Whanganui (New Zealand electorate)

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Map showing extent of electorate for the 2008 and 2011 elections

Whanganui (known as Wanganui until 1996) is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first established in 1860 for the 3rd Parliament and has existed continuously since then.

Since the 2005 election, it has been held by Chester Borrows of the National Party.

Population centres[edit]

In the 1860 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of representatives by 12, reflecting the immense population growth since the original electorates were established in 1853. The redistribution created 15 additional electorates with between one and three members, and the Wanganui and Rangitikei electorate was split into two separate electorates: the Rangitikei electorate and the Wanganui electorate.[1]

The electorate is based on the city of Whanganui, the towns Opunake and Hawera, and smaller centres Kaponga, Eltham, Normanby, Manaia, Patea and Waverley.

History[edit]

Henry Shafto Harrison was the first representative. His 7 February 1861 election was declared invalid. He stood again in the 1861 by-election and was elected again. He then served the electorate until the end of the term in 1866.[2][3]

Harrison, John Bryce and John Garner contested the 1866 election. The nomination meeting was held on Friday, 2 March 1866. Harrison, Bryce and Garner received 51, 102 and 7 votes, respectively, at the election on the following day. Bryce was thus declared elected.[4] Bryce resigned in 1867.[5]

The resulting 6 May 1867 by-election was won by Harrison, and he served until the dissolution of Parliament on 30 December 1870.[2]

Bryce was again elected in the 30 January 1871 election. This time, he served three parliamentary terms until the dissolution in November 1881.[5]

Wanganui became a two-member electorate for the 12 January 1875–76 election. Apart from Bryce, Julius Vogel was elected, who was later to become Premier. Vogel resigned on 9 September 1876. [6]

The resulting 2 October 1876 by-election was won by William Fox, resulting in his second period of representation of this electorate. He served until the end of the term on 15 August 1879.[7]

Bryce and John Ballance won the 1879 election. They both server until the end of the term, with Parliament being dissolved on 8 November 1881. [8]

For the 1881 election, the electorate reverted to being represented by a single member. The election, held on 9 December, was won by William Hogg Watt. He served until the end of the term, with Parliament being dissolved on 27 June 1884.[9]

The 1884 election was once again won by John Ballance. This time, he would serve in three successive Parliaments. He died in office on 27 April 1893 during the 11th Parliament. [8] Ballance formed the Liberal Party after the 1890 election and became its leader, and thus introduced party politics to New Zealand. The Liberal Government of New Zealand would last for 21 years and is the longest serving government in New Zealand's history.

Ballance’s death triggered the 1893 by-election, which was held on 13 June and won by Archibald Willis, who was re-elected at the 1893 election a few months later.[10]

Gilbert Carson was successful in the 1896 election. He served one term.[11] He was succeeded by Willis in the 1899 election, who served two more terms for the electorate.[10]

James Thomas Hogan won the 1905 election. He served two terms[12] and was defeated in the 1911 election by Bill Veitch.

Veitch had a long career in the electorate, serving until 1935, when he defeated. He was initially an Independent, but joined the Liberal Party in 1925, and changed to the United Party in 1928.

Joseph Cotterill won the electorate in the 1935 election for the Labour Party. He also had a long career, retiring in 1960 from the Wanganui seat.

He was succeeded by his party colleague George Spooner in the 1960 election, who served three terms and was defeated in 1969 election by William Tolhurst from the National Party.

Tolhurst served one term and at the 1972 election, the electorate returned to Labour. Russell Marshall served six terms and retired in 1990.

In the 1990 election, Cam Campion secured the seat for National. He retired in 1993 and died two years after that.

The seat returned to Labour again, with Jill Pettis winning the 1993 election. She was the first woman to represent Wanganui. She served four terms, until she was defeated in the 2005 election by current holder of the electorate, Chester Borrows of the National Party.[13] Pettis served an additional term as a List MP until 2008.

Several members (Fox, Vogel and Ballance) became Premier. Terry Heffernan stood in the electorate five times for four parties, from 1981 to 1993.

Members of Parliament[edit]

Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at a general election.

Key

 Independent    Liberal    United  
 Labour    National  

single-member electorate[edit]

Election Winner
1861 election Henry Harrison
1861 by-election
1866 election John Bryce
1867 by-election Henry Harrison
1871 election John Bryce

multi-member electorate[edit]

Election Winners
1876 election John Bryce Julius Vogel
1876 by-election William Fox
1879 election John Ballance

single-member electorate[edit]

Election Winner
1881 election William Watt
1884 election John Ballance
1887 election
1890 election
1893 by-election Archibald Willis
1893 election
1896 election Gilbert Carson
1899 election Archibald Willis
1902 election
1905 election James Thomas Hogan
1908 election
1911 election Bill Veitch
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election Joseph Cotterill
1938 election
1943 election
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election George Spooner
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election William Tolhurst
1972 election Russell Marshall
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election Cam Campion
1993 election Jill Pettis
1996 election
1999 election
2002 election
2005 election Chester Borrows
2008 election
2011 election

List MPs[edit]

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
2005 election Jill Pettis

Election results[edit]

2011 election[edit]

General Election 2011: Whanganui[14]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
National Green tickY Chester Borrows 16,743 53.69 -2.61 15,151 47.56 +1.25
Labour Hamish McDouall 11,697 37.51 -0.10 8,733 27.41 -8.10
Green John Milnes 1,444 4.63 +0.19 2,855 8.96 +3.68
NZ First Ian Brougham 1,043 3.34 +3.34 3,035 9.53 +4.39
ACT Alan Daniel Davidson 135 0.43 -0.56 345 1.08 -1.99
Democratic Heather Marion Smith 121 0.39 -0.28 47 0.15 -0.07
Conservative   1,030 3.23 -+3.23
Māori   225 0.71 -0.29
Legalise Cannabis   176 0.55 +0.21
United Future   143 0.45 -0.20
Mana   75 0.24 +0.24
Libertarianz   22 0.07 +0.02
Alliance   21 0.07 -0.02
Informal votes 616 235
Total Valid votes 31,183 31,858
National hold Majority 5,046 16.18 -2.51

Electorate (as at 11 November 2011): 43,350[15]

2008 election[edit]

General Election 2008: Whanganui[16]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
National Green tickY Chester Borrows 19,072 56.30 15,869 46.30
Labour Hamish McDouall 12,739 37.61 12,170 35.51
Green John Milnes 1,503 4.44 1,809 5.28
ACT Alan Davidson 336 0.99 1,052 3.07
Democratic Heather Marion Smith 225 0.66 73 0.21
NZ First   1,761 5.14
Māori   342 1.00
Progressive   253 0.74
Bill and Ben   249 0.73
United Future   224 0.65
Kiwi   186 0.54
Legalise Cannabis   116 0.34
Family Party   91 0.27
Alliance   28 0.08
Libertarianz   18 0.05
Workers Party   16 0.05
Pacific   10 0.03
RONZ   3 0.01
RAM   2 0.01
Informal votes 304 162
Total Valid votes 33,875 34,272
National hold Majority 6,333

2005 election[edit]

General election 2005: Whanganui[17]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
National Chester Borrows 15,846 49.28 +9.70 13,417 41.13
Labour Red XN Jill Pettis 13,444 41.81 -4.56 13,045 39.99
Green John Milnes 1,171 3.64 1,466 4.49
United Future David Ball 502 1.56 885 2.71
Māori Aaron Makutu 429 1.33 265 0.841
Progressive Debbie Lucas 371 1.15 448 1.37
One NZ Ian Brougham 214 0.67 52 0.16
Democratic Malcolm Murchie 175 0.54 68 0.21
NZ First   2,185 6.70
ACT   296 0.91
Destiny   282 0.86
Legalise Cannabis   68 0.21
Christian Heritage   62 0.19
Alliance   31 0.10
99 MP   18 0.06
Libertarianz   16 0.05
Family Rights   7 0.02
RONZ   7 0.02
Direct Democracy   6 0.02
Informal votes 376 144
National gain from Labour Majority 2,402 7.47 +14.26

1899 election[edit]

General election, 1899: Wanganui[18][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Archibald Willis 2,878 55.83
Opposition Gilbert Carson 2,169 42.08
Independent Liberal John Michael Murphy 108 2.10
Majority 709 13.75
Turnout 5,155 80.53
Registered electors 6,401

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 32f.
  2. ^ a b Scholefield 1925, p. 100.
  3. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 203.
  4. ^ "The Wanganui Election". Wellington Independent XXI (2331). 6 March 1866. p. 4. Retrieved 19 August 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Scholefield 1925, p. 81.
  6. ^ Scholefield 1925, pp. 142-143.
  7. ^ Scholefield 1925, p. 94.
  8. ^ a b Scholefield 1925, p. 77.
  9. ^ Scholefield 1925, p. 145.
  10. ^ a b Scholefield 1925, p. 147.
  11. ^ Scholefield 1925, p. 84.
  12. ^ Scholefield 1925, p. 103.
  13. ^ "Hon Chester Borrows". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  14. ^ 2011 election results
  15. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  16. ^ 2008 election results
  17. ^ 2005 election results
  18. ^ "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  19. ^ "Electoral District of Wanganui". Wanganui Chronicle. XLIII (1500). 5 December 1899. p. 3. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 

References[edit]

  • Scholefield, Guy (1925) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record (2nd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 

External links[edit]