Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?
|Type||oil on canvas|
|Dimensions||139.1 cm × 374.6 cm (54.8 in × 147.5 in)|
|Location||Museum of Fine Arts, Boston|
Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? is a painting by French artist Paul Gauguin. Gauguin inscribed the original French title in the upper left corner: D'où Venons Nous / Que Sommes Nous / Où Allons Nous. The inscription the artist wrote on his canvas has no question mark, no dash, and all words are capitalized. In the upper right corner he signed and dated the painting: P. Gauguin / 1897. The painting was created in Tahiti, and is in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Gauguin had been a student at the Petit Séminaire de La Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin, just outside of Orléans, from the age of eleven to the age of sixteen. His subjects there included a class in Catholic liturgy; the teacher for this class was the Bishop of Orléans, Félix-Antoine-Philibert Dupanloup. Dupanloup had devised his own catechism to be lodged in the minds of the young schoolboys, and to lead them towards proper spiritual reflections on the nature of life. The three fundamental questions in this catechism were: "Where does humanity come from?" "Where is it going to?", "How does humanity proceed?". Although in later life Gauguin was vociferously anticlerical, these questions from Dupanloup's catechism obviously had lodged in his mind.
Looking for a society more elemental and simplistic than that of his native France, Gauguin left for Tahiti in 1891. In addition to several other paintings that express his highly individualistic mythology, he completed this painting in 1897 or 1898. Gauguin considered it a masterpiece and grand culmination of his thoughts.
In 1898, Gauguin sent the painting to Georges-Daniel de Monfreid in Paris. Subsequently, it was consigned and sold to several other Parisian and European merchants and collectors until it was purchased by the Marie Harriman Gallery in New York in 1936. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, acquired it from the Marie Harriman Gallery on 16 April 1936.
The painting was on display at the Art Institute of Chicago in the exhibit "Cézanne to Picasso" from February 17 to May 12, 2007.
Style and analysis
Gauguin—after vowing that he would commit suicide following this painting's completion, something he had previously attempted—indicated that the painting should be read from right to left, with the three major figure groups illustrating the questions posed in the title. The three women with a child represent the beginning of life; the middle group symbolizes the daily existence of young adulthood; and in the final group, according to the artist, "an old woman approaching death appears reconciled and resigned to her thoughts"; at her feet, "a strange white bird...represents the futility of words." The blue idol in the background apparently represents what Gauguin described as "the Beyond." Of its entirety he said, "I believe that this canvas not only surpasses all my preceding ones, but that I shall never do anything better—or even like it." In fact, after completing this painting, Gauguin felt so convinced that the rest of his life would be unsuccessful that he attempted suicide unsuccessfully. 
The painting is an accentuation of Gauguin's trailblazing post-impressionistic style; his art stressed the vivid use of colors and thick brushstrokes, tenets of the impressionists, while it aimed to convey an emotional or expressionistic strength. It emerged in conjunction with other avant-garde movements of the twentieth century, including cubism and fauvism.
- Information supplied by the Museum of Fine Arts, see External links
- Martin Gayford, The Yellow House: Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Nine Turbulent Weeks in Arles, Fig Tree, Penguin, 2006. ISBN 0-670-91497-5. See pages 99 – 100.
- "Cézanne to Picasso", Art Institute of Chicago
- Albert Boime (2008). Revelation of Modernism: Responses to the Cultural Crisis in Fin-de-Siécle. University of Missouri Press. p. 143. ISBN 9780826266255.
- "Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Gauguin Tahiti". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Retrieved 30 April 2005.