbed to the thong craze by attending an awards show with bejeweled thong straps peeking out from above her miniskirt." Actresses Gillian Anderson, Natalie Portman, Sarah Jessica Parker, Kim Cattrall and Tara Reid, MTV's Molly Sims, model Kate Moss, singers Beyoncé Knowles, Mariah Carey, Jennifer Lopez, Janet Jackson, LeAnn Rimes and Britney Spears have been associated as propagators of the trend by the American Broadcasting Company.
In France, clothing brands started creating the thong or le string in styles that encourage a projection above low-hung jeans, such as designs that had little jewels or luminous stars sewn into the rear. In India, thongs peeked out of low-rise jeans in page three parties and university bashes. Indian model Shefali Zariwala flashed a whale tail in the MTV Immies-winning music video "Kaanta Lagaa" and shot to fame and public debate in 2003. In Japan, clothing company Sanna's brought forward an extreme low-rise hip-hugging jeans design with built-in thong whale tails. R&B artist Sisqó rhapsodized about whale tails in his "Thong Song" — "I like it when the beat goes da na da na/Baby make your booty go da na da na/Girl I know you wanna show da na da na/That thong th thong thong thong." Pornographic film director Mike Metropolis made three films based on whale tails — Whale Tail (2005), Whale Tail I (2005) and Whale Tail II (2006) — with Mark Ashley in the lead. Another movie titled Whale Tail: Thong Dreams was released in 2005 featuring Sunny Lane and Kirsten Price. In 2003, web content developer Gavin Hamilton created the site whale-tail.com with content featuring whale tail flashing. Since then the domain has commanded a fair fetching price. The website has been quoted by ABC Radio, NY Times, FHM (UK) and Fuel Magazine (Australia), and has been nominated as a Best Adult Web Site by Australian Adult Industry Awards in 2008.
In 2004, Louisiana, USA State Representative Derrick Shepherd proposed a bill (HB1626), also known as the Baggy Pants Bill to Louisiana House of Representatives. The bill proposed that "it shall be unlawful for any person to appear in public wearing his pants below his waist and thereby exposing his skin or intimate clothing" and that violators would be subjected to three eight-hour days of community service and a fine of up to US$175. The measure died in the face of opposition from the American Civil Liberties Union. The bill was proposed again in 2008 and was rejected by a state Senate panel. In two Louisiana towns, Delcambre (a maximum penalty of US$615 fine or up to six months in prison) and Opelousas (a maximum penalty of US$500 fine or up to six months in prison), wearing low slung pants that reveal buttock cleavage or undergarments is considered a misdemeanor. Garments that reveal underpants were banned in four other Louisiana towns including Alexandria and Shreveport, where violators face fines of US$150 or 15 days in jail, as well as Hawkinsville, Georgia.
In February 2005, the Senate Courts of Justice Committee of Virginia voted unanimously in a hastily convened meeting against a bill proposed by Delegate Algie T. Howell Jr. (Norfolk, Virginia) to impose a US$50 fine on any person who publicly and intentionally "wears and displays his below-waist undergarments, intended to cover a person's intimate parts, in a lewd or indecent manner" in a public place. The bill (HB1981), also known as the Droopy Drawers Bill, was earlier passed by Virginia House of Delegates by a 60–34 vote. Atlanta, Georgia, Dallas, Texas, Baltimore, Maryland, Charlotte, North Carolina, Yonkers, New York, Duncan, Oklahoma, Natchitoches, Louisiana, Stratford, Connecticut, Pine Bluff, Arkansas, and Trenton and Pleasantville of New Jersey, as well as three other Georgia towns including Rome Brunswick and Plains have seen attempts to ban underwear peeking over the pants. School dress codes sometimes also banned some low-rising pants or visible underwear.
By the end of the decade whale tails suffered a bit of a backlash. Trinny Woodall, presenter of BBC1's What Not to Wear, described women who wore thongs showing above their trousers as "disgusting". Jessica Kaminsky wrote in I Hate the Gym, a lifestyle commentary, "I hate when girls let their 'whale tails' creep out of their pants." In 2007, religious writer Tamie Bixler Lung wrote, "There is something wrong when Christian guys and girls want to run around with their underwear hanging out the top of their pants, or their thong strap sticking out the back of their low-rise jeans." In 2008, model and reality TV star Jodie Marsh said, "Showing your thong is a bit old now."
The trend of wearing whale tail-revealing jeans started to dissipate somewhat in the late 2000s when American clothing designers started shifting focus from low-slung jeans and exposed midriffs to high-waisted trousers and cardigans. Jess Cartner-Morley, fashion writer of The Guardian, claimed that the whale tail and the muffin top (the bulge of flesh hanging over the top of low-rider jeans), "twin crimes of modern fashion", had led to the decline in the popularity of hipster jeans. She quoted Louise Hunn, editor of the British edition of InStyle, as saying — "When a look goes too mainstream, people start wearing it badly. And then the really fashionable people run a mile". While the thong still represented 24% of the US$2.5 billion annual market in women's underwear, it stopped growing by end of 2004. By 2007, thongs were overtaken by boyshorts and accounted for only 12% of the knickers market. Some vendors, including Victoria's Secret and DKNY, started selling thongs that do not result in whale tails. Adam Lippes, founder of the lingerie line ADAM, said, "Women got tired of it. And they got sick and tired of seeing string hanging out of the top of every celebrity's jeans."
Attributing whale tails to mainstreaming of the sexualization of young women, The Press Democrat termed the trend as "stripper chic". Post-modern thinker Yasmin Jiwani and co-writers described the trend in Girlhood: Redefining the Limits as an attempt to redefine girlhood while acknowledging the debate around it. The book termed the trend as the "slut" look popularized by Britney Spears. Some experts even dubbed whale tail flashing as "thong feminism" for young girls. Other experts accused marketers of "outrageous selling of sex to children".
One conjecture assumes that the style of exposed thong may have "bubbled-up" from the street level to the high streets, like the jeans and t-shirt look of James Dean. Another assumes the fad was initiated by glamor model Jordan in England and singers Mariah Carey and Spears in the United States. The phenomenon has been compared to the phenomenon of visible bra straps. Saying that "just as Madonna made bras a public garment in the 1980s, Ms. Lewinsky, Paris Hilton and Britney Spears transformed women's panties into a provocative garment intended for public display", the New York Times claimed that the thong, with straps worn high over the hips and exposed by fashionable low-rise jeans and "Juicy Couture" sweat pants, had become a public icon.
Word of the year
"Whale tail" was selected in January 2006 as the "most creative word" of 2005 by the American Dialect Society, a group of linguists, editors, and academics. It received 44 votes to "muffin top's" 25, "flee-ancée's" (a reference to runaway bride Jennifer Wilbanks 15, and "pinosaur's" (a very old Wollemi pine tree near Australia’s Blue Mountains) 6.
While discussing these new coinages, Sali Tagliamonte, associate professor of linguistics at the University of Toronto, observed that young women in North America were ahead of young men as influencers. The use of the word to indicate an underwear phenomenon has shown up in serious mainstream news media, sometimes in reference to the pop stars who made the fashion trend popular. Wayne Glowka, member of the Georgia College and State University faculty and head of the New Word Committee of the Dialect Society, said about the happening, "Language is just going on its merry way, creating many new words. It's time for men to win something."
Though the word is not included in major formal dictionaries, web-based user-generated dictionaries like the Urban Dictionary (which provides "pull me thong" as an alternative term for whale tail), the Double-Tongued Dictionary and the Wiktionary, have entries for the word. The book compilation of Urban Dictionary describes the whale tail as "the shape formed when a G-string rides up high over a woman's pants or skirt". The Dialect Society mentioned "longhorn" as an alternate term for the whale tail. A related term – sagging – implies the practice of wearing pants or shorts below the waist so as to reveal some or all of the wearer's underwear. Another related term – buttock cleavage – implies a minor exposure of the buttocks and the gluteal cleft between them not covered by an underwear. A third related term – Visible Panty Line (VPL) – implies underwear becoming visible through clothes.
Originally the term was not used in reference to a garment, and it still has other uses.
An earlier use of the term whale tail, now used to refer to a visible thong, dates back to August 1974, when the Porsche 911 Turbo debuted with large, flared, rear spoilers that were immediately dubbed whale tails. Designed to reduce rear-end lift and so keep the car from oversteering at high speeds, the rubber-edges of the whale tail spoilers were thought to be "pedestrian friendly". The Turbo, with its whale tail, became an instant hit. It also became one of the world's most recognizable sports cars, remaining in production for the next two decades in one form or another, with more than 23,000 sold by 1989, although from 1978, the rear spoiler was redesigned and dubbed 'teatray' on account of its raised sides. The Porsche 911 whale tails were used in conjunction with a chin spoiler attached to the front valence panel, which, according to some sources, did not enhance aerodynamic stability. It has been found to be less effective in multiplying downforce than newer technologies like an airfoil, "rear wing running across the base of the tailgate window", or "an electronically controlled wing that deploys at about 50 mph".
The whale tail came on the heels of the 1973 "duck tail" or Bürzel in German (as a part of the E-program), a smaller and less flared rear-spoiler fitted to 911 Carrera RS (meaning Rennsport or race sport in German), optional outside Germany. The whaletail was riginally designed for Porsche 930 and Porsche 935 race cars in 1973, and introduced to the Turbo in 1974 (as a part of the H-program), it was also an option on non-turbo Carreras from 1975. Both types of spoilers were designed while Dr. Ernst Fuhrmann was serving as the Technical Director of Porsche AG. In 1976, a rubber front chin spoiler was also introduced to offset the more effective spoiler. By 1978, Porsche introduced another design for the rear spoiler, the 'teatray, a boxier enclosure which accommodated the intercooler, and was also an option for the 911SC.
These whale tail spoilers of the Porsche 911 caught on as a fashion statement, and the term has been used to refer to large rear spoilers on a number of automobiles, including Ford Sierra RS, Focus, Chevrolet Camaro, and Saab 900. Whale tail spoilers also appear at the rear of tricycles, trucks, boats, and other vehicles.
The most distal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD), or the anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery, at the apex is called a whale tail or a pitchfork. The LAD traverses the anterior interventricular sulcus, giving rise to septal and diagonal branches before bifurcating distally and tapering out as whale tails. A certain behavior of hysteretic magnetization curves in bulk superconductors is described as a whale tail profile, which differs qualitatively from a plane tail profile.
A flash diffuser designed by photographer Gary Fong is dubbed as the "whale tail". In bicycling terms, a style of saddles designed for Wilderness Trail Bikes (WTB) is sometimes called a whale tail, as well as a certain array of LED blinker on bicycle helmets. A published article appearing in Trailer Boats magazine dated January 1989 describes a hydrofoil sold under the trade name "Whale Tail" as "a flat plate without the shape of a foil" and of one piece construction. A whale tail is also one of two types of guide handles commonly used on power trowels, the other being a bicycle style handlebar.
Reverence, a 1989 sculpture created by Jim Sardonis on the side of Interstate highway I-89 between Exits 12 and 13 in Vermont, is popularly known as whale tails. Three beaches in Destin, Florida, Puntarenas in Costa Rica, and Sandy Bay, Jamaica are named as Whale's Tail Beach for their shapes. A popular specialty license plate in California has been dubbed as a "whale tail license plate", as it features a the tail of a Pacific Humpback whale's tail painted in pale blue by artist Robert Wyland.
|Look up whale tail in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
Footnotes and references
- Kremer, John. "Reduplicatives and Rhyming Words". Sing-Song Words. Open Horizons. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Vildasol, Maddox; Angelo Vildasol (2006). The Alphabet of Manliness. Citadel Press. p. 147. ISBN 0-8065-2720-X.
- Flocker, Michael (2006). Death by PowerPoint: A Modern Office Survival Guide. Perseus Books Group. p. 219. ISBN 0-306-81512-5.
- Various. Art of Dress Designing. Global Media. p. 2004. ISBN 81-904575-7-8.
- Garchik, Leah (2004-08-23). "Daily Datebook". San Francisco Chronicle: F8. "A Hollister spy says the thong visible from the back of low-rise jeans is called a "whale tail."
- Hall, Ann C.; Mardia J. Bishop (2007). Pop-porn: Pornography in American Culture. Praeger. p. 57. ISBN 0-275-99920-3.
- Steele, Valerie (2005). Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 318. ISBN 0-684-31394-4.
- Hull, Liz (2008-02-05). "So long to the thong as women reject the chav look for big pants". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Jiwani, Yasmin; Candis Steenbergen; Claudia Mitchell (2006). Girlhood: Redefining the Limits. Black Rose Books. p. 173. ISBN 1-55164-276-X.
This style has sparked heated debates across the country, as parents negotiate their daughter's skin quotient and students debate their comfort level with the visible thong over fries and gravy at lunch.
- Kim, Jae-Ha (2004-09-17). "Good riddance: The tail end of the thong's popularity is in sight". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- Kczynski, Alex (2004-09-12). "Now You See It, Now You Don't". New York Times (Fashion & Style). Retrieved 2008-10-30.
- Nugent, Shemane (2004). Married to a Rock Star. Globe Pequot Press. p. 119. ISBN 1-59228-561-9.
- Noire (2007). Thong on Fire: An Urban Erotic Tale. Atria Books. p. 226. ISBN 1-4165-3302-8.
- Van Cleave, Ryan G. (2006). The Magical Breasts of Britney Spears. Red Hen Press. p. 90. ISBN 1-59709-067-0.
- McDonald, Janet (2007). Off-Color. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 5. ISBN 0-374-37196-2.
- Quinn, Tom (2004-06-24). "Updated Dress Code Addresses New Styles". The Oregonian: 1.
Another distraction occurs when pants ride low in the back and expose thong underwear, a phenomenon students have dubbed whales' tails... If you a 16-year-old boy in an English class, and you’ve got three whales' tails in front of you, it’s pretty hard to concentrate on verbs.
- La Ferla, Ruth (2004-06-08). "What Stylish Young Women Are Wearing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-23.
- Elliott, John; Keenlyside, Sarah (2005-07-31). "Bottom falls out of thong market". The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved 2010-01-23.
- Clydesdale, Lindsay (2008-02-06). "So Thong, And Thanks For Nothing". Daily Records. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Websites like the Whale tail World listed out their own version of top celebrity whale tails
- Achor Hayes, Tracy (2001-03-13). "Waistbands dive to daring new depths". Dallas Morning News (A. H. Belo Corporation). Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- Cartner-Morley, Jess (2008-02-16). "One-piece in our time". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
- Celebrities Are Showing Off Butt Cleavage, ABCNews.com, 2009-06-25, Retrieved: 2010-12-15
- Lichfield, John (2003-10-14). "Our Man In Paris: Thongs of innocence and experience". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Sharma, Kalpana (2007-07-14). "Pssst! It's showing!". Times of India (India Times). Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- Sharma, Kalpana (2007-07-14). "Pssst! It's showing!". Times of India (Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.). Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Staff Correspondent (2007-02-05). "Sexy doesn't do it anymore". Times of India (Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.). Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- News Desk (2009-04-09). "Are they jeans or is it a thong?". Metro.com (Associated Newspapers Limited). Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- "Mike Metropolis". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
- "Whale Tail: Thong Dreams". AOL. Retrieved 2009-04-10.[dead link]
- "whaletail.com". Alexa Internet Inc. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
- Jackson, Ron. "Mingle.com Meets Banker.com In the 40K Club Atop This Week's Sales Chart". Domain Name Journal. Internet Edge Inc. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
- "Nominated for Best Adult Web Site". Australian Adult Industry Awards. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
- Thomas, Bethany (2004-05-13). "Memo to Britney: Lose the low-slungs". Weird news (MSNBC). Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Baggy Pants Bill Blocked in Louisiana". Politics (Fox News). Associated Press. 2008-04-22. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- AFP (2007-08-30). "No more low-slung pants in Alexandria". International News (France24). Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- AFP (2007-08-30). "Fancy pants just not hip in Atlanta". World (Herald Sun). Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Parker, Laura (2007-09-15). "Is It a Crime to Wear Baggy Pants?". ABC News. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Bahrampour, Tara (2005-02-11). "A Brief Matter of Style". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- "Virginia OKs Fine for Low-Rider Pants". Fox News. 2005-02-09. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Dybdahl, Pete (2005-02-10). "Don't get caught with your pants down". The Roanoke Times. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Bowen, Jon (1999-03-08). "Thong Wars". Ivory Towers. Salon. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- Lyons, Jessica (2001-09-27). "Armed with high ideals, Joseph Pawlick enforces a mandate for change at Salinas High--whether teachers, students and parents want it or not". Monterey County Weekly. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- Mary, Spicuzza (2000-14-20). "Panty Ranting". Papers. MetroActive. Retrieved 2008-07-22. Check date values in:
- Kaminsky, Jessica (2004). I Hate the Gym. Simon Spotlight Entertainment. p. 33. ISBN 0-689-87369-7.
- Lung, Tamie Bixler (2007). Clean Up on Aisle Me: Lifeskills 101. Authorhouse. p. 54. ISBN 1-4259-7897-5.
- Cartner-Morley, Jess (2005-03-25). "Hang up your hipsters". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Cartner-Morley, Jess (2005-04-09). "No time to waist". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- "Less Than a Thong, More Than Commando: A Strapless G-String". Asylum. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
- "Backless underwear?". Style Dash. 2006-09-15. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
- "Lace-trim low-rise thong". Victoria's Secret. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
- "DKNY 3-Pack Low-Rise Cotton With Lace Thongs". Amazon. Retrieved 2008-07-30.[dead link]
- Wolfe, Rayne (2006-10-17). "Stripper chic: as scanty styles of dress enter the teen mainstream, parents are left wondering where to set limits, or if they can". The Press Democrat (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Thomsen, Anisa (2006-10-24). "Sexualizing girls". The Press Democrat (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Masquelier, Adeline Marie (2005). "Dirt, Undress, and Difference: Critical Perspectives on the Body's Surface" in American Anthropological Association Meeting. Indiana University Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-253-21783-0.
A rebellion against parents and other adults who seem to have forgotten their own fling with hot pants and the no-bra look.
- Buddenberg, Laura J.; Kathleen M. McGee (2004). Who's Raising Your Child?. Boys Town Press. pp. 61–63. ISBN 1-889322-59-8.
- Jackson, Tim; David Shaw (2006). The Fashion Handbook. Routledge. p. 26. ISBN 0-415-25580-5.
- Steele, Valerie (2005). Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 121. ISBN 0-684-31394-4.
- "Gross anatomy: Girls". TimeOut NewYork. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
- "Farewell to fashion faux pas of summer". Star Tribune. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
- Smith, Chrysti M. (2003). Verbivore's Feast: A Banquet of Word & Phrase Origins. Farcountry Press. p. 125. ISBN 1-56037-265-6.
- Partridge, Eric (1966). Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. Routledge. p. 217. ISBN 0-415-05077-4.
- "Words of the Year 2005" (PDF). American Dialect Society. 2006-01-06. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Harlow, John (2006-01-08). "Hey exogals, girl talk is the future of English". London: The Sunday Times. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- "Showbiz Tonight". CNN transcripts (CNN). 2006-01-16. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- "The Situation Room". CNN transcripts (CNN). 2006-01-16. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- Mercer, Marsh (2007-01-03). "Word of year might be something manly". Seattle Pi. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Peckham, Aaron. "pull me thong". Urban Dictionary. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Barrett, Grant. "whale tail". Double-Tongued Dictionary. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Peckham, Aaron. "whale tail". Urban Dictionary. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Whale tail". Wiktionary. Wikimedia. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Peckham, Aaron (2007). Mo' Urban Dictionary: Ridonkulous Street Slang Defined. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 225. ISBN 0-7407-6875-1.
- Metcalf, Allan. "Truthiness Voted 2005 Word of the Year" (PDF). American Dialect Society. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Gang Identification". Connecticut Gang Investigators Association. Retrieved November 21, 2008.
- D'Angelo, Jennifer (2001-12-05). "Cleavage Fashion Flips Upside Down". FOXNews. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Steele, Valerie (2005). Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion (volume2). Thomson Gale. p. 121. ISBN 0-684-31396-0.
- Dempsey, Wayne R. (2001). 101 Projects for Your Porsche 911. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 198. ISBN 0760308535.
- Anderson, Bruce (1997). Porsche 911 Performance Handbook. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 16. ISBN 076030033X.
- Morgan, Peter; John Colley; Mark Hughes (1998). Original Porsche 911: The Guide to All Production Models, 1963-98. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. pp. 144–160. ISBN 1901432165.
- Lewis, Albert L.; Walter A. Musciano (1977). Automobiles of the World. Simon and Schuster. p. 660. ISBN 0671224859.
- Paternie, Patrick (2005). Porsche 911 Red Book 1965-2005: 1965-2005. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 45. ISBN 076031960X.
- Faragher, Scott (2005). Porsche the Ultimate Guide. Krause Publications. p. 50. ISBN 0873497201.
- Paternie, Patrick (2005). Porsche 911 Red Book 1965-2005: 1965-2005. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. reface. ISBN 076031960X.
- Anderson, Bruce (1997). Porsche 911 Performance Handbook. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 16. ISBN 076030033X.
- Dempsey, Wayne R. (2001). 101 Projects for Your Porsche 911: 1964-1989. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 200. ISBN 0760308535.
- Post, Robert C. (2001). High Performance: The Culture and Technology of Drag Racing, 1950-2000. JHU Press. p. 229. ISBN 0801866642.
- Sturmey, Henry; H. Walter Staner (1986). The Autocar. Iliffe, Sons & Sturmey Ltd. p. 6.
- (2006). BusinessWeek European Edition: 86. EBSCO Publishing.
- Batchelor, Dean; Randy Leffingwell (1997). Illustrated Porsche Buyer's Guide. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 84. ISBN 0760302278.
- Faragher, Scott (2005). Porsche the Ultimate Guide. Krause Publications. p. 49. ISBN 0873497201.
- Leffingwell, Randy (2002). Porsche Legends. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 144. ISBN 0760313644.
- Faragher, Scott (2005). Porsche the Ultimate Guide. Krause Publications. p. 52. ISBN 0873497201.
- O'Rourke, P.J. (2000). Holidays in Hell. Grove Press. p. 207. ISBN 0802137016.
- Robson, Graham (2001). The Illustrated Directory of Classic Cars. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 228. ISBN 0760310491.
- "Car Style First Products used on this Ford Focus". This month's featured car. Car Styling. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- "Rear spoilers". Showcars Bodyparts. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- "Classic Saab Whale Tail restoration" (PDF). Saab Commemorative Edition Website. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- "Hannigan Trikes". EasyCart.net. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- "Universal Whale Tail Truck Spoilers". URL.biz. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- Perry, Bob. "Classic Swan". Boats.com. Dominion Enterprises. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- Brindley, David N.; Eric R. Bates (2008). Reperfusion Therapy for Acute Myocardial Infarction. Informa Health Care. p. 31. ISBN 0849343585.
- Topol, Eric J.; Robert M. Califf; Eric N Prystowsky; James D Thomas; Paul D. Thompson (2006). Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1227. ISBN 0781770122.
- Maksimova, I.L.; A.A. Elistratov (March 1998). "Magnetization curves and hysteretic losses in superconducting films with edge barrier" (PDF). Applied Science Letters 72 (13): 1650–1652. doi:10.1063/1.121141. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Gary Fong WhaleTail flash diffuser review". Reviews. PHOTO-TIPS-ONLINE.com. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "WTB Rocket V Pro SE - Mens Saddles". ABC of Mountain Biking. MaxLifestyle International Inc. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "WTB Pure V Race". Bicycle Warehouse. Central Warehouse. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Swart, Randy (2007-08-24). "Thoughts on Bicycle Lights". Helmets. Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Stabilizing fin for a motor boat". US Patent 4995840. PatentStorm. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "Guide handle for a manually steered machine". Patent Storm. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- "Reverence, 1989". Jim Sardonis Natural Forms, Inc. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Rosenblatt, Susannah (2008-06-25). "Artist Wyland says California must stop using his whale tail on license plates". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- Schwartz, Noaki (2008-06-18). "Artist is sparring with coastal panel over royalty fees". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved 2008-07-26.