In the Pines
|"In the Pines"|
"Where Did You Sleep Last Night"
|Original artist||Unidentified field musician (1925)|
|Recorded by||Dick Justice (1929)
Peg Leg Howell (1929)
|Performed by||Lead Belly
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
"In the Pines", also known as "Black Girl" and "Where Did You Sleep Last Night", is a traditional American folk song which dates back to at least the 1870s, and is believed to be Southern Appalachian in origin. The identity of the song's author is unknown, but it has been recorded by many artists in numerous genres. Traditionally, it is most often associated with the American blues musician Lead Belly, who recorded several versions in the 1940s, as well as the American bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, who helped popularize the song (in a different variant, featuring lyrics about a train) among bluegrass and country audiences with his versions recorded in the 1940s and 1950s.
The song, performed by The Four Pennies, reached the UK top twenty in 1964. A live rendering by the American grunge band Nirvana, which reinterpreted Lead Belly's version and was recorded during their MTV Unplugged performance in 1993, helped introduce the song to a new generation.
Like numerous other folk songs, "In the Pines" was passed on from one generation and locale to the next by word of mouth. The first printed version of the song, compiled by Cecil Sharp, appeared in 1917, and comprised just four lines and a melody. The lines are:
"Black girl, black girl, don't lie to me
Where did you stay last night?
I stayed in the pines where the sun never shines
And shivered when the cold wind blows"
In 1925, a version of the song was recorded onto phonograph cylinder by a folk collector. This was the first documentation of "The Longest Train" variant of the song, which includes a stanza about "The longest train I ever saw". This stanza probably began as a separate song that later merged into "In the Pines". Lyrics in some versions about "Joe Brown's coal mine" and "the Georgia line" may refer to Joseph E. Brown, a former Governor of Georgia, who famously leased convicts to operate coal mines in the 1870s. While early renditions which mention the head in the "driver's wheel" make clear that the decapitation was caused by the train, some later versions would omit the reference to the train and reattribute the cause. As music historian Norm Cohen pointed out in his 1981 book, Long Steel Rail: The Railroad in American Folksong, the song came to consist of three frequent elements: a chorus about "in the pines", a stanza about "the longest train" and a stanza about a decapitation, but not all elements are present in all versions.
Starting in 1926, commercial recordings of the song were done by various folk and bluegrass bands. In a 1970 dissertation, Judith McCulloh found 160 permutations of the song. As well as rearrangement of the three frequent elements, the person who goes into the pines, or who is decapitated, is described as a man, woman, adolescent, husband, wife, or parent, while the pines can be seen as representing sexuality, death, or loneliness. The train is described as killing a loved one, as taking one's beloved away, or as leaving an itinerant worker far from home.
In variants in which the song describes a confrontation, the person being challenged is always a woman. The folk version by the Kossoy Sisters asks, "Little girl, little girl, where'd you stay last night? Not even your mother knows." The reply to the question, "Where did you get that dress/ And those shoes that are so fine?" from one version is, "From a man in the mines/Who sleeps in the pines." The theme of a woman being caught doing something she should not is thus also common to many variants. One variant, performed in the early twentieth century by the Ellison clan (Ora Ellison, deceased) in Lookout Mountain, Georgia, tells of a young Georgia girl who flees to the pines after being raped. Her rapist, a male soldier, is later beheaded by the train.
Some versions of the song also reference the Great Depression, with the "black girl" being a hobo on the move from the police, who witnesses the murder of her father while train-jumping. She hides from this by sleeping in the pines, in the cold.
Bill Monroe's 1941 and 1952 recordings, both under the title "In the Pines," were highly influential on later bluegrass and country versions. Recorded with his Bluegrass Boys and featuring fiddles and yodelling, they represent the "longest train" variant of the song, and omit any reference to a decapitation. However, as Eric Weisbard writes in a 1994 article in The New York Times, "...the enigmatic train is almost as frightening, suggesting an eternal passage: 'I asked my captain for the time of day/He said he throwed his watch away.'"
J. E. Mainer & His Mountaineers
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2012)|
J. E. Mainer & His Mountaineers recorded a version for RCA Victor in 1935, which was re-released in 1966 on the album The Railroad In Folksong. This version contains the chorus "Look up, look down the lonesome road where you and I must go, in the pines, in the pines, where the sun never shines, where I shiver when the cold wind blows...".
Huddie Ledbetter, a.k.a. Lead Belly, recorded over half-a-dozen versions between 1944 and 1948, most often under the title, "Black Girl" or "Black Gal". His first rendition, for Musicraft Records in New York City in February 1944, is arguably his most familiar. Listed as "Where Did You Sleep Last Night," this version appears on a number of Lead Belly "best-of" compilations, such as Absolutely the Best (2000).
Another familiar version was recorded for Moses Asch, founder of Folkways Records, in New York City. Listed as "Black Girl" or "In the Pines," this version appears on compilations such as Where Did You Sleep Last Night – Lead Belly Legacy Vol. 1 (1996), and The Definitive Lead Belly (2008).
Lead Belly is often said to be the author of the song, e.g. by Nirvana on their MTV Unplugged album in 1994. However, Ledbetter didn't write the song, but reinterpreted it, as did other musicians before and after him. According to the American folklorist Alan Lomax, Lead Belly learned the song from someone's interpretation of the 1917 version compiled by Cecil Sharp, and by the 1925 phonograph recording.
"In the Pines," converted into the Cajun French language and sung under the titles "Pine Grove Blues" or "Ma Negresse," became one of the landmark songs of Cajun music. The song is most associated with Nathan Abshire, the Louisiana Cajun accordion player, for whom "Pine Grove Blues" was his biggest hit. His melody is a hard-driving blues, but the lyrics, when translated to English, are the familiar "Hey, black girl, where did you sleep last night?" He recorded it at least three times, from the 1940s onward. Since then, Abshire's version has been covered by a wide variety of Cajun and zydeco musicians, including the Pine Leaf Boys, the Lost Bayou Ramblers, Beau Jocque, and Cedric Watson.
The Four Pennies
|"Where Did You Sleep Last Night"|
"Where Did You Sleep Last Night" cover
|Song by Nirvana from the album MTV Unplugged in New York|
|Released||1 November 1994|
|Recorded||November 18, 1993 at Sony Music Studios in New York City|
|Genre||Alternative rock, blues rock, acoustic rock|
|Producer||Alex Coletti, Scott Litt, Nirvana|
|MTV Unplugged in New York track listing|
Nirvana occasionally performed the song during the early 1990s. Singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain was introduced to the song by fellow Seattle musician Mark Lanegan, and played guitar on a version on Lanegan's 1990 album, The Winding Sheet. Like Lanegan, Cobain usually screamed its final verse.
It is likely that Cobain referenced Lead Belly's 1944 Musicraft version for his interpretation of the song; this is the version Lanegan owned an original 78 rpm of, and the one Cobain's version most closely resembles, in lyrics, form and title. In a 2009 MTV article, Kurt Loder remembers arguing with Cobain about the song's title, with Cobain insisting, "But the Leadbelly version is called 'Where Did You Sleep Last Night,'" and Loder preferring the "In the Pines" title used by Bill Monroe (as well as Lead Belly).
Cobain earned critical and commercial acclaim for his acoustic performance of the song during Nirvana's MTV Unplugged appearance in 1993. This version was posthumously released on the band's MTV Unplugged in New York album the following year, and was released as a promotional single. In 2002 the song featured on Nirvana's "best of" compilation album Nirvana. A solo Cobain home demo, recorded in 1990, appears on the band's 2004 rarities box set, With the Lights Out.
- Nirvana cover chart positions
|French Airplay Chart||62|
- Dock Walsh recorded the first known commercial version April 17, 1926 (Columbia mastered W142031-1; released on 15094-D, September 20, 1926).
- Roscoe Holcomb recorded a version, available on The High Lonesome Sound.
- Cryin' Sam Collins recorded a variant called "Lonesome Road Blues" in 1930.
- The Louvin Brothers' version appears on the 1956 album, Tragic Songs of Life.
- Pete Seeger's version of "Black Girl" appears on the 2002 Smithsonian Folkways re-release of recordings from the 1950s and 1960s entitled American Favorite Ballads, Vol. 1.
- Kossoy Sisters recorded a version of "In The Pines" on their 1956 album Bowling Green.
- Josh White's version of "Black Girl" appears on his 1955 album, 25th Anniversary: The Story of John Henry, A Musical Narrative. Another version appears on New York to London (2002).
- Dave Van Ronk's version appears on The Folkway Years 1959–1961.
- The New Christy Minstrels recorded a version for their 1961 Columbia Records debut album.
- Joan Baez's version appears on Very Early Joan, which includes performances from 1961 and 1963.
- Doc Watson often performed the song, and a live recording exists, dating from the 1960s.
- The Pleazers recorded "Poor Girl" in 1965.
- Jackson C. Frank recorded "In the Pines" in 1965.
- Clifford Jordan recorded a 1965 jazz arrangement with singer Sandra Douglass.
- The Osborne Brothers recorded a version for the album Up This Hill And Down (Decca DL-74767) in June 1966.
- Tiny Tim's version is the B-side of his single "April Showers," in 1966.
- Grateful Dead recorded the song on July 17, 1966. It appears as "In the Pines" on their 2001 box set, The Golden Road.
- Norma Tanega recorded the song, as "Hey Girl," for her only album, Walkin' My Cat Named Dog, in 1967.
- Jerry Reed recorded a version on Jerry Reed Explores Guitar Country, released in 1969.
- John Phillips' version of "Black Girl" appears as a bonus track on the remastered CD of John Phillips (John, the Wolf King of L.A.) recorded in 1969.
- Long John Baldry's "Black Girl," a duet with Maggie Bell, appears on his 1971 album It Ain't Easy. A rendition also appears on Long John Baldry Trio-Live (1999).
- Link Wray recorded two versions titled "Georgia Pines" and "In the Pines" on his 1973 folk-rock release Beans and Fatback.
- Gene Clark recorded the song for his 1977 album Two Sides to Every Story.
- Mickey Newbury recorded a version on his 1977 album Rusty Tracks, as part of a four-song suite of traditional songs: "Shenandoah," "That Lucky Old Sun," "Danny Boy," "In the Pines."
- Charlie Feathers recorded a version in the 1980s in Memphis.
- The Oakridge Boys recorded "In the Pines" on their 1983 album, Deliver.
- Dolly Parton's version appears on her 1994 album Heartsongs: Live from Home.
- Odetta recorded the song for her 2001 Lead Belly tribute album, Looking for a Home – Thanks to Leadbelly.
- Dee Dee Ramone and Youth Gone Mad recorded a version on their 2002 album Youth Gone Mad featuring Dee Dee Ramone; the liner notes credit the song to Lead Belly.
- R. Crumb performed the song in Hamburg, Germany in 2003. The only known release is on R. Crumb's Music Sampler, included with the R. Crumb Handbook.
- (Smog)'s version appears on his 2005 album A River Ain't Too Much to Love.
- Ralph Stanley and Jimmy Martin's version appears on their album First Time Together, released in 2005.
- Jack Rose's version appears on his 2010 EP Ragged and Right.
- WZRD, an alternative rock duo composed of Kid Cudi and Dot da Genius, did a rendition of "In the Pines" (titled: "Where Did You Sleep Last Night"), on their eponymous 2012 album.
- Susheela Raman's version appears on her album 33 1/3, released in 2007.
- A Remix of Susheela Raman's version by 'Hit by a Rock' was released in 2009.
- Lee Abramson made a “bionic mouth” version of the song with his signature use of ModelTalker voice synthesizer on his 2011 album “Spices”
Use in popular culture
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013)|
- The song can be heard in the background of Nicholas Ray's The True Story of Jesse James
- A few lines of the song are sung by Sissy Spacek, playing Loretta Lynn, in Coal Miner's Daughter.
- Lead Belly's version appears in the 1997 horror film, I Know What You Did Last Summer.
- Sung at the funeral of Jo Van Fleet's character, Ella Garth, in the 1960 film Wild River.
- The song is sung by Danielle Harris in the 2010 film Stake Land.
- The song is sung by Elke Sommer is the 1976 film The Astral Factor.
- A portion of this song is sung by Levon Helms at the end of the film, "Ain't In It For My Health".
- The song appears in the 1958 play A Taste of Honey, by the British dramatist Shelagh Delaney. It is sung by the character Josephine, who replaces the lyric "black girl" with "black boy," referring to her boyfriend Jimmy.
- In the 2009 play Breakfast at Tiffany's, it is sung by Holly Golightly.
- In Charles Frazier's novel Thirteen Moons, the main character, Will Cooper, reminisces of a song "about pines and the head caught in the driving wheel and the body on the line, the narrator pleading to know where his woman slept last night."
- In 2007, Czech-American writer-singer Natálie Kocábová used a strophe of "Where Did You Sleep Last Night" for the opening of her novella Růže: Cesta za světlem... ("Rose: A Way to the Light"), released as the final work of her independent trilogy, published by Mladá fronta DNES.
- Weisbard, Eric (November 13, 1994). "A Simple Song That Lives Beyond Time". The New York Times.
- Cohen, Norm (2000). Long Steel Rail: The Railroad in American Folksong (2 ed.). p. 459. ISBN 978-0-252-06881-2.
- McCulloh, Judith Marie (1970), In the Pines: The Melodic-Textual Identity of an American Lyric Folksong Cluster (Ph.D. dissertation, Folklore), Indiana University, retrieved 2011-07-25
- Seida, Linda. "The Four Pennies – Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
- "The Four Pennies – Discover music, videos, concerts, stats, & pictures at". Last.fm. 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
- Kurt Loder (2009-04-08). "Nirvana's Kurt Cobain: Still Missed". MTV.com. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
- "InfoDisc : Accès direct à ces Artistes (The user has to do an artist search for "Nirvana"". Infodisc.fr. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- Horáková, Hana (2010-08-15). "Cesta Natálie Kocáb". VašeLiteratura. VašeLiteratura. Retrieved 2012-02-09. (Czech)